Dr Sunil Kumar Lecturer in ICI Noida 9996000499

Ayurvedic Practice Notes

Unit 1: Holistic Living: The Ayurveda Concept & Tools of Ayurveda Goal of Ayurveda, Purpose of Ayurveda, Preventive Care – Life style, Food, Rejuvenators, Supplements.
Unit 2: Ayurveda, Food, Ingredients, Utensils & Classification Ayurveda and Food, When to eat, How to eat, What to eat, Different food combinations and their impact on human body, Concept of fasting, Classification of Food, Satvik, Rajsik, Tamsik, Ingredients & utensils used : Medicinal perspective, Utensils: Earthen, copper etc, Organic Vegetables & fruits, Herbs & Spices, Turmeric, Saffron, Fenugreek, Cloves, Ginger, Saunf, Black Pepper, Cinnamon, Nutmeg etc, Medicinal and health importance of cow milk and its bye-products
Unit-3: Taste and Flavours: Impact & Prevention and cure of diseases through Ayurvedic eating practices Sweet, Sour, Salty, Pungent, Bitter, Astringent, Hypertension, Gastric problems, High cholesterol, Diabetes, Joint pain, Seasonal flu, etc
Unit 4: Food, Seasons & Elements Food and Seasons, Summer, Monsoon, Winter, Elements, Earth, Fire, Water, Air, Space, Prevention and cure of diseases, Dietary guidelines for different body constituents – Vata, Pitta, Kapha
Unit-5: Modern day trends & Benefits of Ayurveda Staying well, De-stressing, Relaxation, Revitalizing Energy, Concentration, Anti-aging

Ayurveda is a truly holistic health system which supports you from the cradle to the end of your life. The Ayurvedic mode of living aims to maximise your lifespan by optimising your health through interventions that care for your body, mind, spirit and environment. Ayurveda places a great emphasis on the prevention of disease and on health promotion, as well as on a comprehensive approach to treatment.
Ayurveda’s origins
The genealogy of Ayurveda traces back to about 5,000 years ago in the Indus valley, where the Vedas, or oldest Ayurvedic scriptures, originated. Legend has it that the knowledge within the Vedas was downloaded, so to speak,to a number of sages in deep meditation. This was experienced as an act of divine love to help us manage and maximise our lives on earth. For centuries, this knowledge was passed down from one generation to the next in the form of memorised chants known as sutras. There are four Vedas, the oldest of which is the Rig Veda, which refers to three great beings governing the universe, in the form of Agni, Soma and Indra, which are personifications of the sun, moon and wind. These in turn become what are known as the doshas, which govern all activities in your body and are called pitta, kapha and vata respectively.
Known as the fourth veda, the Atharvaveda (meaning ‘no vibration’, or how to make the mind stable), contains the knowledge of Ayurveda. Two systems of medicine are described. The first is a compilation of drugs used on an empirical, rational basis, while the other describes a type of magical spiritual medicine.
Yet another version of the origins of Ayurveda is given by Sushruta, considered the founder of surgical medicine. Sushruta and other sages approached Dhanvantari, the god of Ayurveda. Dhanvantari imparted to them the wisdom of Ayurveda for the betterment of mankind and to help rid it of the suffering of disease. These legends aren’t so far away from the divine origins of the healing arts in contemporary cultures closer to home in the West that Apollo gave us from Greece and Thoth from Egypt. If you want to delve deeper into the origins of Ayurveda, the three very important texts that all scholars of Ayurveda can’t manage without are: the Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, and Ashtanga Hrdayam by Vagbhata.
The Ayurveda Concept
Ayurveda is the ancient medical system of India. It encompasses the healing of body, mind and spirit through diet, lifestyle and rejuvenation methods. This wholistic healing art teaches that food and diet can make a vital contribution to continous good health. Illness provides an ‘Opportunity’ to change our habitual patterns related to thinking, feeling and eating. Serious illness is the result of poor food choices and ignorance of the art of proper cooking for oneself and the family.
“Food is medicine when rightly combined”
Goal of Ayurveda
According to the Vedas, “Food should be prepared in time with proper quality, taste, purity and feeling”. Ayurveda can provide much insight about which foods will suit and balance each individual. It teaches how much to prepare and cook these foods properly and how to avoid combinations that will create toxins in the body. Ayurvedic cooking emphasizes that we should cook with a feeling of great love and respect to every stage of food preparation and serving. The following recipes are Tridoshic meaning good for all constitutions. The herbs and spices are used with these benefits in mind:
• Enhance taste
• Stimulate digestive fire
• Increase digestibility and absorption
• Help counteract any incompatible food combinations.
Purpose of Ayurveda

Tools of Ayurveda: Preventive Care
• Life style
• Food
• Rejuvenators
• Suppliments
Ayurveda and Food
Annam BrahmË Raso Vishnu,
Pakto Devo MaheÚaraÒ
Evam JñËtvË Tu Yo Bhunkte,
Anna Dosho Na Lipyate. The creative energy in the food is Brahma,
The nourishing energy in the body is Vishnu,
The transformation of food into pure consciousness is Shiva.
If you know this, then any impurities in the food you eat will never become a part of you.

When to eat, how to eat and what to eat:
Improper Eating Habits
1. Overeating
2. Eating soon after a full meal
3. Too much water or no water during a meal
4. Drinking very chilled water during a meal or, indeed, anytime
5. Eating when constipated
6. Eating at the wrong time of day—either too early or too late
7. Eating too much heavy food or too little light food
8. Drinking fruit juice or eating fruit with a meal
9. Eating without real hunger
10. Emotional eating
11. Eating incompatible food combinations
12. Snacking in between meals
Time of Day and Time of Season
The body’s biological clock is regulated by the doshas. The time of maximum activity of kapha is during early morning and early evening, 6 to 10 AM and 6 to 10 PM. The pitta period is during midday and midnight, 10 AM to 2 PM and 10 PM to 2 AM, while vata hours are dawn and dusk, 2 to 6 AM and 2 to 6 PM. Thus, a pitta-type disease, like ulcers, may cause the most discomfort late at night in the pitta time of the bio-clock. The reverse is also true, in the sense that experiencing a sharp pain in the stomach region late at night may signify ulcers or another pitta-type aggravation.
Utensils for your Ayurvedic kitchen
 One (at least) heavy cast-iron frying pan
 One chapati skillet, if possible (saucer-shaped, without steep sides)
 Two or three medium-sized pots with lids—stainless steel is best
 One soup pot with lid—also stainless steel
 One small metal pot for melting ghee
 One deep pot for frying—cast iron is best
 One heavy frying pan with lid
 Two or three mixing bowls, measuring cup and spoons
 Hand eggbeater
 Large metal spoon and soup ladle
 Blender
 Chapati, or other rolling pin, and cutting board
Different food combinations and their impact on human body
• Concept of fasting
Classification of Food
• Satvik
• Rajsik
• Tamsik
Ingredients & utensils used: Medicinal perspective
• Utensils: Earthen, copper etc
• Organic Vegetables & fruits
• Herbs & Spices
• Turmeric
• Saffron
• Fenugreek
• Cloves
• Ginger
• Saunf
• Black Pepper
• Cinnamon
• Nutmeg,etc
Medicinal and health importance of cow milk and its bye-products
Taste and Flavours: Impact
• Sweet
• Sour
• Salty
• Pungent
• Bitter
• Astringent
Food and Seasons
• Summer
• Monsoon
• Winter
• Earth
• Fire
• Water
• Air
• Space
Prevention and cure of diseases through Ayurvedic eating practices
• Hypertension
• Gastric problems
• High cholesterol
• Diabetes
• Joint pain
• Seasonal flu, etc
Dietary Guidelines for different body constitutions
• Vata
• Pitta
• Kapha
Modern day trends with regard to Ayurveda, Yoga , Vegetarianism and Organic food.

Benefits of Ayurveda
• Staying well
• De-stressing
• Relaxation
• Revitalizing Energy
• Concentration
• Anti-aging
Ayurvedic Cuisine
Detail of Ayurvedic Dishes
 Broken Wheat Porridge (also known as Cracked Wheat, Dalia or Bourghoul)
 Ragi Porridge (also known as Finger Millet)
 Fresh Fruit
 Steamed Vegetables
 Budgies and Gravy
 Dal and Suriki
 Dal and Potalunga .
 Cabbage and Beetroot
 Spinach with Dal or drumstick leaves if available
 Spinach (Kira) Chutney
 Steamed Vegetable with Coconut
 Potatoe Gravy with Coconut Milk
 Tomato Soup
 Vegetable Soup
 Chappati
 Peanuts
 Yam
 Chick Pea Gravy
 Mung Bean
 Tur Dal (yellow lentils)
 Lassi
 Sweet — Dal Payasam
 Herbal Teas
Ayurveda Tips
 Best to have a bath before exercise to loosen the muscles, a bath before dinner helps digestion.
 Do not eat when angry, depressed, bored or emotionally unstable or after physical exertion—intense exercise. Food will not be well digested.
 Cook with a feeling of love.
 Avoid exercise within an hour of eating and avoid sleeping or studying with two hours.
 Try not to eat Kapha food at night, ie. melons, yogurt, sesame products, cheese, ice-cream at night. Generally, ice cold food weakens digestion.
 The biggest meal should be at noon when the digestive fire is strongest. Eat meals every 4–6 hours depending on constitution.
 After two hours, fresh fruit or vegetable juice is okay.
 Benefits of jaggery is considered by some to be a particularly wholesome sugar and, unlike refined sugar, it retains more mineral salts. Moreover, the process does not involve chemical agents.
 Indian Ayurvedic medicine considers jaggery to be beneficial in treating throat and lung infections.
Twenty Qualities of Ayurveda:
According to Ayurveda, everything you can see, hear, smell, taste and touch is experienced as mixture of the 20 different qualities, or attributes. They describe everything in our physical and mental world.
Qualities Qualities
Dull Sharp
Hard Soft
Heavy Light
Cold Hot
Wet Dry
Dense Subtle
Rough Smooth
Slow Quick
Solid Liquid
Oily Brittle

Ayurvedic Food Chart
Fruit Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor
Dried Fruits Sweet Fruits Sour Fruits Sweet Fruits Sweet & Sour Fruits Apples
Apples (raw) Apples (cooked) Apricots Apples Avacado Applesauce
Cranberries Applesauce Berries Avacado Bananas Apricots
Pears Apricots Bananas Coconut Coconut Berries
Persimmon Tamarind Cherries Figs Figs (fresh) Cherries
Pomegranate Bananas Cranberries Grapes (dark) Grapefruit Cranberries
Watermelon Berries Grapefruit Mango (ripe) Grapes Figs (dry) *
Raisins Cherries Grapes (green) Oranges (sweet) * Lemons Grapes *
Prunes (dry) Coconut Lemons Pears Melons lemons*

Dates (dry)
Figs (Fresh)
Oranges (sour) Pineapple (sweet)
Limes *
Grapefruit Papaya* Plums (sweet) Papaya Peaches *
Grapes Peaches Pomegranate Pineapples Pears

Lemons Pineapples
Mango Persimmons Raisins Rhubarb Persimmons
Melons (sweet) Plums (sour) Applesauce Tamarind Pomegranate
Oranges Rhubarb Apricots (sweet) Watermelon Prunes
Papaya Strawberries Berries (sweet) Mangos ** Raisins
Peaches Tamarind Cherries (sweet) Strawberries *
Pineapples Apples (sour) Dates
Dates (fresh) Kiwi ** Limes *
Kiwi Mangos (green) Melons
Limes Papaya *
Oranges Strawberries *
Plums Watermelon
Prunes (soaked)
Raisins (soaked)
Ayurvedic Vegetable Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor
Generally frozen, raw or dried vegetables



Sweet & Bitter

Sweet & Juicy

Pungent & Bitter



Beets (raw)



Beet Greens ** Beets Carrots Asparagus Parsnips ** Asparagus

Bitter Melon Cabbage
Beets (cooked)
Pototatoes (sweet)
Beet Greens
Broccoli Carrots Garlic Bitter Melon Pumpkin Beets
Brussel Sprouts Cauliflower * Onions Broccoli Squash (summer) Bitter Melon
Burdock Root Cilantro Peppers (hot) Brussel Sprouts Taro Root Broccoli
Cabbage (raw) Cucumber Radishes Cabbage Tomatoes Brussel Sprouts
Daikon Radish*
Carrots (cooked)
Tomatoes (raw)
Burdock Root
Celery Fennel (Anise) Tomatoes Carrots (raw)* Zucchini Cabbage
Corn (fresh)** Garlic Beet Greens Cauliflower Carrots
Green Beans
Burdock Root
Eggplant Green Chilies Corn (fresh)** Cilantro Celery
Horseradish ** Leafy Greens* Daikon Radish Cucumber Cilantro
Kale Leeks Green Chilies Cucumber Corn
Kohlrabi Lettuce* Horseradish Dandelion Greens Daikon Radish

