Food Quality Notes


Quality has been an age-old concern: The discerning customer in shops and market-places has applied ‘quality techniques’, prodding and turning fruits and vegetables testing for firmness, freshness and fitness for the purpose of consumption. If the product was not adequate the purchase would not take place. In the hustle and bustle of cattle markets farmers argued and bartered over the fitness of animals for breeding, dairy farming or consumption, providing evidence for their case by inspection against criteria learned from their forefathers. Those shoppers and farmers passed on their knowledge to their children, and similarly it was passed on to their children’s children. Eager market traders would get short shrift from her if clothes had weak stitching, zips got stuck when zipping, fruits were marked and bruised or vegetables appeared old and unpalatable. The issue of quality of goods and services is not new. Throughout history society has demanded that providers of goods and services should meet their obligations. As long ago as 1700 BC King Hammurabi of Babylon introduced the concept of product quality and liability into the building industry of the time by declaring: …if a building falls into pieces and the owner is killed then the builder shall be put to death. If the owner’s children are killed then the builders’ children shall be put to death.

Quality in the Middle Ages – The maintenance of quality was one of the key functions of the craft guilds of the Middle Ages with only those workers who could achieve acceptable quality standards being admitted to membership. Until the advent of mass production, building quality into a product was the job of a craftsman, what is referred to as ‘operator quality control’. Skilled craftsmen produced high quality products and had pride in their work. Tradesmen gained a reputation for quality products through skilled craftsmanship that was maintained over time by enforcing lengthy apprenticeship of newcomers to masters-of the-trade. Tradesmen worked in small tightly knit and controlled firms. Monopolistic guilds were organized to ensure achievement of a high level skill and quality throughout its membership and the trade.

Quality During the Industrial Revolution – The Industrial Revolution revolutionized the manufacturing of products. Mass production set in large factories employing armies of people gave rise to new management ways. There were workers, supervisors and foremen, and managers. Establishment of factories and this new organizational structure led to the withering of many small business trades,and the removal of apprentices and masters from positions.Frederick Taylor’s scientific management brought in efficient operations to increase output through mass production by breaking down jobs into parts with each part carried out by individual specialized workers. Practical use of Taylor’s “scientific management,” built around specialization and the division of labour, reached a high point with the advent of the mass production line with the workers performing repetitious tasks on a mammoth scale.

Quality between the World Wars – The effort of the First World War demanded yet more mass production. Quality became a pressing issue with forces requiring reliable products to arrive on time. With this came the recognition that quality had been central to the allies‘ success in the war. This led to the formation of associations and institutes, and to the publication of formalized ideas in Quality. In Britain, for example, the Technical Inspection Association was formed in 1919, becoming incorporated as the Institution of Engineering Inspection in 1922. In 1931, W. A. Shewhart of the famous AT&T Bell Laboratories, published Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product. This gave the Taylorian discipline a much sounder ‘scientific footing’. It converted statistical methods into a manufacturing discipline. A precise and measurable definition of manufacturing control was worked out. Stringent techniques for monitoring and evaluating day-to-day production and improving quality were dictated. In 1932 Shewhart visited the University of London to lecture and to discuss his and others’ research ideas. This visit attracted significant interest which led to the formation of the Industrial and Agricultural Section of the Royal Statistical Society and the publication by the British Standards Institute (BSI) of the first standard on quality control

The American Approach to Quality – The failure of American corporations to listen to Deming and Juran has often been commented on. In retrospect it appears to be one of the century’s most profound errors. At the time, however, it was understandable. In terms of quality, American products were as good as European ones and far better than those produced in Japan. The American preoccupation was on lowering prices and the vehicle for achieving this was generally recognized to be lowering labor costs. The innovation strategy favored by the United States in the post-war years was the only strategy in a period of low-cost resources, expanding markets and low international competition. At that time, quantity was more important than quality, and management was more concerned with increasing sales than with reducing costs. Western industry believed this would last for ever and ignored the quality-based teachings of experts such as W. E. Deming and Joseph Juran, who, consequently, decided to turn their attention to the East. In a 1993 Harvard Business Review article, Juran also made much of the fact that his Japanese audiences in the early 1950s were the chief executives of major corporations, whereas his North American listeners were primarily engineers and quality inspectors. Juran’s message was not, he admitted, new or revolutionary. Making things to a specific design and then inspecting them for defects was something the Egyptians had mastered 5000 years previously when building the pyramids. The American engineers weren’t ready for history lessons. Deming was similarly well received in Japan. In 1951, the first award ceremony for the now prestigious Deming Prize was held. Japan’s Approach to Quality – Japan, having been burned to the ground during the war, encouraged a climate of change from the start. Japanese managers took seriously the warnings about forthcoming changes in the customer’s perception of quality and about the future demands for faster development of customer-oriented products and services. So they successfully combined the strategy of innovation with that of continuous quality improvement; this brought a reduction in costs, faster development times, prompt deliveries, customer satisfaction, and enormous competitive advantage internationally. The Western approach was always based on the belief that innovation alone was enough for survival and growth. This has already been proved wrong on many occasions. The British Approach to Quality – Meanwhile the British approach was slow and backward compared to the establishment of quality as an important managerial issue in North America, and the tidal wave sweeping over Japan. Belatedly, in 1961, the National Council for Quality Reliability was set up as part of the British Productivity Council. The Council became defunct when the British Ministry of Technology withdrew financial support. Quality in Britain then found its home in the British Quality Association.


The Oxford American Dictionary defines quality as “a degree or level of excellence.” According to Garvin – Quality is an unusually slippery concept, easy to visualize and yet exasperatingly difficult to define. The word ‘quality’ normally conveys notions of nebulous factors that are not readily measured or tied down. Quality conveys a positive connotation to whatever it is applied.

A FEW OTHER MEANINGS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WORD QUALITY ARE: (MAKE THIS LINE DARK ). · A good product · Sturdy · Durable · Made of best materials · Easy to operate · Nice in appearance and touch · Produced with care These when translated into a broader sense mean· Description of consumer wishes · Observance of terms of delivery · Has good documentation · Is available at a reasonable price · A product meeting laid down specifications. E.g. when we buy a T.V., we look at the following parameters- Brand, Sales talk / Sales Brochure, Picture and Sound Quality, Size / Dimensions, Appearances, Weight, Terms of payment, Maintenance cost, Terms of delivery, Installation, Servicing / skills

QUALITY THEREFORE CAN BE DESCRIBED AS: “MEETING THE STATED AND IMPLIED NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER” – K.pleski ET (1993) proposes that it would help in the understanding of quality if we differentiate between customer perceived quality, which they term ‘true quality’ and business process quality, which they term ‘internal quality’. This differentiation would then point up the internally focused nature of many quality management programmed offerings and show the need for paying more attention to ‘true quality’, and hence a more outward looking role. Success in quality management is seen as deriving from linking up both aspects of quality. Further, there may be a danger of excessive internal focus in calling everyone a customer. Here the problem in regarding employees as internal customers is again that the ‘real’ customer, that is the one who pays for the service, can be overlooked.

Quality (business)

In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it’s also defined as being suitable for its intended purpose (fitness for purpose) while satisfying customer expectations. Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people. Consumers may focus on the specification quality of a product/service, or how it compares to competitors in the marketplace. Producers might measure the conformance quality, or degree to which the product/service was produced correctly. Support personnel may measure quality in the degree that a product is reliable, maintainable, or sustainable.

There are many aspects of quality in a business context, though primary is the idea the business produces something, whether it be a physical good or a particular service. These goods and/or services and how they are produced involve many types of processes, procedures, equipment, personnel, and investments, which all fall under the quality umbrella. Key aspects of quality and how it’s diffused throughout the business are rooted in the concept of quality management:

Quality planning – Quality planning is implemented as a means of “developing the products, systems, and processes needed to meet or exceed customer expectations.” This includes defining who the customers are, determining their needs, and developing the tools (systems, processes, etc.) needed to meet those needs.

Quality assurance – Quality assurance is implemented as a means of providing enough confidence that business requirements and goals (as outlined in quality planning) for a product and/or service will be fulfilled. This error prevention is done through systematic measurement, comparison with a standard, and monitoring of processes.

Quality control – Quality control (QC) is implemented as a means of fulfilling quality requirements, reviewing all factors involved in production. The business confirms that the good or service produced meets organizational goals, often using tools such as operational auditing and inspection. QC is focused on process output.

Quality improvement – Quality improvement is implemented as a means of providing mechanisms for the evaluation and improvement of processes, etc. in the light of their efficiency, effectiveness, and flexibility. This may be done with noticeably significant changes or incrementally via continual improvement.

Food quality

Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. This includes external factors as appearance (size, shape, colour, gloss, and consistency), texture, and flavour; factors such as federal grade standards (e.g. of eggs) and internal (chemical, physical, microbial).

Food quality is an important food manufacturing requirement, because food consumers are susceptible to any form of contamination that may occur during the manufacturing process. Many consumers also rely on manufacturing and processing standards, particularly to know what ingredients are present, due to dietary, nutritional requirements (kosher, halal, vegetarian), or medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, or allergies).

Food quality also deals with product traceability, (e.g., of ingredient, and packaging suppliers), should a recall of the product be required. It also deals with labeling issues to ensure there is correct ingredient and nutritional information.

Concept of quality – historical background

The concept of a quality as we think of it now first emerged from the Industrial Revolution. Previously goods had been made from start to finish by the same person or team of people, with handcrafting and tweaking the product to meet ‘quality criteria’. Mass production brought huge teams of people together to work on specific stages of production where one person would not necessarily complete a product from start to finish. In the late 19th century pioneers such as Frederick Winslow Taylor and Henry Ford recognized the limitations of the methods being used in mass production at the time and the subsequent varying quality of output. Birland established Quality Departments to oversee the quality of production and rectifying of errors, and Ford emphasized standardization of design and component standards to ensure a standard product was produced. Management of quality was the responsibility of the Quality department and was implemented by Inspection of product output to ‘catch’ defects.

Application of statistical control came later as a result of World War production methods, which were advanced by the work done of W. Edwards Deming, a statistician, after whom the Deming Prize for quality is named. Joseph M. Juran focused more on managing for quality. The first edition of Juran’s Quality Control Handbook was published in 1951. He also developed the “Juran’s trilogy”, an approach to cross-functional management that is composed of three managerial processes: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. These functions all play a vital role when evaluating quality.

Quality, as a profession and the managerial process associated with the quality function, was introduced during the second half of the 20th century and has evolved since then. Over this period, few other disciplines have seen as many changes as the quality profession.

The quality profession grew from simple control to engineering, to systems engineering. Quality control activities were predominant in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. The 1970s were an era of quality engineering and the 1990s saw quality systems as an emerging field. Like medicine, accounting, and engineering, quality has achieved status as a recognized profession

Process QMS

A QMS process is an element of an organizational QMS. The ISO 9001:2000 standard requires organizations seeking compliance or certification to define the processes which form the QMS and the sequence and interaction of these processes. Butterworth-Heinemannand other publishers have offered several books which provide step-by-step guides to those seeking the quality certifications of their products

Examples of such processes include:

order processes,

production plans,

product/ service/ process measurements to comply with specific requirements e.g. statistical process control and measurement systems analysis,


internal audits,

corrective actions,

preventive actions,

identification, labeling and control of non-conforming products to prevent its inadvertent use, delivery or processing, purchasing and related processes such as supplier selection and monitoring ISO9001 requires that the performance of these processes be measured, analyzed and continually improved, and the results of this form an input into the management review process.

Ghevar Recipe

Plain flour (Maida) 250gm
Puree ghee 50gm
Sugar 400gm
Water 100ml
Milk 50gm
Ghee/oil for fry ghever

Method of Preparation: –
❖ Combine the sugar and water in a pan and simmer till it reaches a 1 string consistency.
❖ Remove from the heat and keep warm. Combine the flour and melted ghee in a bowl.
❖ Add water in a thin stream, whisking continuously but at no point should the ghee and water separate.
❖ The batter should be of a coating consistency. Keep the batter in a cool place away from the heat.
❖ Place the ghevar mould in a kadhai and pour melted ghee in it till it reaches 3/4 of the height of the mould.
❖ Heat the ghee on a medium flame and put in one spoonful of the batter into the mould in a thin stream. The batter should settle in the mould.
❖ When the froth subsides, pour in another spoonful in the centre in a thin
❖ Increase the flame and allow it to cook in the centre by pouring ladlefuls of hot ghee in the centre of the mould 2 or 3 times.
❖ When the centre is firm and cooked then Deep in sugar syrup and serve at room temp.
Note :- Alternatively, you can use a large mould to get fewer ghevar in which case the cooking time will increase. Rabid or mava also use on top the ghevar.

COMMUNICATION Notes for 1st Sem

BBA (CA)- 105     Communication

This paper is intended to emphasize on improving oral and written communication skills through experiential training and comprehensive understanding of the students.

Unit-1: Business Communication: Definition, Importance of effective communication, Process of Communication, Objectives of Communication, Characteristics of Communication and the C s of Good Communication.

Unit-2: Better Listening: Listening for Pronunciation Practice, Listening for Personal Communication, Active Listening: Communicating in Public Situations, Listening for Communication: Language Functions.

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication: Speaking about Myself, Speaking Accurately, Practice in Public Speaking, Non-Verbal Communication, Social Communication: Performing Language Functions, Speaking across the Curriculum.

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading: Countering Defects, Reading Silently for Understanding and Speed, Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of Reading, Reading — Study Reading: Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum, Extensive Reading: Encouraging Lifelong Learning.

Unit-5: Effective Writing: Better Writing Using Personal Experiences, Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and Grammar, Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions, Effective Writing across the Curriculum, Promoting Creative Writing.


  1. Kaul, A. (2005). Effective Business Communication, PHI, New Delhi.
  2. Munter M. (2011). Guide to Managerial Communication: Effective Writing & Speaking, PHI, New Delhi.

Table of Contents

BBA (CA)- 105       Communication. 1

Unit-1: Business Communication: 1

Unit-2: Better Listening: 9

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication: 13

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading: 16

Unit-5: Effective Writing: 18

Unit-1: Business Communication:

1.1 Definition:

Communication is a process through which ideas or opinions are exchanged or transferred, progress of a person is dependent upon his/ her communication skills. It is considered as an art for achieving success at work place as it is clearly associated with the ability to communicate effectively. Both at the workplace and with outsiders. It takes a variety of forms, i.e., from 2 people having face to face conversation or hand signals in the form of messages to the global telecommunication network. The process of communication facilities interaction among people without which we would be unable to share our knowledge or experiences with anyone else.

“Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so that an understanding response results”.

 By Peter Little

“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.

By W.H. New man and C.F. summer Jr.

1.2 Importance of effective communication:

Communication is required not only in social life but also in personal and professional life. Good communication helps an individual advance socially by making useful contacts. It also builds self-confidence and enables him to help and lead others. In a business, reputation, trust and credibility need to be built up in order to get clients trust and confidence. Having sense of professionalism will help bring a long-term relationship with employees and clientele.

Business communication is required for the following purposes-

1) In order to make sure that business deal is attend to promptly.

2) Communicating with external and internal contacts of an organisation.

3) Organise the business whether it is a sale, a promotion, inquiry, a problem, etc.

4) Dealing with people for their needs and otherwise. As a matter of fact, communication is pre-requisite to have a balance within the internal as well as external factors in a business whether it is dealing with people or other casts.

1.3 Process of Communication:

Communication is effective when a concise and clear message is delivered well, received Successfully and understand fully. The process of communication has the following distinct Components:

Idea, Sender, Message, Encoding Message, Noise, Understanding Idea, Decoding Message, Receiver, Medium and Channel, Feedback.

1). Idea: – Idea is the simplification and abstraction of reality filtered through the individuals Mind. Every message weather oral or written begins with an idea. Every business has its own Convention for processing and communicating information.

2). Sender: – Person sending the information is called sender. He is also known as encoder. The Process of communication begins when an idea occurs in his mind. The sender wants to send That idea to another person/organization to achieve some objective. The sender must have a Clear picture in his mind about what he wants to communicate.

3). Message: – The idea, emotion or opinion transmitted by the sender is called message. Message is an idea transformed into words. The message can be expressed in different ways Depending on the subjects, purpose, audience, personal style and cultural background of the Sender.

4). Encoding: – The method by which a message is expressed is called encoding. Message arises In the mind in the form of an idea. That idea is transmitted by the sender to the receiver in the Form of words, symbols, picture etc. If not encoded, it may not be possible for the receiver to Understand it.