Leafy Greens * Mustard
Fennel (Anise) Dandelion
Lettuce * Okra (cooked) Leeks (raw) Green Beans Eggplant

Olives (black)
Mustard Greens Jerusalem
Fennel (Anise)
Olives (green) Onion (cooked) Olives (green) Kale Garlic
Onions (raw) Parsley* Onions (raw) Leafy Greens Green Beans
Parsely * Parsnip Peppers (hot) Leeks (cooked) Green Chilies

Peas (raw)
Peas (cooked) Prickly Pear
Peppers (sweet
& hot)
Potatos (sweet)
Radishes (raw)
Mushrooms Jerusalem

Potatoes (white)
Pumpkin Spinach
(cooked) **
Prickly Pear
(fruit & leaves) Radishes
Spinach (raw)
Olives (black)
Radish (raw) Sprouts* Tomatoes Onions (cooked) Leafy Greens

Spinach * Squash
Turnip Greens
Squash, winter Taro Root Turnips Parsnips Lettuce
Tomatoes Turnip Greens Peas Mushrooms
Watercress Peppers (green) (sweet)
Tomatoes (raw) Zucchini Potatoes Okra
Ayurvedic Grain Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor

Amaranth* Bread (with yeast)
Bread (with yeast)
Bread (with yeast)
Durham Flour
Oats (cooked)

Oats (cooked)
Cereal (dry) Rice (brown &
Cereals (cold, dry, or puffed)
Pasta ** Cereal (cold, dry, or puffed)
Corn Quinoa Museli** Crackers Rice Cakes ** Corn
Couscous Rice (all kinds) Oats (dry) Durham Flour Wheat Couscous

Crackers Seitan (wheat meat)

Granola Sprouted Wheat
Bread (essene)
Rice (brown)**
Oat Bran
Durham Flour*
Millet Wheat Rye Oats (cooked) Granola
Muesli Pancakes Millet
Oat Bran Pasta Muesli
Oats (dry) Quinoa Oat Bran

Pasta** Rice (basmati &
white) Rice (basmati, small amount)
Plenta** Wheat
Rice Cakes**
Wheat Bran

Ayurvedic Legumes Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor
Aduki Beans Lentils (red)* Miso Aduki Beans Kidney Beans Aduki Beans
Black Beans Mung Beans Soy Sauce Black Beans Soy Beans Black Beans
Peas Mung Dal Soy Sausages Black-eyed Peas Soy Cheese Black-eyed
Chick Peas (garbanzo beans) Soy Cheese* Tur Dal Chick Peas
(garbanzo beans) Soy Flour Chick Peas (garbanzo beans)

Kidney Beans
Soy Milk*
Urad Dal
Kidney Beans
Soy Powder Lentils (red &
Lentils (brown) Soy Sause* Lentils (brown) Soy Sauce Lima Beans
Lima Beans Soy Sausages* Lima Beans Tofu (cold) Mung Beans*
Miso** Tofu* Mung Beans Urad Dal Mung Dal
Navy Beans Tur Dal Mung Dal Miso Navy Beans
Peas (dried) Urad Dal Navy Beans Peas (dried)
Pinto Beans Peas (dried) Pinto Beans
Soy Beans Pinto Beans Soy Milk
Soy Flour Soy Beans Soy Sausages
Soy Powder Soy Cheese Split Peas
Split Peas Soy Flour * Tempeh
Tempeh Soy Milk Tofu (hot)*
White Beans Soy Powder* Tur Dal
White Beans

Ayurvedic Dairy Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor
Cow’s Milk
(powdered) Most Dairy is
Butter (salted)
Butter (unsalted)
Butter (salted)

Goat’s Milk


Cheese (soft, not aged, unsalted)

Butter (unsalted)** Cottage Cheese (from skimmed goat’s milk)
Yogurt (plain, frozen or w/fruit)
Cheese (hard)
Cottage Cheese Cheese (soft &

Cheese (hard)*

Sour Cream

Cow’s Milk

Cow’s Milk Goat’s Cheese (unsalted & not aged) *

Cheese (soft) Yogurt (plain, frozen or w/fruit)
Ice Cream Goat’s Milk
Cottage Cheese Goat’s Milk Sour Cream Yogurt (diluted)

Cow’s Milk Goat’s Cheese
(soft, unsalted) Yogurt (plain, frozen or w/fruit)
Ghee Ice Cream

Goat’s Milk Yogurt (freshly made & diluted) *

Ayurvedic Spices Details:
Vata Favor Spices : All Spices are Good, Ajwan, Almond Extract, Anise, Asafoetida (Hing), Basil, Bay Leaf, , Black Pepper, Caraway, Cardamom, Cayenne*, Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel, Fenugreek*, Garlic, Ginger, Marjoram, Mustard Seeds, Nutmeg, Orange Peel, Oregano, Paprika, Parsley.
Pita Avoid Spices: Ajwan, Basil (dry), Cayenne, Cloves, Fenugreek, Garlic, Ginger (dry), Mace, Marjoram, Mustard Seeds, Nutmeg, Oregano, Paprika, Pippali, Poppy Seeds, Rosemary, Sage, Salt, Star Anise, Thyme.
Pita Favor Spices: Cinnamon, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel, Ginger (fresh), Mint, Need Leaves*, Orange Peel*, Parsley*, Peppermint, Saffron, Spearmint, Tarragon*, Vanilla*, Wintergreen.
Kapa Favor Spices: Almond Extract, Anise, Asafoetida (Hing), Basil, Bay Leaf, Black Pepper, Caraway, Cardamom, Cayenne, Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel*, Fenugreek, Garlic, Ginger, Marjoram, Mint, Mustard Seeds, Neem Leaves, Nutmeg, Orange Peel, Oregano, Paprika, Parsley, Peppermint, Pippali.

Culinary Product of India Notes

Culinary Product of India Notes

Religious sweets of India
– Indian food encompasses wide variety of religious cuisines native to India.
– Due to range of diversity in soil, climate, occupation these cuisines vary.
– It is also influenced by religious & cultural choices and tradition.
– It consists of thousands of religious cuisines and was influenced by U.K.
– Each family includes wide variety of dishes and techniques.
– It has been influenced by 5000-year history of various groups and cultures.
– Religious is a social- cultural system.
– It is a social cultural system of designated behaviours and practices.
– It relates to Humanity.
– System who belief in God.
– Worship of something.
– A set of values, beliefs, practices based on teachings of a spiritual leader.
– Hinduism
– Buddhism
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 3 | P a g e
– Jainism
– Sikhism
Religious Importance of Sweets.
– It talks about the religious dishes; it means cuisines or sweets related to sweets.
– Indian sweets are synonymous with festive occasions.
– No festival or ceremony is complete without sweets.
– Diwali is one of the examples.
– There is no particular time of having sweets in India.
– Every good news is always accompanied with sweets
– Sweets and religious ceremonies ‘go hand in hand’.
For ex: Modak are commonly known as lord Ganesh as favourite sweet made on Ganesh Chaturthi. Religious Festive Sweets.
(1.) LOHRI: Lohri is a Punjabi folk festival celebrated by Sikhs and Hindus in every year of January.
It is a celebration of winter solstice.
Many sweets are as:
* Kheer
* Revari
* Til gajak
(2.) HOLI: Holi is a festival of colours.
It starts on nights before Holi with Holika dahan.
Some religious sweets are as:
* Gujia
* Puran Poli
* Malpua
(3.) NEW YEAR: New year is celebrated in India under different names. Following are as:
* Vishnu in Kerala: It is celebrated with payasam.
* It is made on all Hindu festivals.
* It is a ‘prasad’ offered in temples.
(4.) JANAMASTHMI: It is the birthplace/ anniversary of Lord Krishna.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 4 | P a g e
* Also known as Gokulashami.
* Various celebrations are Dahi handi.
* Religious dishes are as:
* Kheer
* Nariyal ka ladoo
* Khus or gond ki panjeeri
(5.) GANESH CHATURTHI: It is the anniversary of Lord ganesha and is celebrated with great gusto in Maharashtra.
* One of famous religious dessert is MODAK.
* It is Indian sweet made with filling of grated coconut and jaggery and outside is rice flour.
* It can be fried or steamed.
Indian Food Rituals
Start with spice and end with sweet
Spices activates the digestive juices which are acidic in nature whereas sweets are basic and helps in cutting down spices.
Sitting on the floor and eating
Helps in improving digestion so that circulatory system can focus solely on digestion.
Eating with hands
Said to be sensory.
Evokes emotions.
Thumb – space
Index finger – air
Middle finger – fire
Ring finger – water
Little finger – earth
Serving food on banana leaf
Leaf contains large number of polyphenols – natural antioxidant.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 5 | P a g e
Offering food to god
– Respect
– Devotion
– Considered as a sacrifice
Use of copper vessels
Copper destroys undesirable viruses.
Kills E- coli bacteria.
Indian thali system
A wholesome meal.
– Balanced meal.
– E.g. South Indian thali, Rajasthani Thali, Gujrati Thali, North- Indian Thali.
– Ancient Indian medical practice.
– Regular cleansing of toxic materials in the body.
Historical Description of Food
Fusion and Food
Today every very well-known Indian dish is the product of a long history of invasion and the fusion of different food traditions.
The food that we Indians have been eating has been, over the millennia, steadily evolving both in variety and taste.
The food habits and preferences of Indians have changed in stages over the last 4000 years, from the Indus Valley days through the Vedic times and after the influence of Buddhist and Jain thought, and their impact on the Dharma Sutras and Arthasastra of around 300 BC, to Mughals, Europeans and British.
Indus Valley Civilization:
At the various sites in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa we have found wheat and barley.
They were also familiar with chickpea, Masur dal and horsegram, Chana.
They were also familiar with fruits like pomegranate, coconuts and banana.
Wheat was used by making into stew, soup or flat bread called chappati.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 6 | P a g e
Food in Indus Valley Around 7000 BCE, sesame, eggplant and humped cattle had been domesticated in the Indus Valley.
By 3000 BCE, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper and mustard were harvested in India.
Coming of Aryans
Coming of Aryans also did not change the food structure of India.
Whereas the Harappan civilization was an essentially urban one, the Vedic was agricultural, pastoral and Philosophical, keenly alive to the forces within and without that effect human equanimity and comfort.
A prayer from the Yajurveda, composed about 800 B.C. reads like this, “May for me prosper, through the sacrifice, milk, sap, ghee, honey, eating and drinking at the common table, ploughing, rains, conquest, victory, wealth, riches. May for me prosper, through the sacrifice, low grade food, freedom from hunger, rice, barley sesame, kidney beans, vetches, wheat, lentils, millets, panicum grains and wild rice. May for me prosper, through the sacrifice, trees, plants that which grows in ploughed land and that which grows in unploughed land”
The Rig Veda mentions neither rice, nor wheat but only barley.
The Yajurveda mentions all the three besides panicum cereal, oil seed and pulses such asmasha (urad), masura (masoor), mudga (mung) and Kalya (matar).
Milk and Milk products
Cattle were an integral part of the Vedic culture. There is a lot of reference to the milk of cows, though that of the buffalo and goat also finds mention.
Dadhi (present dahi) or curds was eaten with rice, barley or Soma Juice. Curd folded into fresh milk constituted a popular drink, the solid portion being termed as amishka and the liquid portion as vajina.
Shikarini, the modern Shrikhand, using strained curds, crystal sugar and fragrant herbas was used. The solid part of the cow ghee was called manda.
Butter milk was in wide use and it was turned into seasoned dish called saga.
The Aryans
– Ancient Indians were good farmers.
– They cultivated barley wheat rice, melons and cotton and kept their crops in a central storage in each city.
– They kept cow, pigs, buffalo and sheep.
– They lived in banks of rivers and fish were caught from river with fish hooks.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 7 | P a g e
Food till the period of Aryans
They ate both vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Their main food was products of wheat served with barley or rice along with fish or meat.
Vegetarian food (strictly excluding animal and fish meat) became the norm for as much as half of the population after the coming of Buddhism.
Food Ethos
Food to the Aryans was not simply a means of bodily sustenance, it was part of a cosmic moral cycle.
The Taitttiriya Upanishad states, From earth sprang herbs, from herbs food, from food seed, from seed man……..Man thus consists of the essence of food….from food are all creatures produced, by food do they grow…The self consists of food, of breath, of mind, of understanding , of bliss.”
The Bhagvad Gita also states, from food do all creatures come into being. Hence in the great Aryan cosmic cycle, the eater, the food he eats and the Universe must all be in harmony.
Eating and cooking practices and rules of pollution
It was during this period that the concept of pollution became intimately woven to the cooking and eating practice.
It would be unthinkable for a cook or house wife to taste any dish during the course of its preparation.
Water must never be sipped from a tumbler but poured into the mouth from above since one’s own saliva is polluting.
Water used for rinsing the mouth must be caste out never swallowed.
In many rituals sprinkling of water has a strong connotation of purification on the leaf before eating.
The Buddhist Period
Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism crystallized out of a Hindu matrix. In terms of food and food practices they had many features in common with the Hindu ethos but also some distinct elements.
In the Lankavatra Sutra, Buddha is recorded as saying, I enjoy the taking of food made out of rice, barley, wheat, mudga, maha, masura and other grains, ghee,oil of seasum, honey, molassess, sugar, fish, eggs and others which are full of soul qualities but devoid of faults, they were consumed by the Aryans and by the rishis of yore”.
Monks were advised to eat solid foods only between sunrise and noon and nothing between noon and sunrise the next day as this would subdue passion and lead to spiritual strength.
Buddha himself favoured non injury and was strongly opposed to ritual sacrifice, yet even he permitted his followers animal flesh on occasions if the killing had been unintentional.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 8 | P a g e
By 300 B.c. with the coming of Mauryan, many people became vegetarians though eating of meat not given up completely.
Strong philosophy that animal sacrifices added to your karma and did not relieve you from cycle of reincarnation.
The emperor Ashoka in his edicts not only preached non killing powerfully but himself practiced it. The Girnar stones in Gujarat state, no living being may be slaughtered for sacrifice, no festive gathering may be held. Formerly slaughtering in the Kings kitchen was great, now it has almost been stopped”.
By 650 A.D. worship of mother goddess came into prevalence.
Cow came to be worshipped.
Hindus stopped eating beef completely.
In the Gupta Empire, they mostly ate vegetables, cereals, fruits, breads, and drank milk. Philosophy of food
According to the traditional Indian medical system Ayurveda, food is of three kinds.
• satvic,
• rajasic
• tamasic depending on its character and effect upon the body and the mind.
Satvic food
Satvic food is most simple and easiest to digest type of food.
The food contains most of its nutritional values as it is cooked by using minimal heat and modest processing.
It provides the necessary energy to the body without taxing it.
It is also considered as a foundation of higher states of consciousness, that is why saints and seers survive on satvic foods.
Satvic food should be taken fresh or immediately after it is prepared.
Fresh juicy fruits, vegetables (that are easily digestible), milk and milk products, whole soaked or also sprouted beans, grains and nuts, many herbs and spices consumed in their natural and near-natural forms are good examples of satvik food.
Common spices like ginger, turmeric, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, and aniseed are highly recommended in Satvic diet
Rajasik food
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 9 | P a g e
Rajasik food is rich in flavour but heavy to digest.
It is suitable for people who do arduous physical work.
Vegetables cooked in excess butter, with spicy and strong flavouring agents, are typical example of rajasic preparation. Cooked fresh, rajasic food is rich in nutrients with minimum dilution with water.
Such food is heavy on salt and sugar and takes longer period to digest than sattvic food.
It calls for extended sleeping hours and is sexually stimulating. Satvic foods that have been fried in oil or cooked too much or eaten in excess, specific foods and spices that are strongly exciting, bitter, pungent, hot and dry are examples of rajasic food.
A rajasic food eater is usually aggressive and overflowing with energy as the rajasic food increase the speed and excitement of the human organism
Tamasic food
Tamasic food is considered the worst among all types of food.
Dry, unnatural, overcooked, stale, decaying and processed food makes for a Tamasic diet. Tamasic diet consumes a large amount of energy while being digested.
Refined food – be it cereals, oils or hydrogenated butter, stimulants and beverages like tea, coffee and soft drinks, fast and ready-to-cook food, canned or frozen food, precooked and warmed food items like burgers, pizzas, pastries, and chocolates, incompatible food as well as intoxicants like tobacco and alcohol are tamasic examples of tamasic food.
Tamasic diet is foundation of ignorance, doubt, pessimism and leads a person to sick and painful life.
A tamasic person always at serious discomfort with himself and forgets to lead healthy a happy life
Food of Royalty
We get a lot of information on food served to the royalty in the Sanskrit and regional literature from 1000 to 1500 A.D.
King Somswara III the Western Chalukya king ruled from 1126 to 1138 A.D.
To him is attributed the Sanskrit work, Abhla-sahitartha-chintamani better known as Manasollasa, meaning the refresher of mind.
It consists of 100 chapters grouped in to 5 equal books.
In the chapter on Annabhoga, it gives recipes, some fairly detailed others less for the preparation of a variety of dishes that are even now current in Kannada, Marathi and Tamil areas, such as idli, disai, vadai, dahi vada, poli, wadia, shrikhand, pheni and Laddu.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 10 | P a g e
However, the king pays much more attention to non vegetarian food preparation. He says even though food preparation served in earthen vessel tastes well, kings must be served in vessels made of gold.
Meat Items
In King Someswara’s book, meat items have a pride of place.
Liver was carved in to a globular shape of beetle nuts, which were then roasted on charcoal and then fried with spices, eventually to be placed in curds, on a decoction of black mustard.
Roasted tortoise, seasoned fish and fried crabs were other dishes relished.
In one recipe pieces of meat are mixed with a paste of gram pounded with spics and fried. To this were added tender hyacinth beans, certain berries, onions and garlic and the whole mass was taken up in some sour juice and flavoured.
Tastes of a Royal meal
Many tastes in a royal meal.
These are madhura (sweet), amla (sour), lavana (salty), kata (pungent), tikta (bitter) and kasaya (astringent), as prescribed earlier on by Sushruta (around 600 AD).
The Bhavissayattakaha (of AD 1000) describes the royal meal of King Shrenika thus. First were served fruits that could be chewed (grape, pomegranate, ber), then fruits to be sucked (sugarcane, oranges, mangoes).
Food that could be licked came next and in the fourth course came solid sweet items such as sevaka, modaka and phenaka. Rice followed next and the sixth was of broths. Curd preparation made the seventh course and the eighth ended with thickened milk flavoured with saffron. Items such as parpata (papad) and vataka (vadam) were common.
Coming of Islam
By 1100 A.D. many people stopped eating Pork because it was not allowed by the Koran.
This had an adverse effect on environment because Pigs do not destroy the forest in which they live but sheep and goats do.
Roti in thali
Roti, dhal and cereals are easily grown in the dry arid atmosphere where there is less of green vegetables.
This food continued from this period to the present.
Diversity in Indian Food
Indian food is as diverse as its culture, its religions, geography, climatic conditions and traditions.
All of these combine to influence the preparation of Indian food.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 11 | P a g e