5). Medium and Channel: – The method and means by which a message is transmitted by a Sender to the receiver. For instance, letters are a medium and postal or courier service a channel. If message is communicated by telephone, then oral message is a medium and telephone a Channel.

6). Receiver: – The receiver is a person/organization that receives the message. He is the Destination of the message. In the absence, the process of communication is incomplete. He not Only receives the message but also understands what is implied in it. He may be a listener, Reader or viewer of the message.

7). Decoding: – Decoding is the mental process by which the receiver draws meaning from the Word, symbols or picture of the message. Receiver decodes the message send by sender, that’s Why he is also known as decoder.

8). Feedback: – Feedback is the receiver’s response to the message. Feedback is the final ink in the communication process. Feedback tells the source/sender, how the receiver has interpreted the message. The effective communication is always sensitive to feedback.

1.4 Objectives of Communication:

The basic objective of human communication is trying to elicit a reaction from the person we are trying to communicate with. From a business or commercial angle, if we observe any small or large business around us we will be able to notice that the amount of success the business has achieved mainly relies on its power of communication. Communication defines the level of success that the company has attained.

Following are a few of the main objectives of business communication.

1. Information: The core objective of a business is to convey information and making individuals more up to date, E.g.- all the advertisement campaigns that we notice around us are an attempt to inform and convey the information across to others, and in case of companies, this information is generally regarding the product or services at offer. However, the method of communication may be verbal, written, visual or any other. All companies thrive on information pertinent to their business activity. They must have excellent knowledge regarding the market, their competitors, the government policies, the type of credit they can gain from; the existing economic situation etc. Pertinent information is the main aspect for successful business. However, in the recent times, because of the arrival of the World Wide Web, there has been a swift outburst in the quantity of information that is accessible to a company and it is turning out to be gradually more difficult for a company to come across information that is genuine, comprehensive, up-to-date and new. Furthermore, it has become very important for any company to get hold of that information. Moreover, this demand for correct information has initiated a new faction of people called the infomederies, who do not handle any type of goods but provide information. A company not only acquires information but furthermore provides information as well, for e.g.- The company has to provide factual information about profitability, quality of products, facilities provided to the workers or services rendered towards the community.

2. Motivation: Communication in business is moreover essential to boost the workers’ motivation. Thus if the communication is carried out correctly and is successful in encouraging the workers and workers are sufficiently encouraged, the work gets completed easily, proficiently and the workers will carry out their functions by themselves without supervision. Communication should be utilised to construct a proper working atmosphere. In order to create a strong competitive atmosphere between the workers and furthermore can be acknowledged and rewarded for their accomplishments. Employees who work at a lower level in the chain of command of the organisation should be motivated to give ideas and inputs on the methods to improve the functioning of an organisation, this type of communication brings about a feeling of involvement and connection and creates more loyalty towards the company.

3. Raising Morale: Another extremely significant objective of business communication (internal) is maintaining a sense of high morale amongst the workers, so that they perform their tasks with dynamism and resilience as a team. create a great impact on the success of a company. However as morale is a psychological aspect, the condition of high morale is not a lasting feature. An organisation could have a sense of high morale between the workers for following phase. Therefore, to keep the sense of high morale amongst the employees, an organisation has to constantly put in their efforts in that course. It can be managed by maintaining an open door policy, keeping tabs on the gossip and not permitting destructive rumours to spread among employees.

4. Order and instructions: An order is an oral or written rule influencing the start, end or adjusting an activity. This form of communication is internal and is executed within a company. Order may be in written or verbal form. Written orders are given when the type of job is extremely vital or the person who would carry out the task is far off. Care must be taken at the time of handing out written orders; a copy of the order should always be maintained so that it is easy during the follow up. Oral orders come into play at the time of urgency in the work and when the person is in close proximity. However, it is extremely vital to follow up in both the cases.

5. Education and training: These days, communication can be additionally used in business to enhance the scope of knowledge. The goal of education is attained by business communication on three levels (a) Management (b) employees (c) general public

a. Education for future managers: At this juncture, junior personnel in the organisation are taught to deal with vital assignments comprising of responsibility, so that they can achieve something more than their superiors in the long run.

b. Education for newbie’s: When new personnel join an organisation, they are introduced by enlightening them in relation to the culture of the company, code of discipline, work ethos etc. This is generally carried out by way of a training method to accustom the new recruits with the working style of the organisation.

c. Educating the public: This is carried out by advertising, informative seminars, newspapers, journals to notify the public regarding the product, the working style of the company and different schemes presented by the company.

1.5 Characteristics of Communication:  7 C s of Good Communication:

1. Complete: The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly.

2. Concise: Conciseness means wordiness, i.e., communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forging the other C’s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication.

3. Consideration: Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e., the audience’s view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems.

4. Clear: Clarity implies emplacing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once.

5. Correct: Correctness in communication implies that there is no grammatical error in communication.

6. Courteous: Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic.

7. Concrete: Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence.

1.6 Barriers of Communication

Communication plays a major role in developing a relationship. It can also affect the relationship among family members or management in any institute. More specifically, communication influences the effectiveness of instruction, performance evaluation, and the handling of discipline problems. Communication should be straightforward. What can make it complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers. Some barriers of communication are the following.

1. Physiological Barrier

Physiological barriers to communication are related with the limitations of the human body and the human mind (memory, attention, and perception). Physiological barriers may result from individuals’ personal discomfort, caused by ill-health, poor eye sight, or hearing difficulties.

2. Poor Listening Skills

Listening to others is considered a difficult task. A typical speaker says about 125 words per minute. The typical listener can receive 400–600 words per minute. Thus, about three-fourth of listening time is free time. The free time often sidetracks the listener. The solution is to be an active rather than passive listener. A listener’s premature frown, shaking of the head, or bored look can easily convince the other person/speaker that there is no reason to elaborate or try again to communicate his/her excellent idea.

3. Information Overload

Nurses are surrounded with a pool of information. It is essential to control the flow of the information, else the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked. As a result, communication may get distorted.

4. Inattention

At times, we just do not listen but only hear. For example, your boss is immersed in his/her very important paper work surrounded by so many files on the table and you are explaining him/her about an urgent office problem. In this situation, due to the inattention, the boss will not listen to you (he/she will only hear you); hence, he/she may not get what you are saying and it may lead to disappointment.

5. Emotions

The emotional state of a person at a particular point of time affects his/her communication with others as it has an impact on the body language (nonverbal communication). If the receiver feels that the sender is angry (emotional state), he/she can easily infer that the information being obtained will be very terrible.

6. Physical and Environmental Distractions

Physical distractions are the physical things that get in the way of communication. Examples of such things include the telephone, an uncomfortable meeting place, and noise. These physical distractions are common in the hospital setting. If the telephone rings, the usual human tendency will be to  answer it even if the caller is interrupting a very important or even delicate conversation. Distractions such as background noise, poor lighting, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room, or an environment that is too hot or cold can affect people’s morale and concentration, which in turn interfere with effective communication.

7. Psychological Barrier

Psychological factors such as misperception, filtering, distrust, unhappy emotions, and people’s state of mind can jeopardize the process of communication. We all tend to feel happier and more receptive to information when the sun shines. Similarly, if someone has personal problems such as worries and stress about a chronic illness, it may impinge his/her communication with others.

8. Social Barriers

Social barriers to communication include the social psychological phenomenon of conformity, a process in which the norms, values, and behaviors of an individual begin to follow those of the wider group. Social factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, and marital status may act as a barrier to communication in certain situations.

9.  Cultural Barriers

Culture shapes the way we think and behave. It can be seen as both shaping and being shaped by our established patterns of communication. Cultural barrier to communication often arises when individuals in one social group have developed different norms, values, or behaviors to individuals associated with another group. Cultural difference leads to difference in interest, knowledge, value, and tradition. Therefore, people of different cultures will experience these culture factors as a barrier to communicate with each other.

14. Barriers Related with the Message

            Unclear Messages


Question from Unit -1

What is the main objective of business communication?

 ‘7 C s’ of good communication.

What are the barriers to communication? How to overcome these barriers?       

Explain the process of communication with a neat diagram.                       

Unit-2: Better Listening:

Good listening skills make workers more productive. The ability to listen carefully will allow a person to:

  • understand assignments in better way and find and what is expected from him.
  • build rapport with co-workers, bosses, and clients;
  • show support;
  • work better in a team-based environment;
  • resolve problems with customers, co-workers, and bosses;
  • answer questions
  • find underlying meanings in what others say.

2.1 Listening for Pronunciation Practice:

Make sentence to differentiate the meaning of following homophones.

Great – a person who has achieved distinction and honor in some field- “he is one of the greats of Indian music”

Grate – reduce to small shreds or pulverize by rubbing against a rough or sharp perforated surface-“grate carrots and onions”

Access (Approach,  reach) This type of account offers you instant access to your money

Excess (Additional, more than) The store has an excess of stock which it must sell off

Accept– to receive or take something- My friend was happy to accept the gift.

 Except– not including something – The restaurant is open every day of the week except Sunday

Affect – to cause a change – Her decision to skip class could affect her grade

Effect – a change that is produced by a cause – The snow had little effect on the school schedule.

To (Preposition) – used to indicate the place, person, or thing that something moves toward – I am going to the mall after we finish eating lunch.

Too (Adverb) – more than what is wanted, accepted, needed, possible, etc.  – The pink bag is too heavy for me to lift by myself, but the blue one is lighter. 

Two (Noun) – the number 2 -I would like two copies please.

Career (profession) Mr. Balhara was very successful in his hotel career.

Carrier (person/company which carries goods, support for luggage in bicycles) The goods train is the biggest carrier of goods.

Birth (coming to life) Sheela gave birth to a girl child..

Berth (a shelf like sleeping space in train) Please reserve a first class berth for me in the Taj  Express.

Dye (a coloring that changes the color of material) Take colour well during the dyeing process.

Die (to cease to live and become dead) he died of tuberculosis

Beat (to hit something hard) he beat the table with his hand’

Beet (a type of plant) Beetroot plant widely cultivated as a source of food for human

Fair (Lovely, just) This shop charges fair prices.

Fare (Money charged for bus, train etc., journey) Taxi driver had only one fare that day.

Weather (Climate) We went out shopping in the fine weather.

Whether (if) Tell me whether he would send the parcel or not.

2.2 Listening for Personal Communication:

2.3 Active Listening:

Levels and Types of Listening

  1. Discriminative Listening: It involves an attempt to distinguish one second from all others. Stopping work to determine whether the phone is ringing is an example of this listening. We learn how to discriminate among sounds at an early stage.

2. Comprehensive Listening: It involves an attempt to understand a speaker’s message in totality and to interpret the meaning precisely. This kind of listening is generally practiced in classrooms, where we must remember what has been taught and rely upon it for future use.

3. Critical Listening: When a person want’s to sift through what he has heard and come to a decision he must listen critically. This involves judging the clarity, accuracy and reliability of the information evidence and also being alert to emotional appeals. Examples: Professionals like doctors and judges do this listening.

4. Active Listening: It is also called empathized listening or supportive listening. Empathy means putting yourself into other person’s shoes and trying to understand his perspective. When we listen actively, we encourage the speaker to express himself completely. It involves responding to the emotional content apart from only the verbal message. An active listener is alert to all clues and carefully deserves the non-verbal behaviour of the speaker to get a complete picture. Eg. Counsellors.

Guidelines for effective listening

1. Use attentive body language: The posture and position of body influence both the ability to listen and how you are perceived as a listener. An attentive listener should show confidence in his/her body language.

2. Concentration: Effective listening requires focusing on what is being sad. While listening, we should not get distracted by noise or any kind of disturbances. We should be concentrated to what the speaker is speaking.

3. Listen more, speak less: For effective listening, it is very important to listen carefully rather than interrupting the speaker again and again. One should listen more and carefully rather than speaking more and immediately deriving conclusions.

4. Have an open mind: It means listen without judging the other person or criticizing the things that he/ she tells you. It is always better to be opened minded to other persons view and ideas through which we may get to know a lot. Apart from this, we cannot just stop listening to someone just because we dislike his/ her appearance, thought etc.

5. Don’t jump to conclusion: Wait until you hear what the speaker has to say, before jumping or deriving conclusions. A good listener should not be bias and should not judge or decide something without having all the facts and reach to unwanted conclusions.

6. Show Understanding: A good listener deliberately listens to the speaker and understands his/ her feelings. He concentrates totally on the facts and evaluates the facts. A good listener should be projective (i.e. one who tries to understand the views of the speaker) and empathic (i.e. tries to understand the speakers perspective).

7. Short Note on: Listening, Computerization and Note Taking Good note taking involves effective listening that includes concentrating on selecting, summarizing, evaluating what is being said by the speaker. Listening requires you not only to hear what is being said but to understand as well. Note taking is the practice of recording information captured from another source. By taking notes, the writer records the essence of the information, freeing their mind from having to recall everything. Note taking is the practice of writing pieces of information, in an informal and unstructured manner. It generally involves writing down most of what you hear or read without processing the information. Note taking is taken as a passive approach to study and learning.

 2.4 Communicating in Public Situations:

2.5 Listening for Communication:

Most people spend at least half of their communication time listening. This most used communication skill is not only crucial in interpersonal communication but it is also must in organisation communication and helps in determining success in education and careers. Business written Kevin Murphy says “the better you listen, the luckier you get so take time to listen”. Recent studies show that personnel at all levels spend about 32.7% of their time, listening. Whereas, speaking takes up 25.8% of their time and writing 22.6% however, senior professionals spend even more time listening. Poor listening can cause innumerable mistakes. Listening helps employees to update their facts, skills, attitudes and also improve their spoken skills.

  • Language Functions:
    • Listening Barriers

Physical Barriers


Poor acoustics

 Defective mechanical devices

 Frequent interruptions

 Uncomfortable seating arrangements

 Uncomfortable environment

 Message overload

People – Related Barriers

Physiological Barriers

            Being unsure of the speaker’s ability

Personal anxiety


Psychological Barriers


Emotional blocks

Question of Unit-2

What is listening? What are the different types of listening?

 What are the barriers of listening? How to overcome them?                               

Different types of Listening barriers.

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication:

The purpose of any speech can be categorised into broad headings: 1. General 2. Specific

There are three general speech purposes:

1. To Inform: The main concern of the speaker here is to make the audience understood and remember the information presented.

2. To Persuade: The major objective of a persuasive speech to induce the audience to think, feel and act in a manner intended by the speaker.

3. To Entertain: Through such speeches, the speaker wants the audience to have an enjoyable time.

Specific purpose describes the exact nature of response you want from the audience.

It has three requirements: 1. Central Idea 2. Clear and Concise message 3. It should be worded in term of the audience desire.

Steps in Organising and Delivering the Speech

1. Organising Speech: Jot down 3 or 4 main points that you want your audience to remember.

2. Summarise each idea in a single clear sentence: Sentences should be built around facts and supported by examples.

3. Write you speech: Use short and clear words. Don’t pronounce it with professional or technical jargons.

4. Use sense of humour: Cracking a sensible joke or the adding a punchy one liners as per the environment. However, excess jokes can make the speaker sound unprofessional.

5. Write main points of 3X5 Cue Cards/ Note Cards

6. Rehearse Your Speech: Time the delivery of speech while rehearsal to match the allotted time.

7. Look at the audience: Make an eye contact with the audience to make them realise that you are there for them.

8. Deliver your speech to the audience speak slowly and loudly (volume) when required. Stand upright in a relaxed manner with your feet slightly apart and hands by your side. Visual may be used where possible as it demonstrates certain points more effectively.

3.1 Speaking about Myself:

3.2 Speaking Accurately:

A. Pronunciation, Stress and Accent How do you understand a new word of a new language?

We have to break the word to be able to correctly pronounce it. A part of a word or a word which contains a single vowel sound is known as a syllable. It is a single unit of speech that builds up the structure of every word. It gives a word its pronunciation. Each word contains at least one or more syllable as a word can be formed without a consonant sound

Following are the examples of words with single syllable: 1. Man 2. Cup 3. Hat Single vowel sound can be made of more than one vowel letters. E.g. 1. Moon 2. Cake 3. Bought As all of these words contain only one vowel sound, therefore, they are single syllable words.

Examples of words with two syllables: 1. Garden : gar den 2. Hotel : ho tel 3. Consist : con sist 4. Focus : fo cus

Examples of words with the three syllables: 1. September : sep tem ber 2. Department : de part ment 3. Telephone : te le phone 4. Camera : ca me ra 5. Saturday : sa tur day

Examples of words with four syllables: 1. Information : in for may tion 2. Practically : prac ti ca lly 3. Photography : pho to gra phy 4. Competition : com pe ti tion

Similarly, there can be words with even more syllables. Word Stress: When a word has more than one syllable, not all syllables are pronounces with the same degree of force.

Phoneme – The smallest unit at the level of sounds of one particular language is called phoneme. e.g. the /t/ from /p/ in /tin/ and /pin/. The phoneme of spoken language differs from the letters of a written language. The phonemes of English and their number vary from dialect to dialect, and also depend on the interpretation of the individual researcher.

The number of consonant phonemes is generally put at 24 (or slightly more). The number of vowels is subject to greater variation; there are 20 vowel phonemes in Received Pronunciation, 14–16 in General American and 20– 21 in Australian English. Out of this 12 are pure vowels or Monophthongs and 8 are vowel glides or Diphthongs.

Stress – Stress is the intensity or prominence given to a syllable. It way we defied as emphasis on a syllable or word in the form of prominent, relative loudness͛. In traditional approach, each English word consisting of more than one syllable can be ascribed to any one of these three degrees – primary or loud, secondary or medium and unstressed. When prominence is given to syllable in sentences, it is called sentence-stress.

3.3 Practice in Public Speaking:

Great speakers are not born, they are trained”     – Dale Carnegie

Public Speaking is the art of communicating live to a large audience. It is generally a formal face-to face interaction of an individual to a group of people. It can be as simple as providing information, story-telling or a motivational speech.

Public speaking has several components such as leadership development, business, motivating speech, mass communication, persuading, etc. It is generally done in a structured and deliberate manner with the intention to inform, influence or entertain the listener.

There are 5 elements in public speaking:

  • Who is saying?
  • What?
  • To Whom?
  • Using what medium
  • With what Effects?

3.4 Non-Verbal Communication:

The most basic form of communication is non-verbal. Long before human beings used words to communicate, our ancestors communicate with each other by using body languages such as gritting of teeth for anger, smile and touch to show affection. Thus, one can easily say that nonverbal communication is the communication without words.

As human beings evolved over a period of time, the use of this form of communication has not diminished but has widen in scope. The two-effective means of communication are Firstly, nonverbal communication is the form of sign language such as traffic lights, blowing of siren, telephone ring, traffic maps, etc. ‘Secondly’ Communication through body language, which include kinesics, para language, proxemics.

Meaning of: Kinesics: – is the interpretation of body language such as facial expressions and gestures (body movement).

Para language: – refers to the non- verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion.         

Proxemics: – is a subcategory of the study of non-verbal communication along with haptics(touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalic (para languages).

Social Communication:

Performing Language Functions:

 Speaking across the Curriculum:

Questions from Unit-3

Essential qualities of a good speaker

Importance of Non-Verbal communication in hospitality industry.

What is Audience Analysis? Explain its Importance?

What are the characteristics of an effective public speaker?                       

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading:

4.1 Countering Defects:

4.2Reading Silently for Understanding and Speed:

Reading silently improves students’ understanding because it helps them concentrate on what they are reading, rather than the pronunciation of individual words. When we read silently, we can form mental pictures of the topic being discussed. Also, we do not need to read one word at a time. When you encourage your students to read silently, you are helping them develop the strategies they need for reading fast, and with better comprehension. This is called reading efficiency, and it will help your students to read any text with maximum attention to meaning.

Silent reading also helps develop the skills of reading for a purpose, as the focus is on understanding the content without the additional burden of having to pay attention to pronunciation.

Research has shown that people read in sense groups, which means, roughly, that we read a number of words together so that they make sense to us. For example, this is how I read the first sentence of this paragraph: Reading silently/improves students’ understanding/because it helps them/ concentrate on/what they are reading,/rather than the pronunciation of individual words. Within these groups of words, our eyes stop at the content words (reading, silently, improves, students’, because, helps, concentrate, etc.) — that is, nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc., the words that carry independent meaning — and skip over the function words (it, them, on, the, of, etc.) — that is, grammatical words such as articles and other determiners.

4.3 Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of Reading

The Essential Components of Reading

Reading is an extremely complex cognitive process.  Our intellect is in fact engaged in number of tasks when we are reading, despite of the belief that reading is one singular act. There are five attributes to the process of reading: phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and fluency. These five features work together to form the reading skill. In order to turn out to be a triumph in reading skills, individuals must develop expertise in all these five areas. 


“Phonics instruction helps early elementary students develop proficiency in decoding, spelling, and understanding words” – National Reading Panel

Phonics is the relationship or a connection between sounds, letter symbols or word families, short vowels, long vowels, and letter combinations and the sounds they represent. Without phonics, words are just a group of scribbles and lines on a page.

There are many ways that phonics can be skilled because there is a multiple way to apply this aspect when reading. Every single approach permits the reader to use phonics to read and discover new words in a diverse way. 

4.4 Reading — Study Reading:

Tips to improve your Reading Skills

In the modern age of information, reading truly is a fundamental survival skill. Here are ten tips that anyone can use to improve their reading skills:

1. You don’t have to be a great reader to get the point.

Some people read fast and remember everything. Others read slowly and take a couple of times to get all the information. It doesn’t matter, really, so long as when you read, you get the information you’re seeking.

2. Know WHY you’re reading.

Are you reading for entertainment or to learn something? Decide why you’re reading before you start and you’ll greatly improve your comprehension and your enjoyment.

3. You don’t need to read everything.

Not every magazine, letter, and email you receive contains information you need. In fact, most of it is simply junk. Throw it away, hit the delete key! Just doing this will double the amount of time you have available to read.

4. You don’t need to read all of what you DO read.

Do you read every article of every magazine, every chapter of every book? If so, you’re probably spending a lot of time reading stuff you don’t need. Be choosy: select the chapters and articles that are important. Ignore the rest.

5. Scan before you read.

Look at the table of contents, index, topic headers, photo captions, etc. These will help you determine if, a) you have a real interest in this reading, and b) what information you’re likely to get from it.

6. Prioritize your reading.

You can’t read everything all at once (and wouldn’t want to). If it’s important, read it now. If it’s not, let it wait.

7. Optimize your reading environment.

You’ll read faster and comprehend more if you read in an environment that’s comfortable for you.

8. Once you start, don’t stop!

Read each item straight through. If you finish and have questions, go back and re-read the pertinent sections. If you don’t have questions, you got what you needed and are ready to move on.

9. Focus.

Remember, you’re reading with a purpose, so focus on that purpose and the material. If you lose interest or keep losing your place, take a break or read something else. You can keep track of where you are by following along with your hand. This simple technique helps you focus and increase your concentration.

10. Practice!

The more you read, the better reader you’ll become (and smarter, too)! So, feed your mind: read!

4.5 Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum:

4.6 Extensive Reading: Encouraging Lifelong Learning:

Question from Unit-4

 List out the four main reading techniques and explain.

List out the tips to improve your Reading Skills.                                         

Different attributes of effective reading.

Does reading skill helps in an organization? Explain in detail.

Unit-5: Effective Writing:

Written communication has great significance in today‟s business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for pre- paring worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.

Advantages of Written Communication

  • Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.
  • It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required.
  • It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.
  • Written communication is more precise and explicit.
  • Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization‟s image.
  • It provides ready records and references.
  • Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records.

Disadvantages of Written Communication

  • Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.
  • Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.
  • Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.
  • Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organization‟s reputation.
  • Too much paper work and e-mails burden are involved.

5.1 Better Writing Using Personal Experiences:

5.2 Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and Grammar:

Effective writing tips mentioned below.

Keep it simple. Let’s start with a few basics. Simplify your message. Rather than zig-zagging through every angle in the book, find a hook that will catch the reader’s attention and tell that story.

Trim the fat. We live in an age of information overload. Focus on the meat of the topic, and find ways to trim the fat. Your audience will appreciate it.

Answer the 5 Ws (and the H). The ‘who, what, when, where, why and how’ approach to writing might have been the first thing I learned in journalism school, but it’s still one of my favorite methods to confirm I’m telling the whole story.

Think, feel, do Before I put pen to paper, I contemplate what I want the reader to think, what I want them to feel and what I want them to do. If your writing passes the ‘Think, Feel, Do’ test, you’ve got yourself a keeper.

Design your draft. Do you remember the outlines your fifth-grade teacher made your write before you started your essay? A simple outline will allow you to connect the dots of your story with a limited amount of time investment required.

Use real, everyday words. There’s a reason most newspapers write at an eighth-grade reading level. It helps to ensure the message will be interpreted the same way it was intended.

Mind your grammar. Grammatical errors will instantly erode your credibility. Pay close attention to those graded term papers to identify any bad habits you need to correct before you graduate. Eliminate passive voice, avoid commonly misspelled words and keep an AP Stylebook handy.

Who are you? Putting yourself in the shoes of your audience is a fairly well-known writing tip, but in public relations, you have to take that one step further. We channel a variety of brand voices, C-suite executives and other important figures. Channelling the proper voice in your writing is a skill that can be improved through practice and intention.

Find your focus. Identify an environment that will allow you to write efficiently. Find inspiration through music, a comfortable seat, a quiet corner or a second cup of coffee.

Proof. Proof. Proof. Proofing extends beyond spell check. Take the time to double-check your facts. Are your links working? Did you reserve five or 55 microphones from the event vendor? Peer reviews and stepping away for a bit often help catch those hidden blemishes.

5.3 Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions

Effective Writing is writing which has a logical flow of ideas and is cohesive. This means it holds together well because there are links between sentences and paragraphs. Writing which is cohesive works as a unified whole and is easy to follow because it uses language effectively to maintain a focus and to keep the reader ‘on track’.

5.4 Effective Writing across the Curriculum

5.5 Promoting Creative Writing

Question from Unit-5

Discuss about the advantages and disadvantages of ‘written communication’.

Explain the use and effect of written communication in hotel industry.

Write the importance of written communication its advantages and disadvantages.

List out five tips towards effective writing.  

Short Question draft from all above Notes

Active Listening

Communication in public speaking

Creative Writing

Draw a neat diagram of the process of communication


Extensive Reading

Importance of reading skill

Importance of Written communication


Non-Verbal communication

Process of communication

Difference between ‘listening’ and ‘hearing’

Sate two tips to improve communication skills

Social Communication

Advantages of Written Communication.


Unit-1: Dressings and Condiments, Salads – Vinaigrette, Blue cheese, Italian, Boiled, Sour cream, Salads – Components, Principles, Ingredients, classification.


The three basic dressings are: vinaigrettes, mayonnaise-based, and dairy-based

  • Vinaigrettes are made with oil and vinegar. Temporary emulsion, needs to be shaken or stirred while using. Procedure is: Combine vinegar with seasonings, Whip in the oil a little at a time, by hand or machine and Serve immediately or chill for later.
  • Mayonnaise is a permanent emulsion with eggs, oil, and vinegar or acid. Good mayonnaise is creamy, pale ivory, not too acidic, should hold its own shape and Mustard is often added to give a little tartness.
  • Dairy-based can be made with cream or acidic, fresh dairy products. Should be used up immediately or soon, as they have a short shelf life, adjust seasoning and thickness before using, Excellent for fruit salads, jellied salads, chilled fish


  1. FRENCH: 1 part vinegar: 2 parts oil + salt, pepper, french mustard.
  2. ENGLISH: 2 parts vinegar: 1 part oil + salt, pepper, caster sugar, english mustard.
  3. AMERICAN: Equal parts of oil and vinegar + salt. Pepper, english mustard and additional sugar.
  4. MAYONNAISE: Mayonnaise sauce thinned down with vinegar or lemon juice.
  5. VINAIGRETTE: 1 part vinegar: 2 parts olive oil + salt, pepper, english/french mustard.
  6. RAVIGOTTE: Vinaigrette + chopped chervil, chives, tarragon, capers and parsley.
  7. GRIBICHE: Mayonnaise dressing + chopped gherkins, capers, chervil, taragon, parsley and strips of hard boiled egg white.
  8. ACIDULATED CREAM: Fresh cream + fresh lemon juice and salt
  9. THOUSAND ISLAND : Mayonnaise dressing + a little chili sauce and chopped red pimento, chives and green peppers 
  10. LEMON DRESSING: Substitute the vinegar with lemon juice adds oil according to taste plus salt, pepper and preferred mustard component.



Herba Salata, the Latin equivalent of salted greens, is where the term salad is derived from. This suggests that the earliest salads were mixtures of pickled greens, seasoned with salt. This culinary variation evolved by the time of Imperial Rome into mixtures of greens served with a fresh herb garnish and an oil-vinegar dressing. The 17th and 18th Century brought more additions to the humble culinary creation called the salad. Lettuces of various types were used as a base with some type of meat, poultry and mixed vegetables placed on the top. It was in the early 20th century that Escoffier carried the art of salad making to new heights. The possibilities for salad combinations are limited only by the imagination of the chef. They may include leaf greens, raw and cooked vegetables, fruit, meat, legumes and rice and pasta-based salads, to mention just a few.

Components of salad

Base, Body, Dressing and Garnish

  • The BASE or UNDERLINER of the salad is usually a layer of greens.
  • The BODY of the salad is the main ingredient. It may include vegetables, fruits, meats, or cheeses.
  • The DRESSING is a liquid or semi-liquid used to flavor, moisten, or enrich the salad.
  • The GARNISH of the salad adds color and appeal, and sometimes flavor. It must always be edible, and may be as simple as a sprinkling of crumbs or spice.

Principles of salad layout

The wide variety of salads makes it difficult to state exact rules for the proper preparation of salads. However, there are some rules of thumb that must be followed.

  • Utilize the freshest ingredients and especially those in season.
  • Light leaf vegetables should be tossed in a dressing just before the service.
  • Pour enough dressing to season; not drown the main ingredient.
  • Use a suitable container to present the salad.
  • Never overcrowd the salad plate.
  • Accommodate the salad within the dish and not on or over the edge.

Guidelines for Arranging Salads

Perhaps even more than with most other foods, the appearance and arrangement of a salad are essential to its quality. The colorful variety of salad ingredients gives the creative chef an opportunity to create miniature works of art on the salad plate.

  1. Keep the salad off the rim of the plate: Think of the rim as the frame of a picture. Keep the salad within the frame. Select the right plate for the portion size, not too large or not too small.
  2. Strive for a good balance of color: Pale iceberg lettuce is pretty plain and colorless but can be livened up by mixing in some darker greens and perhaps a few shreds of carrot, red cabbage or other colored vegetables such as peppers. On the other hand don’t overdo it and go overboard. Three colors are usually more than enough. Shades of green give a good effect and too many colors will look messy.
  3. Height makes a salad attractive: Ingredients mounded onto a plate are more interesting than that lying flat. Lettuce cups as a base adds height. Often, just a little height is enough.
  4. Cut the ingredients neatly: Ragged or sloppy cutting makes the whole salad look unattractive and haphazard.
  5. Make every ingredient identifiable: The pieces should be large enough for the customer to identify each ingredient. Don’t pulverize everything. Bite size pieces are the rule. Seasoning ingredients like onion could be chopped fine.
  6. Keep it simple: A simple, natural arrangement is pleasant to view. An elaborate design, a contrived arrangement, or a cluttered plate will defeat the purpose.

Preparation of salad ingredients

In many food service operations, salads are the items that are given the least attention and consideration, both in planning and preparation. Chefs often erroneously perceive it as a simple task that needs little or no training. This attitude results in salads of a poor quality. Certain factors need to be considered while planning a salad. These include:

  • Fresh ingredients
  • Attractive plating
  • Proper textures
  • Eye appeal

Well balanced flavor

Classification of salads

  1. Simple
    1. Compound
  2. Simple: These salad comprise one primary ingredients for body and one or two ingredient used for garnish for e.g. tomato salad garnish with coriander leaves. These salad also tossed with dressing and mostly fresh ingredients used for e.g. beetroot salad with vinaigrette dressing

Compound Salads

These salads comprise of more than one ingredients and based on skill and chef imagination. E.g. are Nicoise Salad, Waldorf salad, Russian Salad, Caesar Salad Coleslaw salad etc.  Compound salad are made up of four parts:

BASE: normally one/combination of the above greens. It gives definition to the placement of the salad on the plate. A green lettuce leaf is used as an under liner for the salad. Shredded greens can also be utilized and this will give height and dimension to the plate. The base also absorbs excess dressing preventing it from running around the plate during the presentation and the meal. However, the base is not always necessary. A cole slaw made up of leafy vegetable (cabbage) need not have a base at all. Beetroot salad whose color might run can do without the base.