Essentially spicy, the cuisine is, however, not always hot.
It is the different combination of a handful of spices that produce the most delectable dishes in the world.
Use of fruits
With coming of Islam people started eating more fruits.
Citrus fruits like lemons and oranges grown from now onwards and eaten.
Firoz Tughluq laid a large number of mango gardens.
Persian influence on Food
• The food from North India also traces its descent from Persian ancestors and then more definitely from the 16th century Mughals.
• The Mughals brought with them Persian and Afghan cooks who started North Indians on the rich and fragrant Persian rice dishes, such as pilafs and biryanis (meat-based pilafs).
• Garnished with pounded silver (vark), these dishes along with spicy kormas (braised meat in creamy sauces), koftas (grilled spicy meatballs) and kababs used to grace the tables of emperors.
Mughlai influence
Central Asian nomadic influence is apparent in meat dishes and communal eating due to tent life of the warriors
Kulfi the Mughal way
The delicious cold kulfi was made at court by freezing a mixture of khoa, pista nuts and zafran essence in a metal cone after sealing the open top with dough. (The only modification today is to use aluminium or plastic cones with their own caps).
Jahangir, unlike his father, enjoyed meat, but will be remembered for popularizing falooda (a jelly made from boiled wheat strainings mixed with fruit juices and cream).
Food from 16th century
The Mughals were great patrons of cooking.
Introduced rich gravies, pilafs and non-vegetarian fare such as kebabs, resulting in Mughalai Cuisine as well as such fruits as apricots, melons, peaches and plums.
Lavish dishes were prepared during the reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
The Nizams of Hyderabad state meanwhile developed and perfected their own style of cooking with the most notable dish being the Biryani, often considered by many connoisseurs to be the finest of the main dishes in India.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 12 | P a g e
During this period the Portuguese introduced foods from the New World.
They brought potato, tomato, tapioca, groundnuts, corn, papaya, pineapple, guava, avocado, rajma (kidney bean), cashew, sapota (chiku), and of course capsicum and chilli in all its forms.
Perhaps the cauliflower and cabbage came from Europe or Latin America too, but certainly a particular form of cottage cheese did come from the Portuguese.
It was this that became the chhana of Bengal and Orissa — the base for many Bengali sweets (Sandesh in its modern form, and of course inventions called Rasogolla, Khirmohan, Mouchak, Pantua, Sitabhog, Chhena Puda, and so forth).
The Portuguese word for grain, grao, was taken up to describe Indian pulses as Bengal gram, horse gram and other grams.
While the Arabs and Central Asians brought bajra, jowar, lobia and forms of bread (roti) into India, the Portuguese enriched Indian food through their diverse introductions.
When we eat Aloo-poori, we partake of the richness of the produce of people from West Asia and Latin America!
Early European officials
Early European Officials in India had lavish tables. Mandelslo in 1638 noted, 15 or 16 dishes of meat, besides the dessert in the home of the President of the English merchants of Surat.
In 1780, Mrs. Eliza fay, a lawyers wife and herself a dressmaker wrote, “We dine at 2, 0, clock in the very heat of the day, a soup, a roast fowl, curry, rice, a mutton pie, four quarter of lamb, a rice pudding, tarts, very good cheese, fresh churned butter, excellent Madeira( that is very expensive but eatables are very cheap).
To prepare and serve these arrays of dishes a whole array of servants and Kedmutgars were in attendance. This was followed by a siesta, evening visits and a light dinner at night.
By the turn of the twentieth century eating habits had changed. The mid-day meal had become lighter. By 1910, a lunch consisted of pea soup, roast chicken and tongue, breadsauce, potatoes, cheese macroni and lemon pudding.
The main meal had moved to seven or eight in the evening and in 1909, Maud Divers declared, India is the land of dinners and England is the land of five o, clock tea all India is in a chronic state of giving and receiving this form of hospitality.
British attitude to Indian food
Indian food, whether the robust fare of Punjab and the North East Frontier or the delicate, light flavours of the South Indian cuisine, remained essentially the “food of the natives” who, according to the foreign rulers, ate pungent, chilli-spiked curries and rice or rotis like some uncivilised pagans.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 13 | P a g e
The British were not in India to learn. They, as well as other Europeans, were here to “civilise” the backward masses of India and their looking down on the food of India was but a natural corollary.
The memsahibs, whether they were British, French or Portuguese, employed Indian khansamas, cooks and bearers but taught them their own cuisines rather than eat Indian meals at their innumerable parties or in their family meals.
Most British officers and civil administrators who came to India, looked upon the native cuisines of India as unhygienic and unpalatable because of the high content of spices and herbs.
British contribution to Indian food
British made little contribution to Indian food.
Fish and chips or Yorkshire pudding pale in comparison to what we got from the Arabs, Portuguese and Moghuls, but the British did sensitise us to at least one fruit, namely the apple.
Local varieties of apple are recorded to have occured in Kashmir (called amri, tarehli and maharaji), and Dalhara in 1100 AD talked about a “ber as big as a fist and very sweet, grown in North Kashmir”, which is likely an apple.
But it was the colourful Britisher Frederick “Pahari” Wilson who established a flourishing apple farm in Garhwal, where they grow red and juicy Wilson apples to this day.
Apples in Himanchal
In these days of American imports into India such as Pizza, Burgers, French fries and colas, it is well to remember the best import we have had from these, namely apples and express our gratitude to the American Mr. Stokes.
He settled in Kotgarh near Simla in the 1920s and started apple orchards there, and helped in the proper grading, packing and marketing of the fruit.
Word related to food in British Vocabulary
Colonial rulers have never been known for their linguistic accuracy and no one knows for sure where the British got this one. “Kari” is a South Indian word for sauce and “tarkari” is a North Indian dish.
Shiqar festivals
The only concession they made was when they attended the shikar feasts of the maharajas or ceremonial royal meals in the opulent, chandeliered dining halls of the riyasatis where food was served by turbaned waiters from gem-studded gold or silver vessels.
Throughout the colonial period too many new, hybrid cuisines developed because the khansamas of the memsahibs innovated food which combined some of the flavours of India with those of Britain, France or Portugal.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 14 | P a g e
Thus, as a legacy of the Raj era, we have the remnants of an Anglo-Indian, Indo-French or Indo-Portuguese cuisine.
These flourish in parts of India and in Britain or Europe where nostalgic memories of the Raj linger on.
When the British left
Clearly the sahibs and memsahibs fell in love with the flavors of India. When they returned to the homeland, they had their cooks grind up a mix of spices to sprinkle on their staid British staples.
The world now knows this as “curry powder” and whatever is cooked with it is “curry.”
Changes in eating habits
In the British Raj, mini revolutions occurred in food and eating habits in the higher echelons of Indian society.
Affluent, Westernised Indian families ate at dining tables with forks and knives and added to their menus, at least some western goodies such as baked dishes, cakes, puddings and ice cream.
Their food, though cooked in their own style, also included a few acceptable western items in their daily diet.
Chines influence on Food
The Chinese had their influence too, though not to the extent of the Portuguese and the Moghuls. Mulberry, blackberry and the litchi fruit came to us through them. Of Chinese origin are also the sweet cherry and the peach.
China also developed the leafy variety of Brassica juncea (rai), which we in India use as a vegetable.
Camphor is a Chinese import and introduction (it is even today called chinakarpura).
The soybean was imported from China into India in 1908 for cultivation, though it caught on widely only after the U.S. variety was introduced in 1970s.
And the most precious introduction of China to India (and to the world at large) is of course their cha or teh, namely tea. Just imagine what we do first thing in the morning — we pay obeisance to the Arabs with a cup of coffee (they brought it to us in the 1600s) or to the Chinese with our steaming cuppa.
Caste based food
However, the large mass of the highly caste and-religion-riddled Indian society continued to maintain its original food barriers and ate community or regional food which was their legacy for generations.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 15 | P a g e
Caste and religion were the main dividing partitions of society and food and eating habits reflected these divisions clearly.
After Independence
Only when Independence came, did Indians realise that they were one nation and that they would have to work above all towards a homogenous culture, lifestyle and national awareness.
The divide and rule days of the British were at last over.
The French had vacated Pondicherry, Mahe and Karaikal and the Portuguese were soon to be forced out of Goa, Diu and Daman.
Food Revolution
The first signs of the imminent, massive food revolution were visible when Mumbai, the most cosmopolitan city of India, welcomed hordes of Sindhi and Punjabi refugees who migrated to the city.
They entered the building and film industries and began to assert their culture in the metropolis. Punjabi dhaba food from the North West Frontier became popular in Mumbai in the Sixties. Mumbaites, who had hitherto relished non-vegetarian food in the many street-corner Irani restaurants and khanawals serving the fish and meat dishes of the Konkan coast and Goa, pounced on the luscious kebab and tandoori cuisine which was new and exciting.
Food Today
In addition to the pronounced use of spices, common culinary threads unifying local cuisines include the prominence of flatbreads and a far greater use of dairy products than anywhere else in Asia.
Breads are made with wheat, rice and ground legumes depending on the part of the country while dairy products include milk, cream, yogurt, buttermilk, sour cream and cheese.
Geographical Differences in Food
Beyond that, the differences take over. Northern Indians tend to use their spices ground while Southerners start out with them whole and grind them to a paste with cooked onions and other ingredients. The South is the land of rice while Northerners rely on wheat and other grains — except for Kashmir, high in the Himalayas, which produces some of the best rice in the world. Cooks of the tropical South make heavy use of coconut milk, an ingredient rarely seen in the North. Areas with access to waterways rely more heavily on seafood. Thus, Bengal is a region of fish-lovers, preferably the fresh water variety
Impact of religion on food
Undoubtedly the strongest influence defining Indian food is religion. Centuries of Hindu practice and the profound belief in reincarnation have resulted in the most delicious vegetarian cuisine to
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 16 | P a g e
be found in the world. For protein, vegetarians rely on a wide range of legumes, both whole and split. Mixed with grain, boosted by vegetables and dairy products, and spiced to the max, they provide a wholesome, varied diet.
Just as Japanese sushi relies on the freshness of the meat and Chinese food relies on the various sauces to impart the right flavor and taste, Indian food relies on the spices in which it is cooked. Spices have always been considered to be India’s prime commodity
Spices for medicines
Most of the spices used in Indian food have been used for their medicinal properties in addition to the flavor and taste they impart.
Ginger is believed to have originated in India and was introduced to China over 3000 years ago. In India, a knob of fresh ginger added to tea is believed to relieve sore throats and head colds, not to mention its aphrodisiacal properties! Turmeric is splendid against skin diseases and neem leaves are used to guard against small pox.
Indian Food Festivals
1.National Street Food Festival
Where: – Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi
When: – December-January
2.Mei Ram – we
Where: – Sacred grove, Mawphlang, Mghalaya
When: – December
3.Great Indian Food Festival
Where: – Dilli Haat, Delhi
When: – January
4.The Grub Festival
Where: – New Delhi, Pune, Mumbai
When: – March
5.Goa Food and Cultural Festival
Where: – DB Bandodkar Ground, Campal Panaji, Goa
When: – April
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 17 | P a g e
6.Palate Fest
Where: – Nehru Park, Delhi
When: – Februrary
7.Bhukkad Flea
Where: – Corona Garden, Bandra West, Mumbai
When: – October Importance of Food Fest
Provides an excellent platform to market goods and display their best offerings to an enormous crowd.
Exposure to Relevant Crowd
Staying in touch with your competitors
Customer Connect
Initiating Boosts
Also Helps in Finding Potential Investors
Publicity, etc.
It is the harvest festival
of Northern India. Observed
on 13th or 14th of every year.
Delicacies: – Chole Bhature, Coconut Ladoo, Kheer, Makki ki roti, Sarson ka saag, Pindi Chana (dried preparation of white chick peas, served with lemon juice and onion rinngs), Puri, Til ke ladoo, Til ka gajak.
This festival celebrated
To offer thanks to the Gods
for the harvest and to ake
Their blessings. Celebrated
During 12th -15th January,
in South India.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 18 | P a g e
Delicacies:- Avial, Coconut Rice, Lemon Rice, Puli
Pongal, Ariselu (made from rice flour, ghee, and jaggery), Masala Vada, Til Polis (made by stuffing sesame seed mixture inn wheat dough and then shallow frying it.
Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti is a widely celebrated festival in India. In South India, it is called Pongal, in North India it is called Lohri, while in western India, it is celebrated by flying colourful kites.
Delicacies: – Bajra Khichdi, Til Gajak, Til Chikki, Murmure Ladoo, Payesh (Bengali version of kheer, made by boiling rice/brokeen wheat with milk, sugar and flavoured with cardamom, pistachios,
almonds, rasinns, etc),
Aate ki Pinni (wheat flour,
sugar and dry fruits), Bandaru
Ladoo (gramfour mixed with sugar),
Pesarattu (It is made with batter of
Green gram dal,served with
tamarind and ginger chutney),
People believe that Shivratri
was the day when Lord Shiva
and goddess Parvati tied the
Nuptial knot. It falls in the
month of February or March.
Delicacies :-
Singhade ki Roti
Singhade ki Kadhi
Aloo Chaat (cubes of potatoes fried and sautéed with spices and chhutney)
Badaam Halwa (soaked almonds grounded and then cooked in desi ghee )
The celebrations begin with a bonfire
and organizing Holi get together and
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 19 | P a g e
playing with coloring dyes.
Delicacies: –