BODY: This is the main ingredient in the salad and will generally give the name to the salad. The body must be the main ingredient and will be placed on top of the base. The body could be made up of just on ingredient or in some cases, several.

DRESSING:  is used to enhance and add to the taste and flavor of the body. It makes the salad more palate pleasing. The dressing may be tossed with the body of the salad, or served as an accompaniment poured over the salad at the table. The dressing is made up of four parts:

  • THE OIL: This could include plain refined, odorless oil or a more exotic one such as Avocado oil, Olive oil, Sesame seed oil, Walnut oil, Peanut oil, Corn oil, Almond oil & Soybean oil. One could also have flavored oil such as chili oil, herb oil or garlic oil.     
  • THE ACIDIC MEDIUM: Is normally vinegar, red or white. However, Lemon/Lime juice, Yogurt (curds), Red and White Wine can also be used. The popular vinegars include Cider Vinegar, Malt Vinegar, Wine Vinegar, Wine Vinegar, Chili Vinegar and Rice Vinegar.
  • THE SEASONING: Would include varieties of salt.
  •   THE FLAVOR ENHANCERS: These will include Spice Powders, Herbs, Garlic, Proprietary Sauces, Fruit Juices & Cream.

GARNISH: Ideally, the garnish will embellish the salad. However, it is not necessary to always have a garnish. Sometimes, if the vegetables are neatly cut and have retained their colors, the salad will look good on its own. Like the base, the garnish is optional.

Parts/Composition of Salad is same: Base, Body Dressing and Garnish

Other Types of Salad

    A.  Tossed

    B.  Mixed

    C.  Arranged

    D.  Cooked

    E.  Molded

     F.  Layered

    G.  Frozen

Salads can be served at the following positions in the meal:

Today, the salad is considered to be a popular item. It is the favorite of weight watchers and those on a diet. It is also a versatile dish and can be served as:

  • An appetizer
  • An entrée
  • A main course
  • An accompaniment to the main course
  • A dessert
  • On the buffet as part of the salad bar
  • As a sandwich filling
  • As a plate garnish


A simple salad is a variety of one or more greens. A mild dressing such as a light Vinaigrette is used so the delicate taste of the greens is not masked. Various types of greens are now available locally and would include:  

–   Cos – Oak Leaf Escarole Arugula
–   Romaine – Ruby Chicory Radiccio
Bibb – Roquette Endive  
Iceberg – Frezie Belgian endive  
Limestone – Boston Red/white cabbage  
Curly – Crisphead Spinach  
Chinese – Butterhead Cress/Water Cress  

Leaf salads are usually served as an accompaniment to the main course and rarely as any other course.


  1. Wash the greens thoroughly in several changes of water.
  2. Drain the greens well. Poor draining will result in watered down dressing.
  3. Crisp the greens. Place them in a colander in the refrigerator.
  4. Cut or tear into bite size pieces.
  5. Mix the greens well. Toss gently till uniformly mixed.
  6. Plate the salads. Use cold plates please! Not those just out of the dishwasher.
  7. Refrigerate.
  8. Add dressing just before serving along with garnish. Dressed greens wilt rapidly.

Six attributes of a salad are:

    a.  color

    b.  flavor

    c.  texture

    d.  shape

    e.  style

    f.   nutritive value


Archiduc, Augustin, Demi Deuil, Eve, Eleonora, Florida, Francaise, Gauloise, Lorette, Louisette, Nicoise, Russian, Rachel And Waldorf.

Review Questions

  1. How would you define a Salad?
  2. Differentiate between a simple salad and a compound salad.
  3. Describe the Parts/Composition of Salad
  4. Make a list of various dressings. Differentiate the French and English dressing.
  5. Explain in detail the principle and guideline the arranging the salad.
  6. Basic Procedure for Leaf Salads

Unit-2: Hors D’oeuvres – Cold, Hot, Classic

Hors d’oeuvre and Appetizers

Hors d’oeuvre is a French expression and its true definition is a preparation served outside of the menu proper, at the beginning of the meal before the main course. It comes from the French term outside (hors) and goes back to the early times when at banquets, the appetizer (hors d’oeuvre) was served in a separate room (ante chamber/room) while the guests assembled and waited for the arrival of the host and the chief guest. Hors d’oeuvre or appetizer as it is called in English can be described as a small tidbit, which should be light, delicate attractive and tasty. The term hors d’oeuvre should never be spelt with the final s, since there is plural form for the term in French. An hors d’oeuvre can be either in the solid form (appetizer) or in the liquid form (aperitif) which may be an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage.

Hors d’oeuvre may be classified in various ways:

  • Hot and Cold hors d’oeuvre
  • Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian hors d’oeuvre
  • Classical and Contemporary hors d’oeuvre
  • Hors d’oeuvre Singulaire and Compound hors d’oeuvre

However, a more comprehensive classification would include:

  • Meat based hors d’oeuvre: Pate, Terrines, Sausages (salami and mortadella), Ham
  • Fish based hors d’oeuvre: Oysters, Caviar, Roll mops, Snails, Prawn cocktail
  • Egg based hors d’oeuvre: Egg mayonnaise, stuffed eggs, devilled eggs, Gulls/Plovers eggs

–    Vegetable based hors d’oeuvre: Asparagus, Artichokes, Corn-on-the-cob

–     Fruit based hors d’oeuvre: Melon, Grapefruit, Florida cocktail

Hot Hors D’oeuvres e.g.

Lasagna Cupcakes: Wonton wrappers filled with marinara sauce, ricotta cheese, mozzarella cheese and seasoned ground beef or chicken

Chipotle-Lime Shrimp Tosdaditas: Spicy marinated Mexican shrimp served on a mini tostada shell with guacamole, creme and pico de gallo

Lamb and Mint Pesto Lollipops: Skewered lamb tenderloin medallions with a fresh mint pesto dipping sauce

Cauliflower and Brie Soup Cups: Roasted cauliflower and triple cream brie cheese, garnished with walnut dust and chives.

Spinach, Bacon and Artichoke Stuffed Mushrooms: Crimini mushrooms stuffed with fresh spinach, bacon and artichoke dip topped with mascarpone cheese and breadcrumbs

Tuscan Chicken Skewers: Crispy seared prosciutto wrapped chicken breast, marinated with rosemary, lemon, garlic and olive oil

Chicken Meatball Caesar Salad Cups: Romaine lettuce cups with grilled chicken meatballs, signature Caesar dressing, parmesan cheese and breadcrumble

White Cheddar and Virginia Ham Croquettes: Panko crusted mashed potato, white cheddar, scallions and artisanal ham. Served with a Tabasco aioli dipping sauce

Shepards Pie Bites: Shortbread pastry cups filled with classic beef stew and topped with mashed potatoes

Cold Hors D’ oeuvres e.g.

Pickled Shrimp Cocktail: Marinated and brined Mexican shrimp served with a chipotle cocktail sauce

Crab Stuffed Deviled Eggs: Hardboiled eggs filled with classic style egg mousse, lump crab meat and crispy shallots

Phyllo Caprese Cups: Crisp phyllo cups filled with cherry tomatoes, fresh mozzerella and basil pesto

Egg Salad Stuffed Potatoes: Egg salad with fresh dill, mustard, scallions and garlic aioli served in a roasted red bliss potato cups

Watermelon and Brie Wedges: Watermelon slices topped with brie, arugula leaves and balsamic reduction

Antipasto Bites: Baked salami cups filled with fresh mozzarella, roasted red bell peppers, grilled artichoke hearts and fresh basil.

Boursin Cheese Cake Bites: Boursin and cream cheese fondue baked with a panko and parmesan crust. Topped with a tomato jam and micro greens

Ham & Cheese Palmiers: Puff pastry wrapped black forest ham, gruyere cheese and mustard. Baked until golden brown

Fresh Fruit Skewers: Melon balled  cantaloupe, honeydew and watermelon served with a mango-mascarpone dipping sauce

Cold Hors d’oeuvre is of two categories:

  1. The ready to serve variety, available in the market off the shelves, like smoked salmon, pate, sausages.
  2. Those which require culinary preparation and that, when made properly have the advantage of being freshly prepared from fresh ingredients with maximum flavor and appeal. This is where fine cuisine can make a contribution to eating pleasure.

Hors d’oeuvre varies are often served at lunch and consist of many items served in a container called raviers. Various items can qualify to be called a part of hors d’oeuvre varies such as olives, pickled onions, cornichons (pickled gherkins), sliced salami, ham and even items like smoked salmon and gulls/plovers eggs

Hot hors d’oeuvre could generally be served at a cocktail party or before a dinner but seldom at lunch. Although there are some hot hors d’oeuvre that are classical, there are many others that are strictly prototype and serve as a basis for many different preparations. As a matter of fact, every branch of cookery that is reduced to a smaller portion is or could be used in the preparation of hot hors d’oeuvre. Paillettes, allumettes, beignets, frittes, bouchees, croustades, rissoles, ramequins and even the classsic quiche can all be served as hot hors d’oeuvre when reduced in size.

Zakuski, or hors d’oeuvre a la russe or canapés a la russe became very popular. These cold hors d’oeuvre are considered to be classical and made up of certain specified ingredients. Chefs in Russia were patronized by the Czars and reached the pinnacle of their profession.  It consists of a base of Blinis; the famous Russian pancake made out of buckwheat flour. This was topped with a topping that would be meat, fish, vegetable or combination of these. A characteristic of the topping is that it would most often be flavored with a smoked fish or meat. The surface would be decorated elaborately; and here is where the chef had the chance to demonstrate his imagination and his skill. Intricate garnishes of exquisite designs would decorate the zakuski. This would then be finished off with a glaze of aspic. The zakuski is a dinner hors d’oeuvre and are larger in size than the canapé. They are presented to the guest individually, without an accompaniment or sauce.

Canapés– 1 to 2 bites; open faced (composed hors d’ oeuvres).

These are tiny open-faced snacks, which are cut into a variety of shapes – round, rectangular, oval, triangle or other shapes. The size and thickness will depend upon the nature of the ingredients used.

A canapé will have three parts:

The base – which would normally be bread – toasted or plain, white or brown? However, a variety of other base ingredients could also be used – puff pastry, flaky pastry, short crust, pizza dough, choux pastry, are examples of the variety that can be used. Sometimes, a spread would be applied to the base to prevent it from soaking up the moisture of the topping.

The topping – almost anything could be used to top the base. However, it should be suitable and must complement the base. It should be fairy dry and must hold shape. A slice of cheese, hardboiled egg, ham, salami, mushrooms or chicken coated with a thick cream sauce, marinated mushrooms and prawns could all be used as topping. The list is limitless and can only be contained by the imagination.

The garnish – this is done more to increase the visual appeal and the appearance than for any functional value. A slice of olive, a sprig of parsley, a dice of capsicum or even a green pea can all be used to increase the presentation of the platter of canapés.

Canapés are usually served as snacks at cocktail parties and are never featured on the regular menu. Some classical canapés are served as the savoury course. Here are some popular canapés:

Canapé Rigoletto: Butter a canapé with cayenne butter. Sprinkle with a mixture of finely chopped whites and yolks of egg, ham, tongue, fine herbs and truffles.

Canapés a la danoise: Butter rye bread with horseradish butter, arrange slices of smoked salmon and filets of marinated herrings on top.

Canapés cancalaise: Butter a canapé with tuna fish butter, top with a poached mussel and decorate with a sprig of parsley.

Canapé rejane: Butter a slice of bread with lobster butter, top with a mound of chopped egg and mayonnaise and decorate with lobster coral.

Canapés a la nicoise: Butter the bread with anchovy butter. Pile stuffed olives on top and fill the gaps with anchovy butter.

Canapés poulette: Butter round canapés with anchovy butter, sprinkle sieved boiled egg yolks and top with a shrimp.

Canapés vie vile: cover a canapé with tarragon butter, top with a slice of ham and decorate with tarragon leaves.

Assignment: make a list of innovative canapés breaking them into the base, the topping and the garnish.

Difference between Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

The definitions of hor d’oeurves and appetizers are often interchangeable, however, there is a difference…

Hors d’Oeurves are the small, savory bites, typically finger foods, served before a meal usually in a buffet style or passed on trays by waiters.

Appetizers appear as the first course that is served at the table.  They are usually served with beverages, either alcoholic or otherwise.

General Rules for Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

  • If you are serving a dinner after the appetizers or hor d’oeurves, two to three different types are usually sufficient.
  • If preparing food for a cocktail party only, meaning that there will not be a dinner to follow, you should typically prepare five to seven different appetizers.  Some of these foods should be more substantial and filling if a meal is not served afterward.
  • As a general rule, figure two pieces per person for each of the appetizers or hor d’oeurves that you will be serving. 
  • If you are preparing food for a cocktail party, make sure that your appetizers or hor d’oeurves are finger foods only. You do not want to serve food that needs to be eaten with utensils, as that will become difficult for your standing guests to eat.  If your guest has to put their plate down to cut the food, that would also not be considered appropriate or polite.
  • If you are serving appetizers and hor d’oeurves before a meal, you may only want to offer one or two options.  However, if the appetizers or hor d’oeurves are the only food option, then you may want to offer your guests a variety of choices.
  • It is important to remember that the appetizers of hor d’oeurves should not clash with the main meal to follow.  For example, if you are serving pickled beets or deviled eggs as an appetizer, beets or eggs should not be served in the main meal.

Presentation of Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

  • Location is a vital part of the presentation of appetizers and hor d’oeurves.  Arrange your platters and bowls throughout the room, otherwise your guests will be crowded around the buffet table.  This will discourage conversation and encourage an uncomfortable setting.
  • In addition, you should make sure that you have enough napkins on hand for your guests.  Appetizers and hor d’oeurves tend to get quite messy, especially if they are “finger food.”

Hor d’Oeurves Prepartion

  • Complete all mise en place
  • Store at proper temperatures
  • Adhere to a production schedule

Hor d’Oeurves Presentation

  • Eye appealing and creative
  • Harmonizing flavors and colors
  • Simplicity/ elegance

Unit-3: Butchery of Meat: Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton, Poultry,Quality characteristics, Retail cuts, Traditional methods of preserving meat, Cold Cuts and Cured Foods, Fish Mongery – Classification, cuts, Commissary – SPS of different vegetables, Grades, Care, 


Introduction to meat cookery

Meat can be defined as the flesh of an animal used as food . It can also be defined as the whole or part of the carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs. Meat as high energy type of food is considered to be the food of choice due largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent protein and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides excellent nutrients. Famous across the world as a popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many cuisines. Liver is considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but is also a power house for toxin storage. Livers from mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be baked, boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst.


Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for breeding. Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.

Introduction to meat cookery

Meat can be defined as the flesh of an animal used as food (Hedrick et al, 1994). It can also be defined as the whole or part of the carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs (Williams, 2007). Meat as high energy type of food is considered to be the food of choice due largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent protein and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides excellent nutrients (Chang and Huang, 1991). Famous across the world as a popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many cuisines. Liver is considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but is also a power house for toxin storage (Mandora, 2010). Livers from mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be baked, boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst (Myhre, 2003).

  1. Quality characteristics of various butchered meats and their various retail cuts (With menu examples of each)
    1. Veal
  2. Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for breeding.Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.
  • Pork

Pork is the most widely consumed and versatile protein in the world; it’s easy to cook, adaptable to just about any recipe and very tender and juicy. Learn the best basic cooking tips for those familiar primal pork cuts like pork chops and pork loin, to how to master new-to-you pork cuts like pork belly or a pork rib roast. Whether you’re cooking for one or a holiday dinner for twelve, there are pork cuts for every occasion.

British Pork Cuts

American cuts of pork

Mutton, Goat, Lamb and kid.

Pork is a high-protein food and contains varying amounts of fat.

100-gram serving of cooked, ground pork provides the following nutrients.

Calories: 297, Water: 53%. Protein: 25.7 grams. Carbs: 0 grams. Sugar: 0 grams, Fiber: 0 grams, Fat: 20.8 grams

Mutton, Lamb

Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear

Mutton — the meat of a female (ewe) or castrated male (wether) sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear.

Variety offal

Offal, also referred to as variety meats, is the name for internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible organs, which varies by culture and region, but includes most internal organs excluding muscle and bone. Most common types of offal from the various species.

Species Common Offal Uses/Notes
Veal Heart  
  Liver Veal offal is more commonly served in restaurants than other types.
  Sweetbreads Thymus gland
Pork Liver Pork offal is stronger in flavour; the liver is most commonly used in pâté.
  Intestines Used for sausage casings
  Skin Used to make cracklings or chicharron
  Blood Used for blood sausage and black pudding
Lamb Liver Lamb offal is milder in flavour
  Intestines Used for sausage casings
Chicken Heart, Liver, Gizzard These three are often referred to as giblets as a whole.
Duck/Goose Liver fatty livers.


Poultry also includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons (known as squabs) but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game. The word “poultry” comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal.

Types of Poultry

Chicken, duck, turkey, Goose and Squad birds come under the poultry types.

Composition of Meat

Meat muscle, which is what we eat, is made of fibres, bound together with connective tissue, that are mainly linked to other groups of muscles or directly to the animal’s bone structure. Muscle contains 60% to 70% moisture, 10% to 20% protein, 2% to 22% fat, and 1% ash, depending on type and species.

On larger bones (such as the shanks of larger animals), it is easy to see the muscle groups in bundles (if cut on the cross-section) surrounded by collagen fibres and a much heavier connective tissue (elastin) that forms a thin covering (called silverskin) separating muscle groups or a tendon at the ends of the muscle group. The tendon is attached to the bone at or near a bone joint

The muscle fibres are known as myofibrils, which are composed of thick and thin filaments arranged in a repeating pattern alongside the other myofibrils (Figure 3). One unit of a bundle is called a sarcomere, or little muscle. The thick filaments are the contractile protein myosin. The thin filaments, known as actin, contain two other proteins called troponin and tropomyosin that help regulate muscle contraction.

Processing of Meat (Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton, Poultry)

After proper post-mortem inspection of carcasses and found fit for human consumption, the carcasses are washed and sanitized with chlorine labelled “inspected and passed”. They are then kept in the chillers at 0-4°C for 24 hours. In chilling, the pH of the meat becomes acidic and comes below 6 where FMD virus is


After chilling, the meat is deboned in the deboning hall where all the lymph glands and connective tissues are removed. The temperature of deboning hall is maintained at 12°C – 15°C. After deboning the meat is packed in the cartons as per the requirement of the consumers. The cartons are then sealed with polyethylene and passed through the shrinkage machine. After sealing, the meat is passed through the metal detector and put in the freezer.

Packaging and labelling

Proper cuts are packaged in cartons which has labels indicating the product, date of manufacturing, shelf life, brand name, etc to provide the consumer the information about the contents. Thereafter, the packed cartons are passed through the metal detector before freezing the meat either in plate freezer/blast freezer.

Freezing of the Meat

The meat is frozen in the plate freezer / blast freezer at -40°C for 10 hours where deep bone temperature is brought down to -18°C. Thereafter, the meat is kept in the cold storage.

Cold Storage

The frozen meat is kept in cold storage maintained at -18°C to -20°C till it is cleared for loading from the in-house laboratory.

Loading of Refrigerated Container

While loading the refrigerated container, the temperature in the container has to be brought to –18°C so that there is no thawing of the frozen meat cartons while they are loaded. The reefer container has to be clean and disinfected before loading. After proper loading it is sealed taken to port either by rail /road. The temperature has to be maintained at -18°C at all times.

Meat Receival & Inspection

• Check meat for physical contamination (dirt, hide, hair, etc).

• Check and record meat temperature with digital thermometer, chilled cuts ≤ 5C chilled bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C, frozen ≤ -10C.

• Meat with unacceptable levels of visible contamination or outside temperature parameters is returned to the supplier. Meat is transferred to active refrigeration immediately after inspection.


• Frozen meat is stored in a freezer and maintained at ≤ -10C. Chilled meat is stored in a chiller and maintained at: chilled cuts ≤ 5C, chilled bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C.

Thaw Frozen Meat

• Air temperature during thawing shall not exceed 10 C and product ≤ 5C

Meat Preparation

• Work surfaces and equipment (saws, mincers and knives etc) are cleaned and sanitised prior to contact with meat.

• Meat is processed to documented specifications.

• Meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during processing (fresh meat



• Only new food grade packaging materials (styrofoam trays, poly wraps and bags,

and fibreboard outer cartons) are used for the packaging of meat products.

• Each package is labeled with the product type and species of animal from which they are derived; the date of packaging; the identity of the meat business at which they are packaged and the refrigeration requirements or storage recommendations.


• Chilled meat product is stored in chillers that ensure that meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during storage.

• Frozen meat product is stored in freezers that ensure that meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 10C at all times during storage.


• Delivery vehicles are refrigerated and capable of maintaining chilled meat at ≤ 5 C and frozen meat at ≤ 10C during delivery; are in good repair and display a current registration label.

• Delivery vehicles are cleaned and sanitised prior to loading.

Sea Food

Technically anything edible which is obtained from sea or any other water body (even fresh water) is termed as Sea food. There are many things such as Fish, Shellfish, Seaweed, which are edible and are obtained from sea, but here we will be discussing only about Fish and Shellfish. The difference between fish and shellfish is that fish have internal skeleton (endoskeleton) and shellfish have external skeleton (exoskeleton).

Fish and Shell Fish

As well as naming types of fish they could be grouped according to their characteristics or habitat:

Flat Fish or demersal species living on the sea bed, for example: plaice, dab, sole.

Freshwater fish that spend all or some of their life in rivers or lakes e.g. salmon, trout, eels, pike, perch, river cobbler/ basa, tilapia, catfish

Round fish (cylindrical in shape) some are demersal living near sea beds e.g. cod, gurnard & some are

pelagic living towards the top of the sea, for example mackerel, sardines

Shellfish crustaceans like crab and prawns, molluscs like mussels, clams, whelks, cephalopods like squid and octopus.

Types of Fish

Salt Water Fish, Flat Fish, Round Fish, Fresh Water Fish, Anadromus, Lean Fish, Catadromus, Oily Fish, Shellfish

Composition of Fish

The flesh of fish is similar to any other meat in terms of composition, only difference is in the ratio. Fish has high amount of protein, water and in case of oily fish high fat contents, other than this there are some vitamins and minerals also which is present in fish. When compared to any meat, fish is very tender and is cooked fast even on low heat as it has less connective tissue. The toughness of the meat is result of protein coagulation due to heat, that’s why fish should be handled very carefully after cooking as it tends to fall apart.

Selection of Fish

  • Check the eyes for clarity: check the eyes. They should be crystal-clear, plump, wet, and shiny, with no sunken features. Cloudy eyes = sad fish
  • Check the fins: The tail and dorsal fins of the fish should be healthy-looking, wet, and intact. A fish that’s been mishandled will have torn or ragged fins, Torn and ragged fins = mishandled fish
  • Torn and ragged fins probably belong to a fish that was netted or held for too long.
  • Poke the flesh: If the fish monger allows it, try touching the fish for further signs of health and freshness. It should feel cold, wet, and slippery, but not sticky. When pressed, it should spring back to its natural shape. Soft flesh = old fish. Fish that has lost its firm shape is no longer fresh.

Check the gills: Check the gills for vitality and color. When first caught, a fish’s gills appear bright red, and slowly darken over time. Brown-red gills = old fish

Touch the scales: Scales are designed to protect the fish from a harsh watery environment. When a fish is fresh, the scales will be shiny and firm, a veritable armor against the elements. Less-fresh fish will often shed scales as you run your hand over them, and they may appear dry and flaky.

Review Questions

  1. Explain briefly cut of Veal with diagram.
    1. Briefly described the various characteristics of poultry and their various retail cuts.
    1. Processing of poultry
    1. Types Fish and Shell fish
    1. Selection and storage process of Shell fish.
    1. Cuts of Pork/Pig and Types

Unit-4: Cheese and Sandwiches – Processing, classification, National cheeses, Parts of sandwiches, Types


Cheese is one of the most used ingredients for breakfast around the world. It is a milk based solid food. Cheese can be prepared from cow, sheep, goat and other mammal milk. The basic procedure of preparing cheese is by curdling milk and further acidification. Rennet or other rennet substitutes are used for the curdling of milk.

Hundreds of types of cheese exist all over the world. The types of cheese exist due to the usage of the milk from different mammals, specific species of molds and bacteria and also varying the aging length. Other processes are also used to prepare different types of cheese. Other factors which determine the type of cheese is the diet of the animal the milk is taken from. The diet can include herbs, spices and wood smoke.

Cheese cannot be categorized on a single categorization concept. Therefore, there various systems used for the categorization of cheese. Some factors taken into consideration while classifying cheese are the length of aging, the methods of making it, the curd and the various processes relating to the curd, the kind of milk, the fat content and the whether the texture of the cheese is hard or soft.

The most common type of cheese is Fresh Cheese. To prepare fresh cheese, milk is curdled and drained. There is little other processing involved in preparing Fresh Cheese. Some examples of Fresh Cheese are chevre, Cas and cottage cheese. Cheese is also classified according to its firmness. The various classifications are soft, semisoft, semihard and hard. However, this type of categorization is not exact. Cheddar is a type of hard or semi hard cheese.

Semi hard cheese is created with the cutting of the curd, heating gently, piling and then stirred before pressed into forms. The most common semi hard cheese are the cheddar cheese like Gloucester and Chesire.

Milder cheese, like the Colby and Monterey Jack are prepared by having curd rinsed and then pressed. This washes away the acidity and calcium in the cheese. This procedure is also used to create the Edam and Gouda cheese.

Gruyere and Emmetal, swiss type of cheese are quite firm. They have a texture of holes, which add to their sharp flavors and aroma. Parmesan, Romano and Pecorino are the hardest cheese, also known as grating cheese.Some cheese are prepared by allowing Penicillin Candida to grow on the outside ot the soft cheese for a preset time. THe mold adds to the runny and gooey textures of the cheese and also intensifies the flavors of these cheese. The mold forms a white crust on the cheese.

Molds are of two types, blue and white. The white molds are generally used while preparing cheese from goat’s milk. Blue mold cheese is commonly called blue cheese. Stilton, Gorgonzola and Roquefort are some of these types of cheese. They are prepared by injecting Penicillum roqueforti molds into the cheese. This mold then grows within the cheese, as opposed to Brie and Carmembert, where the mold is allowed to grow on the outside of the cheese. Blue cheese can be of soft or firm texture and have assertive flavours.

Processed cheese is another type of cheese. Processed cheese is prepared by adding emulsifying agents, milk, preservatives, more salt and food coloring to traditional cheese. Velveeta and yellow American cheese are the most popular types of processed cheese.

Washing Rind is also a major type pf cheese. These cheese are bathed in saltwater brine while they age. This makes their surface available for bacteria. These bacteria are responsible for the flavors and odors of washing rind cheese. Other than these major types, there are hundred if not thousands of types of cheese created in all parts of the world. Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America and Australia have various ways of preparing cheese.

Serving and Storage Tips

  • Unpasteurised cheese with a range of flavours should not be sliced until purchase otherwise it will start to lose its subtlety and aroma.
  • Keep the cheese in conditions in which it matures. Hard, semi-hard and semi-soft cheeses are stored in the temperatures from around 8 – 13 C.
  • Keep the cheese wrapped in the waxed paper and place it in a loose-fitting food-bag not to lose humidity and maintain the circulation of air.
  • Wrap blue cheeses all over as mould spores spread readily not only to other cheeses but also to everything near.
  • Chilled cheeses should be taken out of the refrigerator one and a half or two hours before serving.
  • Cheeses contain living organisms that must not be cut off from air, yet it is important not to let a cheese dry out.
  • Do not store cheese with other strong-smelling foods. As a cheese breathes it will absorb other aromas and may spoil.
  • Wrap soft cheeses loosely. Use waxed or greaseproof paper rather than cling film.
  • Let cold cheese warm up for about half an hour before eating to allow the flavour and aroma to develop.

Categorisation of cheese

  1. Soft cheese
  2. Semi-hard cheese
  3. Hard cheese
  4. Blue cheese

In Cheese following things you should know

  • Source of milk, pasteurised or not
  • Butterfat content
  • Species of bacteria
  • Length of ageing
  • Making process
  • Flavouring agents (herbs, spices, wood smoke)
  • Country/Region of origin


  • The plastic, spun-curd buffalo milk cheese Mozzarella, originated from southern Italy.
  • Extra time in the vat is allowed so that the curd can sink to the bottom and so that the lactic acids can soften the curd to make it easier to knead.


  • Other names: Danish Blue
  • Country of origin: Denmark
  • Source of milk: Cows
  • Texture: Semi-soft
  • Aging time: 8–12 weeks


  • Traditional, creamery, whey cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a basin-shaped cheese, pure white and wet but not sticky.
  • Good Ricotta should be firm, not solid and consist of a mass of fine, moist, delicate grains, neither salted nor ripened.
  • There are three distinct varieties of ricotta: ricotta salata moliterna (ewe’s milk whey), ricotta piemontese (cow’s milk whey + 10% milk) and ricotta romana (a byproduct of Romano cheese production).
    Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine:Muscadet Sauvignon Blanc
  • Country: Italy

Bel Paese  

  • Bel Paese is from the Lombardy region of Italy.
  • It is a modern, creamery, semi soft cheese and has a light, milky aroma.
  • The name means “beautiful land” and was inspired by the title of a book by Stoppani.
  • Bel Paese is very similar to French St. Paulin. It can also be used instead of mozzarella.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Brie is the best known French cheese and has a nickname “The Queen of Cheeses”.
  • “Real” French Brie is unstabilized and the flavor is complex when the surface turns slightly brown. When the cheese is still pure-white, it is not matured.
  • Brie, one of the great dessert cheeses, comes as either a 1 or 2 kilogram wheel and is packed in a wooden box. In order to enjoy the taste fully, Brie must be served at room temperature.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Bourgogne

Camembert de Normandie  

  • A very famous French cheese, Camembert dates back to the 18th century and is named for a Norman village in which there is a statue of the creator of this particular variety (Marie Harel).
  • Originally, this cheese was dry and yellow-brown, but after a few modifications it became softer and more earthy.
  • Camembert is crumbly and soft and gets creamier over time (usually 2-3 weeks). A genuine Camembert has a delicate salty taste.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine:St. Emilion, St Estephe
  • Fat content:45 %

Carre de l’Est  

  • This cheese has a moist rind that sticks to the fingers and feels elastic. It usually has a square shape with either an orange-red, washed rind or a penicillin mould crust.
  • It has a smoky-bacon flavor and the taste has a hint of mushrooms.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content: 45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Coteaux Champenois, Sancerre, Pinot Noir d’Alsace


  • Feta is one of the most famous cheeses in Greece. It is made in various sizes, often as a loaf-shape.
  • Feta was originally made with either ewe’s milk or a mixture of ewe’s and goat’s milk, but today most feta is made with pasteurized milk and tastes of little besides salt.
  • Feta can be soaked in fresh, cold water or milk for a few minutes or longer, if necessary, to make it less salty.
  • Milk: cow ewe and goat milk


  • It is Hungarian spiced, white cheese made from the mixture of sheep’s and cow’s milk.
  • The cheese has its name according to sheep’s milk called Liptoi. As Hungarians are great lovers of spicy food, Liptauer is very popular in the country as the taste is a mixture of onion, caraway seeds, capers, paprika and salt.
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Fat content:50 % 


  • Munster is a creamery, washed-rind cheese made from cow’s milk. It has a round shape with sticky, orange, washed skin.
  • The cheese is very smooth, fairly soft and has a mildly piquant flavor that can become quite pungent with regular washings. Munster is dark yellow with a strong flavor. It should be served with dark bread and beer.
  • French Munster is one of the few cheeses which ripen from the inside out. French Munster has nothing in common with Domestic Munster which is a white, mild cheese.
  • In The U.S.A this cheese is known as Muenster.
  • Fat content:45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Gewurztraminer, Tokay Pinot Gris d’Alsace


  • There are two types of Appenzell: common (made with skim milk and brine-cured for 12 months and festive (full milk cured with brine as well as pepper and the sediment from the white wine-making process).
  • The cheese originates in the north-eastern Swiss canton of the Appenzell near the Liechtenstein border but, today is also made in the canton of St Gallen (which is a siege of a special authority protecting a genuity of Appenzell).
  • Country: Switzerland
  • Milk: cow milk


  • The most widely purchased and eaten cheese in the world. Cheddar cheeses were originally made in England, however today they are manufactured in many countries all over the world.
  • Cheddar is always made from cow’s milk and has a slightly crumbly texture if properly cured. If the cheese is too young, the texture is smooth.
  • Unlike other well known cheeses, Cheddar’s name is not protected so it has been used and abused by many producers around the world.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:48 %


  • One of the oldest English cheeses, invented during the 12th century.
  • There are three types of Cheshire: White, Red (colored with annatto) and Blue which is punctured during the curing process, resulting in blue veins.
  • Cheshire is firm in texture and a bit more crumbly than Cheddar. It is rich, mellow and slightly salty with an excellent aftertaste.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:48 %