Gujiya (has a distinct shape, filled with a mixture of grated and roasted dry fruits, khoya, coconut and a little suji)
Kanji ke Vade (freid rounds of lentil batter fermented in water, mustard seeds, and asafoietida.
Thandai (prepared by squeezing the buds and leaves of cannabis into a green paste, and adding mixture of milk, ghee, almond, sugar, etc.
Onion Bhajiya
Eid is celebrated all across the world, after seeing the moon at the end of holy month Ramzan in which the muslims keep fast. It is celebrated for three consecutive days.
Delicacies: –
Sheer khurma (a dessert made using
Milk, rice, sewain, dates, coconut,etc)
Kebabs (kebabs made from a mixture of boiled meat, channa dal
Mint leaves and onions)
Biryani and Pulao
Dahi Bhalla
Ayurvedic Food of India…
Ayurveda is as old as mankind. According to Indian society origin of Ayurveda is given by the God Vishnu (Dhanvantri).
But the morden ayurveda father is acharya Charaka Samhita in indus valley.
Fact- national medical award name is dhanvantri award.
Ayurveda or ayur-vigyan is a 6000-year-old health care system that asserts that science, philosophy and spirituality are necessary aspects for a healthy living. Ayurveda is considered not only a comprehensive medical system but also a way of life.
Ayurveda Works on:
• Body
• Mind
• Sole (Emotions)
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 20 | P a g e
Ayurvedic Diet: An ayurvedic diet is an eating plan that provides guidelines for when you eat, what you eat, and how you eat to boost your health.
Ayurvedic approach to designing balanced foods for optimal nutrition absorption of essential nutrients.
Classification of food in Ayurveda: 1. Hot and Cold nature (after effect on body).
2. Satva or Light food, Rajas or Rich food, Tamas or Dull and sluggish.
3.Food Source (plant base, animal base, other).
4. Medicinal, chemical and Genral.
Common food items used in Ayurveda:
Cow products.
Animal products.
Plants products.
Crystals and stones.
Matel and matel ash.
Acids and alkaline.
Variety of aushidi and khadas.
Use for:
1. Strengthen immune system.
2. Efficient detoxification system.
3. Responsive inflammatory system.
4. Optimal metabolic system.
5. Balanced regulatory system.
6. Enhanced regenerative system.
7. Harmonize the life force.
8. Freeradical scavenging or antioxidant.
Indian sciences in Ayurvedic health care practices and related to:
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 21 | P a g e
• Yoga
• Cosmetology, Aesthetics & beauty concepts (Saundarya Vigyana)
• Cookery in view of dietetics (Paaka shastra)
• Sexology (Kamashastra)
• Meditation, Spiritual Practices (Dhyana Yoga)
• Music therapy
• Astrology
• Vaastu
• In appropriate en-effective, unresponsive educational system.
• Halfhearted Government support so other country take patent for ayurvedic product.
• Substandard condition of Ayurvedic teaching Institutions.
• Poor status of Government run Ayurvedic Institutions.
• Loss of faith of Ayurvedic physicians in their own system.
• Misconception among public regarding delayed effect of Ayurvedic drugs.
• Media creation of toxic effects of TMs due the use of minerals and metals.
• No linkage/ understanding / collaboration between the patron countries of Ayurveda to counter the negative market strategies.
Vedic Food
Introduction: Vedic period
Vedic Period is the age of new culture, several developments occurred during that period in the society
In India, a completely new culture and civilisation emerged during the 1500 BC-600 BC.
The Vedic Religion is the predecessor to modern Hinduism.
A method of Ashram system prevailed in the Vedic Period
There are four Vedas- Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda which form the main literary sources for this Vedic era.
Food in Vedic period begins with cereals like rice and barley which formed a major part of food in Vedic period. The Vedic literature throws considerable light on the food and drink habits of the people of the ancient India. Among the food grains, the Rig Veda repeatedly mentions barley, particularly fried barley. These were used in preparing sweet cakes which were either dipped in ghee before eating or consumed with “Somarasa” prepared with curd and butter which formed a major part of Vedic meal. Along with this the food of the Vedic period include large varieties of pulses, dairy products, meat, salts and spices, sweets and a variety of beverages which reflect the culture of Vedic period that came through the food habits of the Indian people.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 22 | P a g e
Different Food Products in Vedic Period
Vedic period included both vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian food items.
Vedic people cultivated a number of pulses like masura, masa, arahar, grams, peas and kulattha along with rice, wheat and barley.
Generally cow’s milk was consumed after boiling it.
Milk was used for preparing some more items in which milk was milked with either with soma juice or messed with grains to create a whole meal of barley.
Along with various forms of milk goat milk also formed a major part of Indian society that is mentioned in the Rig Vedas.
Beverages in Vedic Period:
❖ Food in Vedic period also gave special importance to beverages particularly Soma Juice which has been mentioned in all the rituals.
❖ The Vedic literature lays down a list of intoxicating beverages which are largely prepared by fermenting the fruit extracts.
❖ Most important among them was Soma Ras that was sweet and delicious in taste.
Cooking Methods in Vedic Period
❖ Utensils the Vedic people largely used utensils made up of clay, wood and stone while other metals are also included for making other utensils.
❖ Also leather vessels were also included.
❖ Various rules and etiquettes which were compulsory for a Vedic family while serving the meal. The Golden Principles of Vedic Food Culture
Good eating according to Vedic food culture emphasizes that:
❖ One should eat warm, unctuous and fluid food, served in an elegant manner to create the congenial and aesthetic atmosphere for its consumption.
❖ Food should be prepared with a variety of ingredients, to balance the different rasa (taste) and enriched with herbs and spices. The preparation of food should take place with a peaceful mental state.
❖ Never consume food under stressful circumstances or under any emotional restraint.
❖ Before your meal, bring your mind to your food, which is the fundamental basis of body’s energy. Look at your food and make a wish that the five elements of the food may provide you with equilibrium, vigour and good health.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 23 | P a g e
❖ Drinking water, either before or one hour after the food is recommended and not with food.
History of Indian Food
❖ The history of Indian food can be traced back to the ancient daysand introduced by the ancient Indian civilizations – The Harappa and the Mohenjo-Daro.
❖ The first preparation of food included a number of cereals and pulses.
❖ Gradually, the ancient Indian civilization moved towards perfection and this was noticed during the Vedic period.
❖ In this period of time, a regular diet consisted of vegetables, fruits, grains, meat, honey, dairy products, beverages and special kind of spices
Ancient cooking equipment of India Introduction of Cooking Utensils ▪ Small hand held tools. ▪ Used for food preparation. ▪ Varies with time and style of cooking.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 24 | P a g e
▪ Can be categorized with use as: – ➢ Kitchen ware ➢ Oven ware ➢ Bake ware ➢ Cook ware COOKING EQUIPMENTS CAN BE MADE UP OF: – ▪ COPPER ▪ IRON ▪ STAINLESS STEEL ▪ EARTHENWARE & ENAMEL WARE ▪ ALUMINIUM ▪ CLAY ▪ PLASTIC ▪ GLASS Etc. HISTORY OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT: – ▪ Historic utensils can be named as culinary antiques and vintage kitchen Lia. ▪ Introduced in early 19th century. ▪ Started in 3600 BC the bronze age. ▪ Followed by iron age. ▪ Results into more sophisticated form of tool making. ▪ Stoneware were also very common in 19th century. HISTORY OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT: – ▪ Equipment’s were used as per nutritional purpose. ▪ The style of cooking also affects the use of utensils. ▪ Some utensils popularized by Romans in 8th century is: – ➢ Meat mincer ➢ Strainers ➢ Ladle (made of iron)
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 25 | P a g e
➢ Kettles and pots (made of terracotta & bronze) ▪ 20th century equipment’s includes: ▪ Utensils made with tinned or enameled iron. ▪ Steel, nickel, silver utensils were used. ▪ Coppers were not used because it reacts with acidic food. ▪ Mud, cow dung, clays were commonly used. ▪ The middle east household use: – ➢ Measuring cups (stone made) ➢ Meyham (wide neck vessel) ➢ Kederah (a bellied cooking pot) ➢ Yorah and kumkum. ➢ Two types of Teganon (frying pan) ➢ Iskutla (glass serving platter) ▪ The equipments were made more famous in late 19th century. Growth of kitchen equipments: – ▪ In late 19th century enormous growth in kitchen equipment was seen. ▪ Various machine was introduced in the market to save labour and time. ▪ The equipment’s include: – ➢ Copper saucepans (well lined) ➢ Gridiron (flat bottom soup pot) ➢ Double broiler, rolling pin, cleaver etc. ▪ Styles of Equipment’s used in different parts of India East ▪ Bonthi (vegetable cutter) ▪ Khunti (flat metal spatula) ▪ Hatha (round spoon) ▪ Jhanjri (perforated spoon) ▪ Ghutni (wood hand blender)
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 26 | P a g e
▪ Sharashi (pincer) ▪ Styles of Equipments used in different parts of India West ▪ Sadha nu vasan (steamer) ▪ Lohri (kadhai & tawa) ▪ Kuth (jugs without handle) ▪ Modak patra (copper vessel used for making modak. ▪ Veeli (vegetable chopper) ▪ Chool (cooking stove made of mud) ▪ Styles of Equipments used in different parts of India North ▪ Chakla belan ▪ Pauni (perforated spoon) ▪ Patila (same as lagan) ▪ Khoncha (flat metal spoon) ▪ Bhatti (used for grilling kebabs) ▪ Tikra (clay pot) ▪ Chulah (mud stove) ▪ Styles of Equipments used in different parts of India South ▪ Kalchatti (stone ware used for tempering) ▪ Dosa thiruuppi (flat slicer) ▪ Idli panai (making bulk idli ) ▪ Uruli (heavy pot) ▪ Thurvammi (coconut scraper) ▪ Eyya chombu ▪ Thhaavi ladles (bamboo ladles)
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 27 | P a g e
SPICES Sophistication and subtle use of some herbs & spices characterize Indian food and Indian cuisine. These spices play a very important role in Indian cooking. If there are no spices, it’s not Indian food. We Indians have a habit of spicing up our food to make it more hot and tasty. Some of the spices are required for the aroma, some for flavor and some for complimenting other spices. . In ancient times majority of the spices were produced in India and exported worldwide. It was then, the Spices of India attracted people across the borders are defined as “a strongly flavored or aromatic substance of vegetable origin, obtained from tropical plants, commonly used as a condiment”. Spices were once as precious as Gold. India plays a very important role in the spice market of the world ices and forced them to come to India for Spice trade. • Masala is a word very commonly used in Indian cooking and is simply the Hindi word for “spice.” So, whenever a combination of spices, herbs and other condiments are ground or blended together, it is called masala The Indian spices can be categorized into three main categories: 1. The basic spices 2. Complimentary spices 3. Aromatic or secondary spices 1. The Basic Spices There are a few basic spices in Indian cuisine that go into most dishes. Often a very basic vegetable dish is made by adding cumin or mustard seeds and asafetida in some hot ghee (clarified butter) or oil until they sizzle and pop. Then the vegetables are added and steamed. 1a. Cumin Seed: Other Names: Jeera, jeeragam, jilakara, black cumin, kala jeera, royal cumin, shah jeera, Comino, cumin-A basic Indian spice. Used mainly in North Indian food and is used for its strong distinctive taste. When roasted, whole cumin seeds release more aroma and gives the dish a sweet flavor. Cumin can be used as a whole spice or in the powdered form. Cumin seed powder lends a sweet and mild flavor to a dish and is one of the main ingredients in the popular mixed Indian spice called Garam Masala. 1b. Coriander Seeds: Other Names: Dhania Mainly used for its fresh, soothing and cooling taste, coriander seeds are very light weight and have a mild flavor. Although they come from the same plant, they should not be mixed up with cilantro. Coriander seeds like cumin is used as a whole spice and in a powdered form. In a powder form it is an indispensable spice in the spice box of Indians. The aromatic fragrance of the roasted coriander powder enhances the taste of any dish.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 28 | P a g e
1c. Black Mustard Seeds: Other Names: Mohri In India the black mustard seeds are preferred over the larger yellow ones found in the western world. It has a strong but pleasing flavor and known for its digestive qualities. It is spluttered in oil or Ghee (clarified butter) and used as a tempering. Mustard seeds are used in India to flavor vegetables, pulses and pickles. 1d. Turmeric: Other Names: Haldi Looks similar to a ginger root but when cut has a gorgeous orange-yellow color. Turmeric is mainly used in Indian dishes for its medicinal properties and for the gorgeous intensive color it gives to the dishes. It is mildly aromatic and has a delicate scent of ginger. Turmeric is a wonder spice and is used throughout Asia to treat cases of stomach and liver ailments. It is also used externally to heal sores and in cosmetics. 1e. Chilli Powder: Other Names: Lal Mirch The Indian chili powder is made from spicy ground chilies and is often hotter that the chili powder available in the US/European stores. It has a pungent, hot aroma with a strong bite to it. 1f. Asafetida: Other Names: Hing, asafetida powder, asafetida, devil’s dung, ferula, foetida, heeng This is often used as a digestive. It has a strong odor and a slight garlicky flavor. Do not taste this raw – it is NOT a pleasant experience. Using it in the recommended recipe however, works wonders. Just a pinch is used for cooking in dishes with lentils and beans. 1g. Garam Masala: Other Names: Mixed Spice powder Garam Masala is powdered blend/mix of spices (aromatic spices, see below) that may include cloves, cardamom, cinnamon, black peppercorns, nutmeg, mace. Garam means “hot”, but not chili hot, hot in the sense that these spices are said to increase body temperature. It can be used a mix of whole spices as well. A whole garam masala could include whole cinnamon sticks, bay leaves, cloves, cardamom (black or green), whole mace, and black peppercorns. Powdered garam masala is often added at the end of cooking in small quantities so that the full aroma is not lost whereas, whole garam masala is used in north Indian cooking, especially meat dishes and as aromatics for rice dishes. Often these are fried in hot oil before other wet ingredients such as meat, onions, garlic, and/or ginger are added. Different regions use different mixtures and proportions of the spices. A garam masala will vary from household to household. 2. Complementary Spices Spices like fennel or nigella seeds are sometimes added along with some of the basic spices to add to flavours. These are used in combination with the basic spices and aromatics mentioned below according to the dish being prepared. 2a. Fennel Seeds: Other Names: Saunf Although this is a basic Indian spice, it is not essential. It is mainly used in North Indian cuisine and possess digestive qualities. If you often visit Indian restaurants you will find these