  • These cheeses are made from goat’s milk.
  • Chevres are excellent dessert cheeses, often served as snacks or before dinner drinks. Goat cheese is often served as an ingredient in many fine dishes.
  • Milk: goat milk
  • Fat content:45 %


  • The cheese has a shape of cylinder with natural rind.
  • It is the first cheese in Britain to be made in factory.
  • This cheese is very similar to Cheddar, but has a softer, flakier curd and a butter taste.
  • A herb-flavored version is called Sage Derby.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:45 %  


  • This is a pressed, semi-hard to hard cheese, made from cow’s milk.
  • It comes in a shape of ball covered with distinctive red wax.
  • Edam is produced from skimmed or semi-skimmed milk.
  • It is usually consumed young, when the texture is elastic and supple and the flavor is smooth, sweet and nutty.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Country: Holland
  • Recommended Wine: Pinot Noir
  • Fat content: 40 %


  • This cheese is produced in the central cantons of Switzerland.
  • It is a traditional, unpasteurized, hard cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • It’s hard, thin rind is covered by paper with producer’s name on it.
  • The aroma is sweet with tones of fresh-cut hay.
  • The flavor is very fruity, not without a tone of acidity.
  • It is considered to be one of the most difficult cheeses to be produced because of it’s complicated hole-forming fermentation process.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine: Vin de Savoie Givry rully Mercurey

Double Gloucester  

  • It is a traditional, unpasteurized, semi-hard cheese which has been made in Gloucestershire since the sixteenth century.
  • The cheese has a flavor of cheese and onions. Not as firm as Cheddar, it has a mellow, nutty character with an orange-zest tang.
  • Fat content: 48 %
  • Milk:  cow milk


  • Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam.
  • Gouda is a traditional, creamery, hard cheese. It is round with very smooth, yellow, waxed rind.
  • The flavor is sweet and fruity.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:40 %


  • Gruyere is named after a Swiss village. It is traditional, creamery, unpasteurized, semi-soft cheese.
  • Slightly grainy, the cheese has a wonderful complexity of flavors – at first fruity, later becomes more earthy and nutty.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Jarlsberg is a traditional, creamery Norwegian cheese.
  • The world’s most famous “Baby Swiss”, Jarlsberg has the consistency texture and hole formation of Swiss Emmental but its flavor is more nut-like and sweeter.
  • Jarlsberg can be used as a table cheese, dessert cheese or sandwich cheese.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Limburger is creamery, washed-rind cheese. The smooth, sticky, washed rind is reddish-brown with corrugated ridges.
  • The yellow interior hints at sweetness but the taste is spicy and aromatic, almost meaty.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Country: Belgium


  • The bright, orange-red rind has fine, powdery moulds. Raspy, moist-textured, Leicester is made in a similar fashion to Cheddar and comes covered in a hard, dry rind.
  • Leicester has a rich, mild flavor with a flaky texture and a deep orange color.
  • This cheese is excellent with fruit and beer.
  • Milk: cow milk

Monterey Jack  

  • The Monterey Jack was developed by a Californian Scot, David Jacks in 1882 (some sources state 1916). Monterey Jack’s consistency depends on its maturity; most softer varieties (common in American supermarkets) is aged for one month, while grating Jack is aged for upwards of 6 months.
  • Older Jacks are smeared with oil and pepper to maintain softer rinds. Monterey Jack has a buttery, bland taste and melts easily.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:25 %


  • Creamery, semi-hard cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • The aroma is mildly pungent while the taste is buttery and fruity with a spicy tinge. It is generally made with whole milk.
  • Tilsit is an excellent sandwich cheese, good with robust wine or beer. It has a fat content of 20 per cent and water content of 50 per cent.
  • Country:Germany


  • Traditional, hard cheese made from cow’s milk. It has a shape of cylinder with natural rind. Wensleydale can be used as table cheese and is very tasty with apple pie.
  • The flavor suggests wild honey balanced with a fresh acidity.
  • It matures in two to four months and has a fat content of 45 per cent.
  • Country:England
  • Milk: cow milk


  • This cheese originates from Southern Italy. It’s a traditional, stretched curd cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • There are also smoked versions of this cheese. Cavallo means “horse” in Italian and it is said that this cheese was originally made from mare’s milk.
  • In Italian language the expression “to end up like Caciocavallo” means to be hanged.


  • Kefalotyri was already well known and respected by the time of Byzantine era. The name comes probably from Greek word “kefalo” that means hat.
  • Kefalotyri is generally served grated over cooked dishes. The color varies from white to yellow, depending on the mixture of milk.
  • Kefalotyri is described as a “male” or “first” cheese to indicate that it is made with full-cream milk.
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Country:Greece
  • Fat content:55 %

Parmesan (Parmigiano)  

  • Named after an area in Italy, Parma Parmesan is one of the world’s most popular and widely-enjoyed cheeses.
  • Milk used for Parmesan is heated and curdled in copper containers but not before most of the milk’s cream has been separated and removed.
  • After two days, the cheeses are removed and salted in brine for a month, then allowed to mature for up to two years in very humid conditions.
  • Milk:cow milk
  • Recommended Wine: Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot Noir


  • Wheel-shaped cheese with sharp edges made from cow’s milk.
  • This cheese is very similar to Gruyere and has a strong fruity taste.
  • The natural rind is smooth, dark brown and very hard.
  • Country:Ireland

Blue Vein   

  • Blue Vein Cheeses have a strong tangy taste and pungent aroma with a smooth and creamy texture.
  • They are characterized by a network of green-blue veins of mould throughout the body of the cheese.
  • Country:Australia

Blue Castello  

  • Modern, creamery, blue cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a half-moon-shaped cheese.
  • The moist, natural rind may develop some gray, brown or white moulds.
  • Blue Castello has a Brie-like texture, with the blue in fairly thick, horizontal lines. Enriched with cream.
  • The aroma is of mushrooms and the taste is mildly spicy.
  • Country:Denmark
  • Fat content:70 %


  • It is a wheel shaped, creamery, blue cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • Dolcelatte means “sweet milk”.
  • This cheese is very soft and melts in the mouth like ice-cream.
  • Country:Italy


  • Gorgonzola is a traditional, creamery and co-operative, blue cheese.
  • The greenish-blue penicillin mould imparts a sharp, spicy flavor and provides an excellent contrast to the rich.
  • The cheese is usually wrapped in foil to keep it moist. Its color ranges from white to straw-yellow.
  • The taste ranges from mild to sharp, depending on age. Gorgonzola is also excellent in salads and dips.
  • Country:Italy
  • Milk:cow milk 


  • Historically referred to as “The King of Cheeses” Stilton is a blue-mould cheese with a rich and mellow flavor and a piquant aftertaste.
  • Excellent for crumbling over salads or as a dessert cheese, served with a Port Wine.
  • Country:England
  • Milk:cow milk
  • Fat content:55 %


  • It has a tingly pungent taste and ranks among blue cheeses. Only the milk of specially bred sheep is used and is ripened in limestone caverns.
  • This cheese has a distinct bouquet and a flavor that combines the sweet burnt-caramel taste of sheep’s milk with the sharp, metallic tang of the blue mould. Also frequently added in dressings and salads.
  • Country: France
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Recommended Wine: Zinfandel Port

Processing of Cheese

Total five steps in the chesses making these are:

Preparing the milk

1 Small cheese factories accept either morning milk (which is richer), evening milk, or both. Because it is generally purchased from small dairies which don’t pasteurize, this milk contains the bacteria necessary to produce lactic acid, one of the agents that triggers curdling. The cheese makers let the milk sit until enough lactic acid has formed to begin producing the particular type of cheese they’re making. Depending on the type of cheese being produced, the cheese makers may then heat the ripening milk. This process differs slightly at large cheese factories, which purchase pasteurized milk and must consequently add a culture of bacteria to produce lactic acid.

Separating the curds from the whey

2 The next step is to add animal or vegetable rennet to the milk, furthering its separation into curds and whey. Once formed, the curds are cut both vertically and horizontally with knives. In large factories, huge vats of curdled milk are cut vertically using sharp, multi-bladed, wire knives reminiscent of oven racks. The same machine then agitates the curds and slices them horizontally. If the cutting is done manually, the curds are cut both ways using a large, two-handled knife. Soft cheeses are cut into big chunks, while hard cheeses are cut into tiny chunks. (For cheddar, for instance, the space between the knives is about one-twentieth of an inch [half a centimeter].) After cutting, the curds may be heated to hasten the separation  In a typical cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the milk. Although smaller factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has the bacteria present to produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger factories purchase pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce the lactic acid. Next, the curds must be separated from the whey. Animal or vegetable rennet is added, and then the curds are agitated and cut using large knives. As the whey separates, it is drained. The curds are then pressed into molds, if necessary, to facilitate further moisture drainage, and aged for the proper amount of time. Some cheeses are aged for a month, others for several years.

In a typical cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the milk. Although smaller factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has the bacteria present to produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger factories purchase pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce the lactic acid.

Next, the curds must be separated from the whey. Animal or vegetable rennet is added, and then the curds are agitated and cut using large knives. As the whey separates, it is drained. The curds are then pressed into molds, if necessary, to facilitate further moisture drainage, and aged for the proper amount of time. Some cheeses are aged for a month, others for several years.

from the whey, but they are more typically left alone. When separation is complete, the whey is drained.

Pressing the curds

3 Moisture must then be removed from the curds, although the amount removed depends on the type of cheese. For some types with high moisture contents, the whey-draining process removes sufficient moisture. Other types require the curds to be cut, heated, and/or filtered to get rid of excess moisture. To make cheddar cheese, for example, cheese makers cheddar, or finely chop, the curd. To make hard, dry cheeses such as parmesan, cheese makers first cheddar and then cook the curd. Regardless, if the curds are to be aged, they are then put into molds. Here, they are pressed to give the proper shape and size. Soft cheeses such as cottage cheese are not aged.

Ageing the cheese

4 At this stage the cheese may be inoculated with a flavoring mold, bathed in brine, or wrapped in cloth or hay before being deposited in a place of the proper temperature and humidity to age. Some cheeses are aged for a month, some for up to several years. Ageing sharpens the flavor of the cheese; for example, cheddar aged more than two years is appropriately labeled extra sharp.

Wrapping natural cheese

5 Some cheeses may develop a rind naturally, as their surfaces dry. Other rinds may form from the growth of bacteria that has been sprayed on the surface of the cheese. Still other cheeses are washed, and this process encourages bacterial growth. In place of or in addition to rinds, cheeses can be sealed in cloth or wax. For local eating, this may be all the packaging that is necessary. However, large quantities of cheese are packaged for sale in distant countries. Such cheeses may be heavily salted for export (such as Roquefort) or sealed in impermeable plastic or foil.


A sandwich may be many things – it can be a delicious bit of nonsense that makes you ask for more!  It can be prim and proper and just a bit stodgy – or staunch and hearty – or it might just be an empty promise!!!! It is difficult to actually pin point when the sandwich actually appeared as a form of food presentation. We do know that the concept of wrapping bread around a filling for portability is ancient. It parallels the invention of bread. The sandwich involves bread in one way or the other. There is a universal chain of food items worldwide which all have a connection of a filling enclosed in a starchy casing. In China there is the Spring roll or the Egg roll; in Italy there is the Calzone; in Mexico, the Burrito; in Spain, the Empanada and Greece has the Pita.

Field workers in France have long had the custom of eating meat enclosed in two slices of bread. In southern France, it is customary to provide those setting out on a long journey with slices of cooked meat, sandwiched between two slices of bread. The Pain–Bagnat of Nice is a definite example of a sandwich that has been around for centuries.

The term SANDWICH came into being about 200 years ago. There lived a notorious gambler in the court of George III His name was John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792). The Earls gambling affliction was such, that he would enter into 24 hours marathons at the gaming tables. Any eating that had to be done had to be quick and not to detract from the task at hand. The Earl’s butler, who knew his master’s intensity, would place pieces of bread with cheese or meat for his sustenance. The rest is …..Well, not just history…..But the history of the Sandwich. Today, it is difficult to imagine a full-scale food service operation without the sandwich being a part of it.


The four parts of a sandwich can be listed as:

  • Bread                                – Filling
  • Spread                               – Garnish

I   Bread  

Various types of bread can be used to make sandwiches

  1. The Pullman loaf or the sandwich bread is the most popular. This may be white or brown
  2. Rolls – including hard and soft rolls, burger rolls, hot dog rolls, croissants and vienna rolls are all popular.
  3. French bread and baguettes for foot longs and submarine sandwiches
  4. Bread made of various flours such as  rye, whole wheat, maize, multigrain
  5. Unleavened bread like pita
  6. Flavored bread like cinnamon bread, raisin bread, fruit and nut bread.

II   Spread

The main function of the spread is to hold the filling and the bread together. It also forms a protective layer on the bread and prevents it from getting soggy from the moisture in the filling. Moreover, it adds to the taste of the sandwich and in case of children, contributes to the nutritive value

Plain and compound butter like anchovy, herb, parsley butter

Mayonnaise and its derivatives

Low fat spreads like margarine

Cheese spreads and cheese paste

A combination of the above.

III Filling

Could be a variety of limitless items. The filling gives the sandwich its name.

Fillings could include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, and vegetables. Salami, cooked roast chicken, ox tongue, sliced cucumber and tomato are all popular fillings.

The filling could be a single item, or a combination of several. Ham and cheese, Cucumber and chutney, Bacon and tomato. It is important that the combinations are complementary to each other.

IV Garnish

To enhance the appearance and the presentation of the sandwich, it is necessary to create eye appeal. The garnish is not absolutely essential and can be avoided in an informal setting. The sandwich may be a simple unadorned bit of bread with a filling or a masterpiece fit for a king. Various garnishes will include a stuffed olive, a pickled onion, capers, gherkins or parsley. The garnish should be delicate and dainty and not cumbersome and ugly.

The sandwich is no doubt the favourite lunch time food. For a typical customer, one who is in a rush, one who is hungry, the sandwich is the ideal food. It is quickly made and served, convenient to eat, easily adaptable to many variations. It can satisfy almost any palate and nutritional requirement. Properly made, it can be a very wholesome meal. Sandwich has long been the domain of the pantry department, along with salads and other cold snacks. Preparing sandwiches to order is one of the fundamental skills required in modern food production techniques.


1 Conventional, Closed or Lunchbox Sandwich    

These consist of two slices of bread with any filling such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs and vegetables. They may be served whole or cut into neat triangles, with or without the crust removed. White or whole meal bread can be used or any other similar bread. They are served in bars, cafes, coffee-shops and snack counters. They are the ideal item for the lunchbox that school children and office-goers carry. The filling is usually heavy and hearty, as the objective is to provide a wholesome and nutritious meal. Or, it could be light and fancy ….the perfect food for the weight watcher.

2. Tea Sandwiches

These are similar to the above but are cut into smaller triangles or in fingers. They are served at afternoon tea, usually with a very light filling. The crust is normally removed so that they look prim and proper like the high society ladies who usually eat them!!!! They will be suitably garnished for service.

3. The Buffet Sandwich

These are similar to the conventional sandwich but are cut into fancy shapes like hearts, diamonds, and ovals, with sandwich cutters. Obviously, there will be a lot of wastage and can only be used when cost permits.

4. Continental or French Sandwiches

Consists of crusty French baguettes slit horizontally, well buttered with a savory filling. It can be garnished with lettuce, slices of cucumber and tomatoes. It can be served whole or cut into pieces so that they can be lifted easily. If left whole, they are referred to as foot longs. In America, they are called submarine sandwiches.

5. Double Decker / Triple Decker and Club Sandwiches

These are extremely popular these days. If you top an ordinary sandwich with another filling and close that with a third slice of bread you get a double –  decker (two fillings, three slices of bread). Similarly, a triple – decker will have three fillings and four slices of bread. A club sandwich will have multiple fillings and multiple slices, all piled up one over the other. The fillings must be substantial and complement each other. There must be a balance in the fillings. The bread in a club sandwich may be toasted or grilled but in a double decker or a triple decker, plain bread may be used as well. These sandwiches are cut diagonally into half for service so that they can be eaten easily.

6. Open Sandwiches

Are technically not sandwiches, as a sandwich needs two slices of bread? But for convenience, they are classified as sandwiches. If the top slice of a sandwich is missing….what do you call it? Half a sandwich a garnished piece of bread. Until a better name is found, we can call it an open sandwich. Open sandwiches are slices of buttered bread on top of which is arranged a variety of toppings. The bread is then trimmed and garnished. They may even be cut into fancy shapes. The bread may be white or brown, toasted or plain. They should not be confused with canapés, which have a variety of different bases. Please remember that sandwiches are not made only to please the eye and look pretty on the platter. They must please the eye….yes, but they must also satisfy the palate.

7. Fancy Sandwiches

Ribbon sandwiches

Checker Board sandwich

Pinwheel Sandwich

Rolled sandwich

Mosaic sandwich

These are a variety of fancy sandwiches which look good when put on exhibition and display. They add a new dimension to a cold buffet presentation.

8. Hot Sandwiches

These are hot snacks but are really a hot sandwich. These include:

  • Book Maker  (England)
  • Strammer Max (Germany)
  • Lindstrom (Sweeden)
  • Croque Monsieur/Madame (France)

General Rules for Sandwich Making

1. Soften the butter before spreading.

2. Smooth fillings like fish paste and cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature.

3. Use a palette knife for easy spreading

4. Ideally, the bread should be 12 to 18 hours old. This ensures easy slicing.

5. Butter both slices of the bread being used for the sandwich. It helps to hold the sandwich together

6. Use sliced bread….it is neater and more convenient.

7. If cutting the bread yourself, arrange the bread slices in the order they have been cut.

8. Use sufficient filling. The label should not be the only means of identification of the sandwich.

9. Wrap prepared sandwiches in cling film or in a moist duster in separate batches for easy identification.

Unit-5: Sausages, Cold cuts and Cured Foods – Components, Ingredients, Types SAUSAGES, COLD CUTS AND CURED FOODS


Sausage is any meat that has been comminuted and seasoned. Comminuted means diced, ground, chopped, emulsified or otherwise reduced to minute particles by mechanical means.

A simple definition of sausage would be ‘the coarse or finely comminuted meat product prepared from one or more kind of meat or meat by-products, containing various amounts of water, usually seasoned and frequently cured.’ In simplest terms, sausage is ground meat that has been salted for preservation and seasoned to taste. Sausage is one of the oldest forms of charcuterie, and is made almost all over the world in some form or the other. Many sausage recipes and concepts have brought fame to cities and their people. Frankfurters from Frankfurt in Germany, Weiner from Vienna in Austria and Bologna from the town of Bologna in Italy are all very famous. There are over 1200 varieties world wide

Sausage consists of two parts:

  • the casing
  • the filling


Casings are of vital importance in sausage making. Their primary function is that of a holder for the meat mixture. They also have a major effect on the mouth feel (if edible) and appearance. The variety of casings available is broad. 

These include: natural, collagen, fibrous cellulose and protein lined fibrous cellulose.  Some casings are edible and are meant to be eaten with the sausage. Other casings are non edible and are peeled away before eating.


These are made from the intestines of animals such as hogs, pigs, wild boar, cattle and sheep. The intestine is a very long organ and is ideal for a casing of the sausage. The intestines are flushed clean, especially from the inside and soaked in a solution of KMNO4 for a period of 2 hours at 10°C. Sinews, blood vessels and fat clinging to the insides of the casing must be removed. Natural casings should not be over handled as they may puncture. They should be refrigerated at all times. Natural casings are available in Australia, New Zealand, and South America where cattle are reared on a very large scale. Casings are a by-product of the meat industry that is what these countries specialize in.

Use of natural casings is considered by many professional sausage makers to have many advantages:

  • They are semi porous and permit deeper smoke penetration.
  • Natural casings absorb flavors and release fats better
  • Generally, they hold their shape better and do not burst during cooking.
  • Natural casings are edible and need not be peeled before eating.
  • They have a natural color and have a better appearance.

Hogs casings are the most commonly used. Sheep casings are the highest quality available. Beef casings are also popular. Almost all casings are salted before they are packed. Natural casings need to be protected from extreme variations in temperature. The ideal storage temperature is 40-45°F


These are edible and are not synthetic casings. They are made from the hide of cattle. Collagen is obtained from the corium layer that is situated just under the skin of the animal. The fat, flesh and hair are removed from the hide and it is split into two layers by special equipment. The hair side of the hide is used in the leather industry. The flesh side (corium) is used to make collagen casings. The material is first ground, and then swelled in an acidic medium. It is then sieved, filtered and finally extruded into casings.

The advantages of collagen casings are that they can be manufactured in the sizes that you require both diameter and length. Their consistent diameter means that they are uniform and aid portion control. They are also stronger and are preferred while using machines in the commercial manufacture of sausages. They are ideal for smoking of sausages and require no special pre preparation and storage. Moreover, they are clean and sanitary.


These are by – products of the food processing industry. Cellulose and fiber is extracted from the husk, skin, peels, pips and seeds of the fruit and vegetables during the processing stage. These are processed further to make casings. These types of casings are also referred to as peel-able cellulose. The fiber adds to the strength of the casing and enables them to handle high temperatures.


A protein lining is often added to the inside of the above type of casing. These casings are ideal for the dried sausages. The protein lining causes the casing to shrink as the meat is cooked or dried so that it retains the shape of the sausage. Used mainly for dry or semi-dry sausages, they come in a red color (salami) or clear. They need to be soaked in water before stuffing, as the protein tends to stiffen during storage. Sometimes, the casing needs to be soaked in vinegar or even liquid smoke. This makes it easier to peel off the casing when the finished product is sliced.

Besides these, there some other types of casings that are also used in the sausage making industry. Plastic casings have recently become popular. They are cheaper, stronger and uniform in size. However, they need to be removed before the product is served. Caul fat, a membrane like lining of the stomach, is also used as a casing to make the flat sausages, crepinette. The membrane is networked like a spider web, with streaks of fat. Caul fat is ideal to wrap items of uneven sizes like the loukanika (patty like Greek sausage) and the crepinette.


The filling of the sausage is made up of two parts:

–   The meat component

  • the non meat component

Meat Component:

A variety of meats are used in the sausage making industry. Each type provides a particular flavor, texture and color in the product.

 Lean meats make up the largest proportion of the meat component providing the dominant character of the product. The color, flavor, texture and appearance of the product are determined by these meats. Pork is by far the most common and popular meat used in sausage making.  Beef is also becoming popular of late, because of its excellent binding properties as well as its deep red color. Veal, lamb and poultry are also being used in certain products of late.

Pork fat adds to the taste, flavor and the texture of the forcemeat.   Jowl fat is the most commonly used product in charcuterie. It is obtained from the cheek of the animal.  Normally, not more than 30% of the forcemeat is fat.

Variety meats are the offal of the carcass and can be added into the forcemeat in the production of sausage.  Variety meats used include heart, kidney, tripe, liver and tongue. These meats have a low binding power and if a lot of them are added into the forcemeat, you would require additional binders in the mixture.


Non meat ingredients are food item, which are added to the filling before stuffing. They enhance the flavor and the color, slow or prevent bacteria growth, act as a preservative and increase the volume and bulk of the mixture.  There are six types of these additives: water, curing agents, curing accelerators, sensory enhancers, stability enhancers, and extenders and binders.

WATER is usually added to the sausage mixture during the blending stage. It improved the mixing and helps to extract the proteins from the meat. It is used in all sausage mixtures.

CURING AGENTS are necessary to inhibit the growth of bacteria (especially clostridium botulinum – an anaerobic bacteria which can cause death) and improve the shelf life. They also help to improve, fix and retain the color of the forcemeat. The two common curing agents are sodium nitrate and nitrite. Nitrite is used in cured, cooked or smoked products. Nitrate is used in dried sausages.

CURING ACCELERATORS such as ascorbic acid, sodium erythorbate and citric acid are used in cured, cooked and fermented products. As their name suggests, they speed up the curing process.

SENSORY ENHANCERS are a variety of items that are used to enhance the flavor, smell, color, feel and mouthfeel.

Salt is used in all sausage products for the enhancement of flavor and as an aid in the extraction of protein from the meats.

Sweeteners (both nutritive and non-nutritive) are often added to the forcemeat. Non nutritive sweeteners such as saccharin and sorbitol add sweetness and aid in peeling. Nutritive sweeteners such as cane or beet sugar, dextrose and corn syrup are also used. 

Flavorings for sausage include spices, plant, vegetable and milk protein, yeast extract and even mustard flour. These add flavor, taste, increase the volume and act as binders. Colorings for sausage meat can be natural as well as artificial. Artificial colors are used a lot in sausage production. Chefs do not recommend these. Natural colors can be obtained from red peppers, saffron, turmeric and caramel. These will add not only color but also flavor. The use of natural colors is recommended wherever possible.

Smoke, both natural and liquid smoke contributes to the taste and flavor of the product. Use of too much liquid smoke will tend to make the product bitter. Liquid smoke also tends to fade on storage.

Flavor enhancers are products, which bring out the flavor of the other ingredients, yet have no flavor of their own. The one most commonly used in the kitchen is MSG, mono sodium glutamate. This is a natural product but must be used sparingly. MSG and nucleotides and other flavor enhancers are often used in mass production of sausage but are not widely used or common.

Other sensory enhancers include bacterial cultures, enzymes, phosphates and acidulants. They serve a variety of purposes including flavoring, softening of the tissues, juice retention and are used only in the mass commercial production of sausages and not in the hotel kitchens.

STABILITY ENHANCERS are used in sausage making to protect the flavor of the product, to slow down mold growth and to extend and bind the product.

EXTENDERS AND BINDERS are usually either animal based, fermentation based and cereal grain based. Gelatin, stock and non – fat dry milk are the animal based ones used most often in the kitchen. Fermentation based extenders and binders involve the introduction of specified types of microorganisms into the forcemeat. As these grow, they create favorable changes in the sausage. Cereal grain based ones include oats, wheat, barley, corn and rye. These products are also used to extend the volume – this is often termed as the filler. These items are far more popular in the commercial mass production of sausage rather than in specialized kitchen preparations.


There are primarily four types of fillings that are used in the production of sausages.

  1. Coarse minced forcemeat – This forcemeat contains tender and lean meat as well as fat in the mixture. The ratio is normally 3 parts of meat to one part of fat. The mixture is coarsely ground and the proportion gives optimum quality. Only good grade of meat and fat is used, as the mixture is easily identifiable. Salami is a good example of this type of a filling.
  2. Cutter pulverized forcemeat – All types of sausage containing finely ground forcemeat including frankfurters and cocktail sausages come under this group. 5 parts of meat and 3 parts of fat are the normal ratio. Second grades of meat can be utilized, as they are not identifiable, being ground into a fine mixture. Meats from older carcasses can also be used.
  3. Combination forcemeats – are a mixture of the above two types. One part of coarse forcemeat and two parts of cutter pulverized forcemeat are normally use. Pepperoni and chippolatas are examples of sausages that use this type of forcemeat. Both good and inferior quality of meat can be used. This makes it more commercially viable as well.
  4. Chunky forcemeat – In this type of a filling, the meat and fat are left in chunks. Three parts of meat to 1 part of fat are used. This type of a filling is used for the spicy South American sausages like the chorizo, which have predominant Portuguese and Spanish influence. The meat and the fat are dried before they are filled into the casing.

Once the forcemeat is prepared, it is ready for filling into the casing. It may be done manually or, sausage filler may be used. Sausage filler is a machine something like a mincing machine, which has a nozzle with changeable diameters. The rolled up casing is fitted onto the nozzle and the machine is started. The casing then un – rolls as it fills up. A stapling machine cum stapler then separates the sausages into links and seals the ends. Heat treatment is used in the sealing process.

Besides meat, which is the traditional filling, nowadays a host of other ingredients are also used. Poultry seafood, vegetables, lentils and soybean are being introduced.

There are five varieties of sausages that are available in the commercial market.

  • Fresh sausage  (e.g.: Brokwurst)
  • Cooked sausage (Mortadella)
  • Cooked-smoked sausage (Bologna, Frankfurters, Berliners)
  • Uncooked-smoked sausage (Kielbasa – the Polish sausage, Mettwurst)
  • Dry/semi dry sausage (Salami)

International Cold Cut

  • Dstreaky Bacon
  • Chicken Paprica Lyoner
  • Salami: Salami is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork.


The term Forcemeat or farce is used to describe the basic mixture that needs to be prepared in order to produce charcuterie products.

The word farce comes from the Latin farcire. A farce or forcemeat is a ground seasoned mixture of meat, game, poultry, fish or vegetables, prepared as a dish on its own or used to stuff other numerous other items such as eggs, meat, fish and poultry, pastry shells and perhaps even pasta. Such dishes are prepared in the Garde Manger.

Forcemeats are used in the preparation of a various cold dishes such as pate, terrines, galantines, ballotines, quenelle, roulade, mousse and mousseline.

  • Pate: from the old French paste, meaning paste.
  • Terrine: from the Latin Terra, meaning earth.
  • Galantine:  from the old French galant,   meaning gorgeous or showy Also from the old French term galine, meaning chicken.   
  • Ballotine: from the Italian Balla, meaning ball.
  • Quenelle: from the Alcascian French knodel, meaning dumpling
  • Roulade: from the French rouler, meaning to roll
  • Mousse/Mousseline: from the French, meaning froth.
  • Timbale: from the English Thimble


Traditional forcemeat/farce is made up of four parts:

1. The Meat   (Primary Ingredient)

2. The Binder

3. Seasoning, Flavoring and Garnish

4. The Additives

The Meat:

Consists of three elements:

–  The Dominant Meat (basic meat) which could include veal, game, poultry, rabbit, duck, or even fish. This will provide the dominant flavor and will also name the dish. E.g. chicken liver in a Chicken Liver Pate. These ingredientsshould be fresh and of prime quality. All bones, skin, sinews and gristle must be removed and the flesh cut up into ½” pieces for grinding. The dominant meat normally accounts for 40% of the meat component.

  • Lean Pork which contributes to the bulk as well as the flavor. This will be about 30% of the meat component. Nowadays, when preparing forcemeat using other varieties of meat, the lean pork can be substituted with another subsidiary meat. For example, in a Lobster Mousse, the lean pork will be substituted with shrimp or some other cheap white fish. The important thing to remember is that the  subsidiary meat should complement the dominant meat
  • Pork fat which gives richness and smoothness to the product as well as for its binding qualities. This too will be 30% of the meat component. Again, other fats such as butter and cream can be substituted in order that the meat and fat complement each other. In the Lobster mousse, cream would be better suited as a fat instead of pork fat.

The Binding Agent:

To lighten the farce and to give it a finer texture, binding agents are needed. These are typically used in the making of poultry, fish and vegetable farce. Game, veal and pork do have their own binding qualities, with the protein from the meat acting as binding agents. Binding could consist of egg yolks and/or egg whites; fresh bread soaked in milk, cream or stock; thickened béchamel sauce (panada); beurre manié (uncooked butter/flour mixture), blood or even cooked rice.

Seasoning Flavoring and Garnish:

Salt is an important part of the forcemeat. It helps to bring out the natural flavors of the other elements. 20 gm of salt / kilo of the mixture are a rough guideline to use. The salt must be evenly mixed to ensure equal distribution. Seasoning should not be extravagant to cover up for inferior quality ingredient. One mistake is to use excessive MSG for this purpose. Flavorings such as herbs and spices give character to the product. The garnish is related to the farce to which it is added. A central garnish – lamb fillet in a lamb farce, strips of ham in a pork farce, or a piece of goose liver I a game farce – provides a visual focal point when the farce is sliced. Garnishes could also be dispersed or interspersed throughout the farce and would include pistachio, crushed peppercorns, diced truffle, capers, gherkins, stuffed olives, mushrooms and similar ingredients which will provide contrast and relief in the mass of the forcemeat.

The Additives:

Many additives are included in the forcemeat. These include Nitrates and Nitrites of Sodium and Potassium, MSG, Sodium Erythorbate, BHT and BHA, Salt Petre.

These additives will enhance the color, increase shelf life, contribute to the taste and flavor and prevent/delay the fat from going rancid.


The meat being used to make the farce as well as the equipment to grind it like the buffalo chopper or the food processor must be absolutely chilled before use. Such chilling is essential as it facilitates clean grinding of the farce, as opposed to tearing which inhibits the release of the protein which in turn later binds the farce and gives it the correct texture. A sharp cutting blade is also essential.

The process of grinding involves three stages:

  • First the ingredients are coarsely ground through a medium holed plate
  • It is then passed through a small holed plate
  • If the farce is to be ground to a fine textured paste it can be emulsified in a food processor a small amount of crushed ice can be added during the emulsifying stage. This helps to maintain the temperature of the farce during the grinding.
  • Finally, the farce is passed through a sieve to remove any trace of sinew, gristle or skin that might have remained during the grinding.