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 29 | P a g e
coated with colored sugar and offered after meals as a mouth freshener. Fennel seeds are also often used to spice up teas and drinks. 2b. Fenugreek Seeds: Other Names: Methi, halba This spice, which is actually a lentil, is used throughout India for its distinctive flavor (it has a slight bitter taste) it gives the dish and for its wonderful healthful properties. Fenugreek is used in small quantities and is used throughout India – both in North and South Indian Cooking. As a matter of fact, after turmeric, fenugreek seeds are the most medically useful item in an Indian kitchen. 2c. Nigella Seeds: Other Names: Kalonji, onion seeds, calonji, hasbasoda, ketza, black caraway Small black seed, sometimes called onion seeds, although they are not really seeding from onions. these are often used in North India to enhance vegetable dishes. Toasting the seeds briefly brings out the flavor. 2d. Carom Seeds: Other Names: Ajwain These have a strong peppery-thyme flavor. This poppy seed like plant comes from the lovage plant. It is very popular in North Indian cooking. It is used in preparing many Indian vegetables and pulses. 3. Aromatics or Secondary Spices To the above spices we would add chopped onions, tomatoes, herbs and any of the following secondary spices and create a curry. We go light with the Aromatics and added them in small quantities or in the form of garam masala. When you require cardamom in the powdered form, the best way is to crack open the pods using the back of a spoon and powder the small brown/black seeds inside in a mortar or it is recommended to grind small quantities at home using a coffee mill. When a recipe calls for whole cardamom, the pods can be cracked open slightly to release the full.
Andhra Pradesh Must eat’ lists are always a tricky proposition. We’re bound to leave out iconic dishes especially in a large state like Andhra Pradesh where each region offers a cornucopia of culinary treasures. And then there is that standard myth about Andhra cuisine that almost every dish is guaranteed to drill a hole in your tongue because of their fiery spice levels. While that might hold good for some dishes, there’s enough Andhra cuisine where subtle flavours come to the fore.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 30 | P a g e
My earliest references of Andhra cuisine go back to my paternal village in West Godavari district (not far from Rajahmundry). Add to that is North Chennai’s long list of Andhra restaurants with culinary traditions that date back to a time when large parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu were part of the same region – Madras Presidency. We therefore pick ten dishes that are a great starting point for you to explore Andhra cuisine:
1. Kandhi Podi It’s true that the podis (powders) are one of the best known elements of Andhra cuisine. The pale orange Kandhi Podi (Red gram powder) combines split red gram, Bengal gram and roasted gram and can be stored for months. Restaurants like National Lodge in Chennai have acquired a hallowed reputation for their Kandhi Podi. Add some of this powder to piping hot rice and a dollop of ghee, and there’s probably no better way to start your Andhra meal. 2. Gongura Pachadi
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 31 | P a g e
Just like the podis, the pachadis (chutneys) are a quintessential element in Andhra cuisine and can either be mixed with rice or served as an accompaniment for dosas or idlis. There’s a variety of interesting chutneyslike the Vankaya (brinjal) Pachadi or my favourite Allam (ginger) Pachadi that is terrific with dosas or pesaratu. But nothing is more unique than the spicy Gongura Pachadi that’s crafted with spinach (sorrel leaves). I remember looking forward to a large porcelain jar of this pachadi every summer along with a jar of avakkai (mango pickle). 3. Ulava Charu This is among the state’s most popular dishes and halfway between a rasam and a traditional soup. The Ulava (horse gram) Charu might be associated with the Guntur and Krishna districts but is a delicacy that is savoured across the state on special occasions. It’s usually served with rice and with a dollop of cream – Andhra’s outstanding dairy produce (from set curd to home-made ghee) doesn’t quite get the national attention it truly deserves. 4. Pesarattu At a time when carb-free diets are officially a thing, the pesarattu makes a compelling case for a breakfast or anytime snack. While this dosa variant does use a small amount of rice flour, it’s almost entirely dominated by moong dal. There’s also an interesting version (often called MLA Pesarattu) where the pesarattu is stuffed with Rava Upama.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 32 | P a g e
5. Ragi Sangati with Natu Kodi Pulusu It’s tough to pick Andhra’s most popular Chicken dish. There’s the Guntur-style Kodi Vepudu that gets its rich flavours from the dry Guntur chilli, garlic and coconut. And then there’s Ragi Sangati (Ragi Balls) served with the Rayalseema-style chicken gravy made with free range chicken. This gravy features a medley of spices including star anise and poppy seeds and tastes equally delicious with steamed rice. 6. Akura Pappu The Akura Pappu combines the goodness of spinach with the protein content of a conventional dal. The Pappus (dals) bust the myth that all Andhra cuisine is fiery and boast of a tangy flavour from the tamarind in the mix.. 7. Royyala Veppudu It is strongly associated with the Nellore region in the Southern tip of coastal Andhra Pradesh, a region known for high quality shrimps. Royyala Veppudu (prawn fry) is relatively easy to fix and doesn’t go overboard with the spice mix allowing you to enjoy the flavours of the prawn.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 33 | P a g e
8. Gongura Mamsam One of the state’s most popular lamb dishes that tastes delicious with steamed rice but works well with chapatti or dosa. The dish is an explosion of flavours that combines the sour taste of the gongura (sorrel) leaves with red chilli and mutton. It’s not uncommon for this dish to feature potatoes and also coconut milk that lends a rich texture to the gravy. 9. Gutti Vankaya Koora It is arguably Andhra’s best known brinjal dish and quite similar to the Bagara Baingan that is a popular accompaniment for biryani. This flavoursome dish combines peanut with red chillies and the wonderful flavours and textures of brinjal equally scrumptious with steamed rice and bajra or jowar rotis. 10. Poothareku
Andhra cuisine has its share of payasams (kheer) and semolina-based desserts (ladoos and pudding) but nothing quite matches the unique appeal of this sweet dish that can be traced back to the East Godavari district. Derived from the words ‘pootha’ (coating) and ‘reku’ (sheet), you can be forgiven for mistaking this sweet for paper rolls in terms of appearance and texture. Rice flour and ghee combine to create the thin film (it requires great skill) that is usually stuffed with powdered sugar or jaggery (some modern versions even feature chocolate!)
Assam Assam is a state in northeastern India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 34 | P a g e
east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometers strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India. Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state was the first site for oil drilling in Asia. Assam has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, look green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.
GEOGRAPHY A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India – The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month.
CLIMATE With the tropical monsoon climate, Assam experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity. The climate is characterized by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (March–April) and autumn (September–October) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 35 | P a g e
FAUNA Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests, deciduous forests, riverine grasslands, bamboo orchards and numerous wetland ecosystems; Many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests. Assam has wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage sites – the Kaziranga National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan. The Kaziranga is a refuge for the fast-disappearing Indian one-horned rhinoceros, white-winged wood duck, rufous-necked hornbill, Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, pygmy hog, wild water buffalo, Burmese python, and Assam roofed turtle. Threatened species that are extinct in Assam include the gharial, a critically endangered fish-eating crocodilian, and the pink-headed duck. For the state bird, the white-winged wood duck, Assam is a globally important area. In addition to the above, there are three other National Parks in Assam namely Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Nameri National Park and the Orang National Park. The state has the largest population of the wild water buffalo in the world. The state has the highest diversity of birds in India with around 820 species. With subspecies the number is as high as 946.The mammal diversity in the state is around 190 species.
FLORA Assam is remarkably rich in Orchid species and the Foxtail orchid is the state flower of Assam. The recently established Kaziranga National Orchid and Biodiversity Park boasts more than 500 of the estimated 1,314 orchid species found in India.
GEOLOGY Assam has petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite, kaolin, sillimanites, clay and feldspar. A small quantity of iron ore is available in western districts.Discovered in 1889, all the major petroleum-gas reserves are in Upper parts. A recent USGS estimate shows 399 million barrels (63,400,000 m3) of oil, 1,178 billion cubic feet
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 36 | P a g e
(3.34×1010 m3) of gas and 67 million barrels (10,700,000 m3) of natural gas liquids in the Assam Geologic Province. The region is prone to natural disasters like annual floods and frequent mild earthquakes. Strong earthquakes were recorded in 1869, 1897, and 1950.
LANGUAGE Assamese is the official language of the state. Additional official languages include Bengali and Bodo languages.
Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. Bihu is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non-religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator’s life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu songs and Bihu dance are associated to rongali bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as ‘uruka’. The first day of ‘rongali bihu’ is called ‘Goru bihu’ (the bihu of the cows), when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres. Bihu is a set of three important non-religious festivals in the Indian state of Assam—Rongali or Bohag Bihu observed in April, Kongali or Kati Bihu observed in October, and Bhogali or Magh Bihu observed in January.The Rongali Bihu is the most important of the three, celebrating spring festival. The Bhogali Bihu or the Magh Bihu is a harvest festival, with community feasts. The Kongali Bihu or the Kati Bihu is the sombre, thrifty one reflecting a season of short supplies and is an animistic festival.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 37 | P a g e
The Rongali Bihu coincides the Assamese New Year and with the Indian New Year festivals like Baisakhi, Bishu, etc. as well as with other regions of East and South-East Asia which follow the Buddhist calendar. The other two Bihu festivals every year are unique to Assamese people. Like some other Indian festivals, Bihu is associated with agriculture, and rice in particular. Bohag Bihu is a sowing festival, Kati Bihu is associated with crop protection and worship of plants and crops and is an animistic form of the festival, while Bhogali Bihu is a harvest festival.Assamese celebrate the Rongali Bihu with feasts, music and dancing. Some hang brass, copper or silver pots on poles in front of their house, while children wear flower garlands then greet the new year as they pass through the rural streets. The three Bihu are Assamese festivals with reverence for Krishna, cattle (Goru Bihu), elders in family, fertility and mother goddess, but the celebrations and rituals reflect influences from aborigine, southeast Asia and Sino-Tibetan cultures. In contemporary times, the Bihus are celebrated by all Assamese people irrespective of religion, caste or creed. It is also celebrated overseas by the Assamese diaspora community living worldwide. The term Bihu is also used to imply Bihu dance otherwise called Bihu Naas and Bihu folk songs also called Bihu Geet.
Assam has a rich tradition of crafts, Cane and bamboo craft, bell metal and brass craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, and musical instruments making have remained as major traditions. Cane and bamboo craft provide the most commonly used utilities in daily life, ranging from household utilities, weaving accessories, fishing accessories, furniture, musical instruments, construction materials, etc. Assam is the home of several types of silks, the most prestigious are: Muga – the natural golden silk, Pat – a creamy-bright-silver coloured silk and Eri – a variety used for manufacturing warm clothes for winter. Apart from Sualkuchi (Xualkuchi), the centre for the traditional silk industry, in almost every parts of the Brahmaputra Valley, rural households produce silk and silk garments with excellent embroidery designs. Moreover, various ethno-cultural groups in Assam make different types of cotton garments with unique embroidery designs and wonderful colour combinations.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 38 | P a g e
Moreover, Assam possesses unique crafts of toy and mask making mostly concentrated in the Vaishnav Monasteries, pottery and terracotta work in western Assam districts and wood craft, iron craft, jewellery, etc. in many places across the region.
1.KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK Home to two-thirds of the world’s one horned rhinoceros’ population, this national park has been declared as a World Heritage Site.
2. MAJULI Majuli is a lush green environment friendly, pristine and pollution free fresh water island in the river Brahmaputra, just 20 km from the city of Jorhat.
3. GUWAHATI A sprawling city located beside the mighty Brahmaputra, Guwahati is the epitome of an amalgamation of ancient history and modernization. The largest city in all of Assam, Guwahati stands as the gateway to the Seven Sisters of North East India. A city shaped by time itself, Guwahati is home to age-old temples that take you centuries back to the pages of ancient history, but it also boasts of a cutthroat lifestyle and an electric nightlife, keeping up with the modern era of urbanization and commercialization. The gushing Brahmaputra river carries with it untold tales from thousands of years past, and the peaceful ambience lingering in the city despite its modern lifestyle is one of the main reasons you should visit Guwahati if only to get a slice-of-life experience of the vivacious juxtaposition of the old and the new. Guwahati is home to a huge number of old temples, all of which have interesting stories and legends behind them. The Kamakhya temple, arguably the most visited temple in the city, is a temple dedicated to the goddess Kamakhya, who was also known as the goddess of desire.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 39 | P a g e
4. HAJO The ancient pilgrim centre of Hajo is a unique place for being an attraction for three religions – Hindu, Muslims and Buddhists.
5. MANAS NATIONAL PARK Manas National Park is a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam.
6. ORANG NATIONAL PARK One of the oldest game reserves of the state, The Orang National park located on the shores of river Brahmaputra, is home to various animals, birds, fishes and is one of the more popular tourist destinations of Assam.
7. UMANANDA TEMPLE The smallest river island in the world, Umananda Island is a place with legends aplenty, a place where man and the wilderness co-habit in peace and serenity. Umananda Island lies at the heart of the Mighty Brahmaputra River which flows through the middle of the city of Guwahati. An island with many legends associated with it, it’s pristine and calm environ has not been destroyed by the presence of human beings as yet. It was known as Peacock Island among the British Colonists who named it so based on its shape. The Island is home to a very rare and endangered species called _ãÄGolden Langurs_ã_ who are considered to be highly sacred among the people of the Himalayas. The legend goes that it is the very same place where Lord Kamdev (Lord of Love) was burnt into ashes by the third-eye of Lord Shiva when the former tried to disrupt his meditation thereby giving it its alternative name _ãÄBhasmchal_ã_. The major attraction of the island is the Umananda Devi
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 40 | P a g e
Temple which is dedicated to Lord Shiv and sees a large influx of devotees during religious festivals.
8. KAMAKHYA TEMPLE A heavenly abode in the laps of Nilachal hills brings you to Kamakhya Devi temple. And you have got to believe, this place has a totally amazing old story at its back having Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati as main leads. It was built in the old 10th century and located at a distance of mere 7km from the city of Guwahati, which can be easily reached by well-connected roads. The temple is dedicated to Goddess Kamakhya and is one of the prominent Shaktipeeth of the country. The culture of the temple is well imbibed in local people and they celebrate Ambubachi festival in the month of June every year to commemorate the annual mensuration of the Goddess Kamakhya.
The ancient temple is built in an elongated manner with a circular mandapa at the top, surrounded by lush green zones. Tourists, as well as devotees, usually come in the early morning to pay their respect to the temple and Goddess and keep their spiritual energy high in the sky.
9. TOKLAI TEA RESEARCH CENTRE Assam and Tea are both inseparable in literal terms. Set up in times of British rule and following the legacy with the developed state, this place is standing high in tea research facility. Tocklai institute is located in Jorhat city and easy to reach by roads.
10.TEZPUR Another city that is on the edges of river Brahmaputra and is a neighbor of Guwahati by the distance of 175 km, is the city Tezpur. Tezpur has a history with mythology but the actual ruins of medieval age could be seen in Bamuni hills. Modern Tezpur has a connectivity with the British
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 41 | P a g e
era and composes of a subtle calm climate. Tezpur has a rich culture from where Bihu and Bagurumba dance is the most catching performance. A concoction of places like Bhairabi temple, Hanuman Mandir, Mahabhairav temple, Cole Park, Padam pukhuri, Rudra Path and many more makes this place best places to visit in Assam. Nature gets an extra gist of Kolia Bhomora Setu that connects Tezpur to Nagaon and the view of the bridge as well as from it makes one fall in love with river Brahmaputra again and again. Don’t miss a chance to be in Tezpur when the tickets to Assam are booked and lying on your table.
11. DIPORBIL Lake, also known as Bil in Assamese is an evergreen feature of the land of the North East. The list of tourist places in Assam never completes without including Dipor Bil in it. The mighty Brahmaputra has an extension into the plains which resulted into this enchanting lake. Located 13 km in South West direction from Guwahati, Dipor Bil is perfect to watch beautiful birds basking in the sun and swinging on the tunes of the lake’s ripples. The surface of the lake is flared by flora like Waterlily, water hyacinth, aquatic grass and believe us, it is adding an extra grace to blue clean waters. Along with a boat ride, one can feel the difference with migratory birds while taking a tour here. Moreover, you can notice Storks, Ducks, Kingfishers, and Pelicans enjoying in the glory of the climate and making it an attraction for thousands.
Assam Culinary Delight
APONG is a rice beer, which is traditionally prepared by some tribes of North-East India. Apong is an integral part of the life of the Mising (or Mishing) people of Assam. It is brewed in every Mising household. Adi people of Arunachal Pradesh also prepares Apong. Apong is prepared by fermenting rice. The Mishing Apong comes in two types – Nogin Apong and Poro Apong. The Nogin
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 42 | P a g e
Apong is whitish in colour, while Poro Apong has a dark greenish colour. The method of preparation is different. So, the two apongs also differ in their taste and colour.
The rice wine which can ward off evil.
KHAR This unique dish is prepared with raw papaya, pulses and a main ingredient. All these ingredients are then filtered in water through dried banana ashes for a flavour that is most unusual and refreshing. It is a rich dish generally consumed with lunch.
Pitha is the most popular snack from Assam; usually had for breakfast or with an evening cuppa. There are many types of pitha. They may be can be either sweet or savoury, fried, roasted or barbequed inside a hollow bamboo stem. The sweet Pitha is preferred over the salty one.This finger licking Assamese snack tastes best with Doi (curd) and gur.
BAMBOO STEAMED FISH This dish is a speciality from Nagaland. The first bite might taste plain, but eventually you can savour the subtle hint of bamboo flavour. Fresh spices include Raja Mirchi. used in the dish enhances its flavour. Bamboo Steamed Fish is best enjoyed with steamed rice.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 43 | P a g e
It is a mashed potato dish, and we all know that there’s nothing quite like mashed potatoes, especially when it is teamed with chopped onions, green chillies, fresh coriander leaves, salt and a drizzle of mustard oil. It is usually served with steam rice, dal and lemon wedges on the side.
MASOR TENGA Fish forms an integral part of the Assamese cuisine, thanks to the mighty Brahmaputra that runs through the state. There are different varieties of big and small fish that are available throughout the year, which are then prepared in various ways using regional vegetables and greens, and without turning to spices and masala mixes to build flavour. The most quintessential Assamese fish dish is called Masor Tenga, ‘tenga’ meaning sour. Several kinds of souring agents are used to make the curry, such as lemon, kokum, tomatoes, herbs, elephant wood apple, etc and it is served along with steamed rice. MANGSHO Mutton curry is another favourite dish in Assamese cuisine. In fact, people take it as an offense if they are not served mutton curry and luchi or pulao when they visit neighbours, friends or relatives on invitation. This is one of the few dishes that witness the use of multiple spices to build flavour. Pork dishes are also popular in Assam, but traditionally they were a speciality among the tribal lot. Pork is prepared using herbs, bamboo shoot, bhoot jolokia, and veggies, among other ingredients.
GHILA PITHA This sweet called the “ghila pitha”, is a savory made during the festivals like Magh Bihu and Bohag Bihu in Assam and relished with friends and families.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 44 | P a g e
West Bengal Culinary Delight
Kolkata, the City of Joy, has many things to offer to locals and tourists alike. Food is of course one of the major highlights of this metropolitan city. Like most other cities in India, Kolkata offers a wide variety of food options. But, Kolkata is best known for its local Bengali cuisine and why not? Where else can you have Sorshe Ilish ! How about a Food Crawl through the streets of Kolkata? Street Food Jhal Muri .Jhal Muri is made of puffed rice, chili powder, raw mustard oil and other ingredients like chopped boiled potatoes, coriander leaves and more. This spicy mixture served in paper packets . It is Kolkata’s most popular street food and can be found at railway stations, bus stops, busy market places, outside office complexes and almost everywhere. Puchka Pani Puris of Mumbai and Golgappas of Delhi become Puchkas in Kolkata. Puchakas are round fried hollow puris filled with a mixture of tamrind water, mashed potatoes, chaat masalas, chilis, onions, chickpeas and more. You will barely find any restaurant serving Puchkas, you have to hit the streets for it.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 45 | P a g e
Tele Bhaja Tele Bhajas are yet another specialty of Kolkata. You can literally find hundreds and hundreds of street side stalls offering these fried delicacies. They aren’t just simple fries. The ingredients are boiled, smashed, dipped in slurry of gram flour and then fried. Stop being conscious about your waistline for at least once and sample Aalur Chop (uses smashed boiled potato), Peyaji (uses chopped onion), Beguni (uses sliced brinjal) and more! Rolls (Mutton, Chicken and Egg) Though they are not really traditional Bengali fare, these are quite popular in the evenings. The meat rolls are parathas (breads made of maida, the all purpose flour) fried in oil and rolled with chicken or mutton pieces inside it. Egg rolls are slightly different with egg on one side of the paratha and then rolled with chopped onion, cucumber and green chilies. Churmur – A crunchy blend Much like Phuchka, this street food of Kolkata is a mix of crushed puchka, mixed with mashed potatoes, onions, spices, and of course tetul gola – pulp of tamarind. Though it tastes similar to Phuchka, Churmur is easier to eat. Your Kolkata street food tour is incomplete if you don’t try Churmur.
Ghugni Chaat If you’ve ever tasted Mumbai’s Ragda, you somewhat know what we’re talking about. Ghugni is made mainly of boiled yellow and white peas – mixed with onions, coriander, chillis, tomatoes, spices, and topped with tamarind pulp. This is a popular street food in Kolkata, and deserves all the popularity!
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 46 | P a g e
Keemar Doi Bora
Keemar Doi Bora is meat Dahi Bada dropped in sweet dahi sprinkled with panch phoron, that is – cinnamon, a pinch of red chilli powder, cumin, black mustard seeds and fenugreek. For north Indians, this is a unique dish to try – definitely one of the best street food of Kolkata.
Chhanar Jilipi
For those with a sweet tooth, relishing this street food in Kolkata is sheer delight; it is juicy, soft, and chewy. Chanar Jilipi is a Kolkatan jalebi made of cottage cheese. It is thicker than a normal jalebi and the texture is similar to Gulab Jamun. That’s basically goodness of two sweets in one.
Aloo Kabli
One of the best forms of potato, Aloo Kabli is a spicy and hot dish you mustn’t miss when you crave for something flavorsome in Kolkata. Boiled potatoes are tossed with tamarind pulp, onions, tomatoes, chilies, chickpeas, and a magical combination of masalas.
MAIN COURSE Luchi Luchi is a deep fried bread that resembles a poori .The only difference is that it is made with refined flour and fried without any colour .Luchi is made on special occasions and is usually accompanied by cholar dal that is usually accompanied by cholar dal that is tempered with small pieces of coconut.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 47 | P a g e
Radha balhobi Radha balhobi is eaten mostly for breakfast and is quite similar to a kachori made in Uttar Pradesh.It is stuffed with urad dal and served with potato curry known as aloor dum. Bhaja The word bhaja mainly refers to fried items. One could have a range of bhajas that accompany a special meal. The most common and famous is baigun bhaja , which is a thick roundel of eggplant marinated and shallow fried in mustard oil .Similarly,fine juliennes of potato are fried in the same way to make topsey mach bhaja and are served during festive occasion. Shorshe bata ilish The hilsa fish braised in mustard pasteand slit green chillies is an important dish of both West Bengal and Bangladesh. It is commonly known as shorsho bata ilish. It can be cooked for everyday meals or even during festivals and occasions. Macher paturi This is quite a unique preparation where the darnes or steaks are marinated in freshly grounded mustard paste and wrapped in banana leaves .These are then steamed and eaten with steamed rice. Chitol macher muitha Chitol is a special fish typically eaten during Durga Puja . The meat from the back part after removing the bones is shaped into koftas and simmered in gravy.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 48 | P a g e
Pabda macher jhalThis dish made from the pabda fish and is a speciality made during durga puja .The whole fish is stewed in gravy predominant of red chili powder. Chingri malai curry This preparation is cooked on festive occasions and on marriages.Small sized prawns are stewed in a gravy made with boiled onion paste, thickened with coconut milk. Kosha mangsho This is a semi dry preparation of lmb that gets its unique dark colour from the iron kadhai that it is cooked in and the caramelized sugar .This preparation is eaten with deep fried bread such as luchi Potoler dolma Baby oval gourd are stuffed with a mixture of cottage cheese,potatoes,raisins and spices and simmered in an onion based gravy .This is again a festive dish and made on special occasions. Dhokar dalna This unique dish is again made on special occasions a gram flour batter is cooked with spices and then spread on a tray and steamed .It is then cut into small pieces in the shape of a diamond and deep fried .The fried dumplings are now stewed in a gravy of boiled onion paste ,thickened with gram flour and whole spices.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 49 | P a g e
Kabiraji cutlet Kabaraji cutlet is made from chicken breast .The chicken breast is marinated in turmeric ,salt,ginger and garlic paste , onion paste and spices such as green chillies and red chilli powder .The marinated chicken is coated with a light batter of rice flour and eggs deep fried until golden brown. Aloo posto Potatoes are cooked with freshly grounded poppy seeds paste and flavored with spices and turmeric. Aloo posto can be eaten with deep fried bread or whole wheat paratha.
A famous sweet meat seller Nabin Chandra Das of Kolkata invented rosogulla.It is pepared from cottage cheese (chenna) which is first kneaded and then rolled into smart balls .Theses cheese balls are then cooked in thin sugar syrup.The rosogulla did not get any fame until his son K.C. Das popularized the same by canning it and marketing it all over the world.Rosogulla are made in various sizes and flavours and are named differently .Some of the most common once are as follows:-