Remember, that the process may not require all the stages mentioned. For a coarse farce, like that required for a salami sausage, only the first two stages are required.

There are times when the food grinder is not available. In that case, the meat can be placed in the freezer for 30 to 60 minutes, rendering it partially frozen. This is done so that when it is placed in the food processor, the interaction of the blade against the partially frozen meat poultry or fish results in it being cut up, much the way it would if put through a meat grinder.

Herb and Spice Seasoning & Flavoring Blends:

Garde Manger chefs will develop their own blend of seasoning mix for the different products they make. The degree of strength will vary from a mild, light blend for fish and seafood roulade to a medium blend for pork and veal terrine to a heavy blend for a game pate. Ideally, the herb and spice blend should be of a dry nature and finely powdered so that it blends in well with the farce. However, some chefs prefer to use the fresh variety, especially of herbs. If the herbs are fresh, they need to be chopped very finely.  Spice blends are a matter of personal choice.


There are five primary types of forcemeat:

Campagne (Country Style)

Straight Method

Gratin Style

Mousseline Style           

5/4/3 Emulsion forcemeat

Campagne is also called the country style forcemeat. It is the earliest style that was used and is the precursor of all modern versions. It is generally made out of pork. This is probably due to the historically low expense and small amount of land required to raise pigs. Pork fat is also incorporated. The farce has a dense, coarse texture, a characteristic which resulted from the lack of sophisticated equipment in the early days when it was first developed. The earliest forcemeats were chopped with two knives giving the coarse texture that is associated with country style forcemeat today. Another character resulting from the time it was developed is that of being highly seasoned. Due to the virtual non – existence of refrigeration techniques or other preservation methods, the heavy seasoning covered both the flavor of the tainted meat and acted as a preservative for the forcemeat. The seasonings commonly used include onion, garlic, black pepper, juniper berries, bay leaf and nutmeg. Country style forcemeat is usually a combination of coarsely ground farce and a smooth ground farce so that chunks of meat are visible in the mass of the mixture.

Straight Method forcemeat is more refined, having a finer, less dense texture. As culinary preparations and equipment improved, the capability of producing a more refined style of forcemeat was possible. Here, any type of dominant meat can be used. It is normally, veal, duck, rabbit plus pork. White poultry and fish are rarely used here. Ideally pork fat especially jowl fat is used.

The finer lighter texture and more delicate seasoning of this forcemeat are indicative of the refinement of many culinary preparations as technological advances were made. It was no longer necessary to mask the flavors of the meats. It was possible to simply enhance it. The common flavors used are shallots, wine, brandy and all spice. Better grinding techniques meant that the meats were binding better on their own and additional binding was not required.

In some cases a panada can be used to achieve a lighter texture and color in the farce.

Gratin Style is the name given to the forcemeat that is obtained from pre cooked meats. This style is used extensively to make pates. In some cases the cooking will entail only lightly searing and browning of the meats (hence the term gratin), at other times, the meat may be completely cooked before grinding and pureeing. The contemporary interpretation of gratin style is an expansion of the definition of farce given by Escoffier. His definition refers to any forcemeat based on liver, needed to be pre cooked before grinding. Most types of meat can be used in gratin style forcemeats. However, as in the case of the straight method, poultry and fish is normally not use. Often, the liver of veal and pork are used. Pork back fat and jowl fat are also incorporated. The texture of this type of forcemeat is very fine and should be properly ground till smooth.  The density of this type of farce is slightly lighter than a straight method due to the varying degree of binding power that is lost because of the pre cooking. Panada is avoided it will soften the already delicate texture. To compensate the loss of binding power, extra eggs are added. A different flavor is achieved here as a result of the browning and pre cooking. A nutty flavor develops. The result is very smooth, delicately flavored forcemeat.

Mousseline style is the fourth type of farce. The most distinctive characteristic of this method is the type of fat that is used in its preparation. The use of cream as the source of fat, combined with the processing of the components to an ultra fine consistency, results in an extremely light and smooth product. This product is in sharp contrast to that produced using the harder types of fat. Mousseline –style forcemeats are made using lean white or light meats and fish. Chicken, rabbit, shellfish, sole and trimmed lean pork fillet is ideal to use. Although a panada is not needed for additional binding for this type of forcemeat, one is occasionally added to achieve a lighter consistency. Due to the delicate nature of the meats and the cream, the seasoning to should be very delicate. Care must be taken not to overpower the flavors of the components of the forcemeat.  Shallots, ground white pepper and white wine can be used.

Note: The term mousseline forcemeat is often improperly abbreviated as mousse in everyday use. This is a source of much confusion. A mousse is a mixture of fully cooked and pureed basic ingredients bound with gelatin and fat and lightened with an aerator like egg white.

5/4/3 Emulsion Forcemeat is used extensively in making sausages like frankfurters, bologna and knockwurst. It I a commercial mixture and hardly ever used in a hotel kitchen. Its name is derived from the ratio of the components of the forcemeat:  5 parts of meat, 4 parts of fat and 3 parts of ice.  5/4/3 emulsion forcemeat can be made with almost any kind of meat. Fish is not considered suitable for this kind of forcemeat. Pork jowl fat is the common fat used; the term emulsion automatically indicates the texture, which should be a perfectly smooth paste. Processing of the components of the forcemeat with ice, results in a very strong emulsion of the meat and the fat when it is cooked. The resulting blend has a moderate density. A variety of binders can be used to assist in the binding and water retention. Panada is not capable of providing the type of binding required. Therefore, non-fat milk powder is preferred. Sodium caseinate and phosphates can also be used. Since this is used commercially, the seasoning and flavoring will vary from one manufacturer to the other.


Perfumed with freshly chopped herbs and aromatic spices, a melange of succulent ingredients distinguishes pates and terrines, as some of the most delectable of food preparations. They can be basic or fancy, inexpensive or costly, they can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes – small, large, oval, round, rectangular and even cylindrical. Terrines are cooked, stored and even served in the same container which may be crafted iron, enamel, porcelain and glass but which originally was pottery or earthen ware from which the terrine got its name (terre meaning earth in French).


The term pate refers to forcemeat baked in a crust, usually in a rectangular mould, something like a loaf tin. In French it is called pate en croute. Simply defined, a pate is a paste of finely chopped or pounded or pureed seasoned meat, which generally is liver. There are a few classical dishes like the pate campagne from France that is not baked and really should be referred to as terrines.

Among the wide variety of ingredients used in the making of a pate are liver, a variety of meats, truffle and of course seasoning. Goose and duck liver, bring a characteristic flavor to the pate. Chicken livers are the most common these days but sheep and calf liver are often used as well. Truffle will make the pate special. Pates can be prepared in advance, stored and then used as and when required. The meats used in a pate are first marinated and at times pre cooked. The livers must be handled carefully and the gall bladder, veins and blood clots if any must be removed. Ideally, the livers must be soaked in milk for 24 hours (refrigerated). They are then drained and seasoned. Sometimes, a small quantity of bread crumbs is added to the farce to lighten the mixture. Non fat dry milk (powder) could also be used. It adds a creamy texture to the mixture. A meat glaze or aspic could also be substituted as a binder and will contribute a rich gelatinous quality to the farce. For that extra fragrance, a small quantity of wine or brandy could be added at the last minute before combining and processing.

For the crust, dough must be prepared and the following recipe has proved to be good


Flour           1 kg

Butter          150 gm

Margarine    200 gm

Baking powder 15 gm

Water 250 ml (approx.)

Vinegar       25 ml

Eggs            3

Salt             2 tsp

Sift the flour and the baking powder.

Rub the shortening and the butter into the flour

Combine and add the remaining ingredients into the flour.

Mix until the dough is formed and knead till smooth.

Shape the dough into a flat rectangle. Refrigerate overnight.

Note: pate dough can also be made out of yeast and brioche dough

Assembling the pate:

Lightly oil the mould.

Roll the dough and line the mould leaving an overhang on the four sides.

Carefully press the dough into the corners of the mould.

Refrigerate the lined mould for at least an hour.

Fill the mould with the prepared farce ½ inch short of the top edge.

(The forcemeat should be placed in the mould in several layers. Use a palette knife to press into place. This will reduce the risk of air pockets in the finished product. There may be a central or dispersed garnish)

Fold the overhanging dough over the top of the mould and the seal.

Carefully cut two small holes from the top and provide chimneys for the excess steam to escape during the cooking.

Cooking the Pate:

The cooking takes place in two stages

Browning stage:  Cover the surface with foil and place the mould in a pre heated 475°F oven for approximately 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and allow to rest for 15 minutes. The surface should show hints of brown.

Cooking stage:  Uncover the pate and lightly egg wash the top of the pate

Place in a pre heated 375°F oven until an internal temperature of 170°F has been reached. Temperature can be taken through the chimney. Make sure the thermometer reaches the center of the pate.

Finishing the Pate:

The pate is not complete when removed from the oven. It must now be filled with aspic. First, allow the pate to cool to room temperature. This will allow for the fat and the juices to be re absorbed into the meat. Through the chimneys, carefully pour in good quality aspic. The aspic will slowly be absorbed into the meat and will fill the sides (where the meat has shrunk), and any crevice and air pockets that might have formed. Allow the pate to chill overnight before removal and slicing.


Terrines are the closet cousins of the pate. The terrine vessel is an oblong earthern ware mould. As mentioned earlier, this was the original vessel that was use and this is how terrine got its name.  However, nowadays, enamel, cast iron, clay, porcelain and china vessels are common. Since the terrine takes its name from the vessel and not the mixture used, the variety of types is limitless. The forcemeat used in a terrine is usually uncooked and is slightly coarser compared to a pate. Various force Meats can be used and layered one over the other. Care should be taken that the variety of forcemeats used complement each other. The binding used in forcemeat for a terrine is normally eggs or gelatin.

Pre preparation of a Terrine:

 The forcemeat for the terrine must first be prepared. This may be more than one type and can be layered. The garnish which can be chopped herbs is also prepared. Line the mold with strips of pork fat or bacon.

Assembling the Terrine:

Fill the terrine half full and ensure that there are no air pockets. If a central garnish is being used, place this in the middle and top with the other half of the forcemeat. If several types of forcemeat are being used, then layer them one over the other. Top with additional layers of pork fat or streaky bacon. The fat/bacon keeps the terrine moist during the ensuing cooking process. Small bunches of fresh herbs may also be placed on the top of the terrine.  Bayleaf, rosemary and thyme are ideal for this purpose.

Cooking the Terrine:

Assemble a water bath to cook the terrine. A wire rack can be placed at the bottom of the pan on which the mould can rest. Place in a preheated 325°F oven. The temperature of the water should be 190°f before placing in the oven. The water should come up to ½ inch below the level of the forcemeat in the mould.

The temperature of the water should be maintained at 170-175°F throughout the cooking process. The terrine is done when the internal temperature reaches 140°F. remove from the water bath and cool at room temperature for 30 minutes.

Pressing Terrines:

A cooked terrine is pressed or weighted after it is cooked. This involves placing a weight on the surface of the terrine. A metal plate that fits into the top of the terrine is placed on top and a medium weight is placed on the plate. This is then refrigerated overnight. It helps to compact the terrine and thereby improve the texture and facilitates easy slicing of the terrine.

Storing Pates and Terrines:

Refrigerate meat pates and terrines to ripen their flavor. Covered and refrigerated, they will keep for a week. Terrines will actually keep much longer if a layer of melted fat/butter is poured over the surface. Avoid the freezing of meat pates and terrines. It alters the texture of the meat and also the pastry. Well-chilled pates and terrines will slice the best. However, they taste best closer to room temperature. After slicing, allow to stand a while. This allows the subtleties of the flavor to emerge.

Serving Pates and Terrines:

Pate in pastry is sliced and served as a starter along with a plate salad.

Terrine can be served sliced or scooped out with a spoon. Terrines and pates can both be featured on a cold buffet presentation.

Foie Gras

Foie Gras, if literally translated, means fat liver. But the liver is no ordinary liver, nor is it just fat!!! Pate de Foie Gras is the resulting product of an extremely complicated process involving the liver of goose and its recipe dates back to the 17th Century.

The geese is placed in pens and given plenty to eat. The feed consists of beetroot, artichokes, carrots, corn, cooked potatoes, maize, oats and beans along with plenty of fresh water. This specially crafted diet contains a high quantity of vitamins and at times the bird needs to be forcefed. After 2 to 3 weeks, the goose liver swells slowly and when the farmer/breeder thinks it is sufficiently ready, the bird is killed and the liver removed.

Once the goose livers have been selected, they are sent to the manufacturers of foie gras and in some special cases, directly to chefs who make their own foie gras. Generally, foie gras can be bought either fresh or tinned/canned.

In the processing of foie gras, the bile is first removed and the livers are then carefully sorted and graded. Some livers may be ideal for steaming and others for baking. Those which are suitable for light steaming would quickly become dry if they are cooked in the oven. The color, texture and firmness are also important.

The network of nerves are removed from the livers which are then put to soak in water and are then drained and seasoned. The livers are stuffed with truffle and then steamed or baked in the oven. Livers of lesser quality or the wrong color (the right color is shell pink) are pulverised into a mousse and can be used as a meat spread for sandwiches. The livers can be packed in tins or in earthen jars.

The delicate nature of Foie Gras necessitates particular care in serving. It should be served cold and at the beginning of the meal with a crisp white wine. Reisling, Champagne, White Burgundy or even Bordeaux of good vintage is ideal. Red wine should definitely be avoided as it will detract from the taste instead of sharpening it.

Foie gras can be garnished with aspic jelly and with nothing else. Foie gras is best presented on the plate in the shape of shells, scooped out of the jar/can/terrine with a teaspoon. It can also be served in slices. Certain types of foie gras are surrounded by a layer of white fat. The connoisseur will remove this, knowing that it has been used only to ensure its perfection and to preserve it.

Foie gras has been around for ages and has been consumed for centuries. It was made traditionally in the region of Alcase in the town of Strasbourg in Eastern France. In fact, the correct name should read Pate de Foie Gras de Strasbourg.  Legally, all foie gras from the region must contain a maximum 75% goose liver and a minimum 5% truffle, to be accorded the name. Like Champagne and other wines, an appellation or controlling body governs the production, manufacture, sales, pricing and marketing of the Foie Gras.

From 1762, the Marechal de Conrades who resided in Strasbourg had a head chef Jean Pierre Clause whose ability in the culinary arts was gratefully acknowledged by the guests of the Marechal. One day, in order to please his master, he put before him Pate Marechal, a dish he had just invented. Marechal thought it so magnificent that he ordered another one to be made and sent it to Versailles to the Kings palace. The court liked it so much that the Marechal was granted an estate.

Nowadays, it is chiefly the French cities of Strasbourg and Toulouse which are renowned for their Foie gras



Truffle is known by several names such as Black Diamond and Children of the Gods. The truffle is a fungus fruit that matures underground. However, not all underground fungi are truffle. The real story of the growth of truffle is a strange one. The truffle is the fruit of a widely spreading system of colorless, microscopic branching threads that penetrate the soil for distances that are measurable in yards. These threads known as hyphae, touch the furtherest tips of the roots of trees and shrubs. The interaction of roots and hyphae forms a compound structure part plant and part fungus. However, this cannot further develop without vitamins and minerals. When the hyphae have absorbed enough material from the soil and plant, they proceed to develop fruit. The fruit which develops from a knot of hyphae is called a truffle. Nowadays, specially trained dogs and hogs are used to detect truffle. Truffles vary in color from a smooth white surface to a dark brown or black. They are usually rounded, although some may resemble ginger. The interior of the truffle has elaborate rolds or chambers. The flavor of the truffle can vary considerably. Some have a touch of garlic in its flavor.

In France, the region of Perigord less than 50 miles from the Bordeaux region is well known for its crop of truffle. In Italy, Piedmont in the Umbria region produces almost the entire crop of Italian white truffle. Geographically, truffle will occur near the wine growing regions. Surprisingly, a good year for wine means a bad year for truffle and vice verca.

The composition of truffle is 72% water, 8-10% protein, 4% fat, 13-15% carbohydrates and 2-5% mineral traces.

Contrary to popular belief, the white truffle, unlike its black cousin should never be cooked as it may loose its fragrance if subjected to heat. Fresh truffle should be firm to touch and not spongy. They impart a distinct aroma when fresh. Because of their exorbitant prices, their usage in the kitchen and the garde manger is fairly limited

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