• Nolen Gurer rosogulla:-These rosogulla are poached in nolen gur .This are the only rosogula that are served hot ,otherwise rosogulla are served chilled.
• Raj Bhog:-This rosogulla are large in size and the diameter can be 3-4 inches
• Kamala bhog:-This is the large size rasagulla that are coloured yellow and is flavoured
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 50 | P a g e
with oranges.
This is a variation of rasgulla.It is prepared like a rasgulla ,but the chenna dumplings are flattened and poached in syrup until cooked .These are then soaked in saffron flavoured sweetened milk and served chilled with chopped pistachios.
This is the dessert that is made to celebrate the end of Bengali new year. Pank cakes are made from the batter of refined flour and milk.This are then stuffed with cooked mixture of grated coconut sugar or jaggery and cardamom powder.These pan cakes are garnished with same stuffing in the middle .
Misti Doi
Misti doi is the delicacy is prepared like a regular curd but with the addition of jiggery to it.Only palm jiggery is used to get that the peculiar colour and taste It gives creamy texture to the curd with a layer of fat at top , is a skill that is passed down from one generation to generation.
Sandesh is one of the famous Bengal dessert made from palm jaggery ,reduced milk and chenna.All the three ingredients are cooked in a thick bottom pan until they stop sticking .Balls od the mixture are then pressed into moulds of various shapes to give the characteristics shape to sandesh.Variation of sandesh are prepared by altering the shape and flavour of sandesh.
Payesh is commonly made at homes by cooking short grain rice known as gobind bhog along with milk until creamy. Jaggery is used to sweeten payesh and broken cashewnuts and rasins are added for texture.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 51 | P a g e
These are deep fried dumplings of khoya and flour symbolizes the jamun and the rose ,honey and saffron flavoured syrup symbolizes the dessert.It is traditionally made of chikna khoya and maida ,which gives the dough the correct consistency and prevents it from cracking while it is being fried.These are two inch long rod shaped ,fried in ghee and poached I sugar syrup.
Chenna poda
Chenna poda is a very famous dessert baked and probably influenced by the baked cheese cake of the western world .To make this sweet a paste of soaked rice and urad dal is made .Water is added to this paste and a batter of pouring consistency is made.Usually ,crushed aniseed is used for flavouring the batter.Another mixture is made by cooking grated jaggery until jaggery melts .Chenna is added and the mixture is cooked until it begins to leave the sides of the pan .Now the mould is prepared by linning with banana leaves and alternativey the rice and lentil batter are cooked cottage cheese mixture is poured into and the same is baked until the cake is cooked and slightly brown.
Kancha Gola
Kancha gola is a soft sandesh from Bengal .It is used by cooking fresh curd ,milk ,and condensed milk .boiling curd along with results in a curdled texture .The mixture is cooked until it becomes sticky.It is then removed from fire and green cardamom powder is added .It is shaped into round dumplings .This sandesh is slightly granular in texture.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 52 | P a g e
Culinary Delights of Chhattisgarh
Introduction Chhattisgarh, state of east-central India. It is bounded by the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand to the north and northeast, Odisha(Orissa) to the east, Telangana (formerly part of Andhra Pradesh) to the south, and Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to the west. Its capital is Raipur. Area 52,199 square miles (135,194 square km). The history of the Chhattisgarh regions dates back to about the 4th century CE, when it was known as southern kosala . The Name Chhattisgarh Meaning “thirty-six forts,” was Formerly applied to the territory of Haihaya Dynasty of Ratanpur , founded about 750. Under British rule the present region of Chhattisgarh consisted of a division comprising 14 feudatory princely kingdoms under the Eastern states agency .Raipur was the headquarter of that region. With in the republic of india , Chhattisgarh the part of Madhya Pradesh until Nov. 1, 2000. At present the state has 27 administrative districts and 5 divisions.
Cuisine of Chhattisgarh – The ‘rice bowl of India’ is Chhattisgarh, as rice is widely eaten and relished. The staple diet of people of the territory consists of wheat, maize and Jowar. The Cuisine of Chhattisgarh serves a wide range of mouth-watering dishes and they are enriched with the qualities of protein , vitamins, minerals and irons . The rich Divergent Culture, Palate and traditions of the Nation is imbibed in the soil of Chhattisgarh. Although the Savor and Savory has been blending and evolving with the confluence of immigrants from the north and south, yet the essence still remains. The major dishes and savouries here are mostly made of rice and assorted ingredients. Not much of spice, a Pinch of salt and mostly oil less. The people of the state have an inclination towards tangy recipes and sweet delectable. Maize, wheat and Jowar are the basic diet of the inhabitants of Chhattisgarh. Since the state is quite opulent with an abundance of crops such as rice and oilseeds, so the people of the place are never short of their staple food. The food of Chhattisgarh is categorized under two different heads – tribal recipes and non-tribal menus. The tribes of Chhattisgarh primarily add the various types of fruits that are commonly found in the forest areas of Chhattisgarh. Rakhia Badi and Petha are the two distinctive food items that are prepared by the tribal population of Chhattisgarh during major festivals.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 53 | P a g e
The tribal food includes fish, pork, red ants, flying ants, squirrels, field rats and wild mushrooms and plants. The fruit got from the Mahuwa tree is very famous in Chhattisgarh. The fruit is small, white and creamy which is further fermented into a strong brew and consumed by the people. The meal of these people are complete only with a sweet after their food and so jalebi has become an integral part of the food menu of the state. Bafauri a special recipe made of Chana dal is also a favourite among the people of the state. The people of the state have a liking towards tangy recipes and sweet dishes. Most of the traditional foods are made of rice and rice flour, curd and a variety of green leafy vegetables like Lal Bhaaji, Chowlai Bhaaji, Chech Bhaji, Kaanda Bhaaji, Kheksi,Katha,Kochai Patta, Kohda and Bohar Bhaji. Badi and Bijori are optional food categories; Gulgul (bobra), Dhoodh Fara, Bafauli, Kusli, Balooshahi, Singhara, Tikhur ,Anarsa and Khurmi fall in sweet categories. Some well-known breakfast dishes made out of Rice & rice flour include Fara/Muthiya (rice rolls in white sauce), cheela (Dosa like dish made with rice batter), Angakar roti, Chousela roti (rice Puris), etc. One of the common meal had during the scorching summer is Bore Baasi ( literally means dipped rice from last cooked meal) which mainly consists of cooked rice dipped water/Curd/buttermilk. It is mostly accompanied by pickle and raw onion. It helps maintain the water levels in the body, keeping it cool and hydrated during the hot and arid summer days. Most of the traditional and tribal foods are made of rice and rice flour, curd and a variety of green leafy vegetables like lal bhaaji, chowlai bhaaji, chech bhaji, kaanda bhaaji, kheksi,kathal,kochai patta, kohda and bohar bhaji (Blossom of Lesuaa or Rasaulaa in Hindi, mostly used for making Achaar). Badi and Bijori are optional food categories; gulgula (bobra), bidiya, dhoodh fara, bafauli, kusli, balooshahi,singhara, tikhur ,anarsa and khurmi fall in sweet categories. Some well known breakfast dishes made out of Rice & rice flour include fara/muthiya (rice rolls in white sauce), cheela (dosa like dish made with rice batter), angakar roti, chousela roti (rice puris), etc. One of the common meal had during the scorching summer is Bore Baasi ( literally means dipped rice from last cooked meal) which mainly consists of cooked rice dipped water/dahi/buttermilk. It is mostly accompanied by pickle and raw onion. It helps maintain the water levels in the body, keeping it cool and hydrated during the hot and arid summer days. One of the well known traditional dishes of Chhattisgarh is Iddhar. It is made with ground Urad dal and kochai patta. Both are arranged in alternate layers 2-3 time and then rolled. This roll is then cooked in steam and cut into pieces. After that it is prepared with curd like curry. Some people
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 54 | P a g e
also make it with gram flour (besan) instead of urad dal. Tribal and village populations drink a brew made of the small, creamy white flower of a local tree called Mahuwa Dishes like Chila and Phara are favourites.They are made with rice flour and eaten with spicy or tangy chutnees of tomato,chilli and coriander.Chila is made by making a thick mixture of water and rice flour and then made like a plain dosa.On the therapy side phara is made by left over rice and rice flour by making a dough and then make cylindrical shapes and giving tadka with jeera,mustard,curry leaves,tomato,turmeric,salt and chilly.People of Chhattisgarh do not waste food.People eat Baasi here.It is left over rice dipped in water and curd and eaten with chutney. Bhajis of Chhattisgarh In Chhattisgarh 36 varieties of Bhaji cultivated and consumed locally in different – different region of Chhattisgarh like – 1. Amaari bhaaji (Ambadi leaves) 2. Chench bhaaji 3. Tiwra bhaji (Tinwara leaves) 4. Chana bhaji (Gram leaves) 5. Laal bhaaji (Red amaranthus leaves) 6. Khendaha bhaaji 7. Gondali bhaaji 8. Bohaar bhaaji 9. Muskeni bhaaji 10. Patwa bhaaji 11. Kajra bhaaji 12. Macheriya bhaaji 13. Chanauri bhaaji 14. Tinpaniya bhaaji 15. Kurma bhaaji 16. Murai bhaaji 17. Chaulai bhaaji 18. Karmata bhaaji 19. Kaanda bhaaji
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 55 | P a g e
20. Makhna bhaaji 21. Chunchuniya bhaaji 22. Putka bhaaji 23. Paalak bhaaji (Spinach leaves ) 24. Barre bhaaji 25. Ghobhi bhaaji (Cauliflower leaves) 26. Lahsuva bhaaji (Garlic leaves) 27. Sarson bhaaji (Mustard leaves) 28. Kusum bhaaji 29. Charota bhaaji 30. Chirchira bhaaji 31. Urla bhaaji 32. Gudru bhaaji 33. Munga bhaaji (Drumstick leaves) 34. Aalu bhaaji (Potato leaves) 35. Bhathava bhaaji
Delights of the Chhattisgarh-
1. Chila – It is a Chhattisgarhi pancake which is made of Rice flour and mixed it with chopped coriander leave and seasoned with salt.
Figure 1(Chila) 2. Fara – The dish which is shaped of Croquette and made of rice flour and the Tempered with sesame seeds, Curry Leaves and Green Chilies.
Figure 2 (Fara) 3. Bafauri – It is a simple and light snacks made from chana dal , onion and mix of spice and served along with chutney.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 56 | P a g e
Figure 3 (Bafauri)
4. Chausela – It is basically a Puffed Poori Which is made of rice flour and Deep fried in a oil.
Figure 4 (Chausela)
5. Urad Bada – It is like an Savoury south indian Fritters which is not having any hole in the centre .It is made from Split Black Lentil , Onions and green chilies and seasoned with salt. It is accompanied with Crushed tomato chutney.
Figure 5 (Urad bada) 6. Moong bada – It is round shaped bada which is made of Pigeon Peas , Ginger , Green chilies, Onion and cumin. Its deep fried in a oil and accompanied with Crushed tomato chutney.
Figure 6 (Moong bada)
7. Majha pitha – Pitha is a combination of rice and Split Black lentil ( Urad Dal ). It is Prepared with Split Black gram , Garlic, Mustard seed and Sesame seeds It is generally served as a snack with Crushed tomato chutney.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 57 | P a g e
8. Bhajiya – It is a crisp fritters are prepared mainly with onion and gram flour (besan).
Figure 7 (Bhajiya)
9. Bel Sharbat – It is the one of the Most Popular beverages of Chhattisgarh Which is extracted from the Bel fruit and it’s served chilled.
Figure 8 (Bel Sharbat)
10. Gulgula – Gulgulas are like lightly sweetened mini donuts. It is made up of wheat flour , sugar and fennel seeds and which is generally deep fried in a oil.
Figure 9 (Gulgula)
11. Bobra – It is the one of the most popular Chhattisgarhi desserts . It is a sweet savory type of a pancake which is made of rice, Jaggery & Cardamom Powder .
Figure 10 (Bobra)
12. Arsa – Arsa is a sweet delicacy that is prepared from simple ingredients like cane sugar, rice and mustard oil.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 58 | P a g e
Figure 11 (Arsa) 13. Khaja – Khaja is a traditional recipe that is served as a part of Chhattisgarhi Cuisine. It is a layered fritters dunked in sugar syrup which is made up of essentially Refined flour , Ghee, cardamom powder and Cinnamom powder.
Figure 12 (Khaja)
14. Kari Ladoo – It is the one of the most popular desserts of Chhattisgarhi cuisine. It is prepared from Gram flour, Jaggery or sugar, milk & oil which is served Occasionally on with Chhattisgarhi meal.
Figure 13 (Kari ladoo)
Muthia – Muthia are dumplings cooked in the traditional style of the Chhattisgarh state. Muthia is prepared with the rice batter which is seasoned with various spices. The dish is not fried but is steamed and hence it retains the original flavor of its ingredients. Muthia is a famous dish of the state which is usually enjoyed in the breakfast. This dish is also famous among the rural people of the state.
Figure 14 (Muthia)
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 59 | P a g e
Fresh and thick slices of bread, smothered in butter served with a delicious mix of moderately spices vegetables . Basically eaten as a street food in all over Maharashtra .The dish originated in the 1850s as a fast lunchtime dish for textile mill workers in Mumbai
Vada Pav is believed to have been devised by Ashok Vaidya who sold street food from a stall beside Dadar rail station in Mumbai in 1971, Now a Thela next to Platform No.1 of Dadar Station, is operated by his son Narendra Vaidya and his partner Abhijeet Samel. VADA PAV- (There are 290 calories in a one serving of VADA PAV. Calorie breakdown: 60% fat, 33% carbs, 7% protein). Also known as “Indian burger or poor man’s burger.”
Ravyachi Puranpoli which is made from Rava. Instead of wheat flour, rava is mixed with milk and is used for outside covering and stuffing is made like usual puran poli. A recipe (as Bakshyam) is mentioned in Manucharitra, a 14th-century Telugu encyclopedia compiled by Allasani Peddana, who lives from present-day Andhra Pradesh. It is also the special dish of Maharashtra which is prepared in every occasion at every house especially during festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi and Holi. It is eaten with Basundi, Aamras, Kadhi, Amti, etc. In Pune, Puran Poli is eaten with a variant of
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 60 | P a g e
Amti (flavoured sour water) known as Katachi Amti is prepared with remaining water of Chana Dal used to make Puran.
Misal pav is a popular dish from Maharashtra, India.It consists of misal (a spicy curry usually made moth beans) and pav (a type of Indian bread roll).The final dish is topped with farsan or sev, onions, lemon and coriander (cilantro).It is usually served with bread or rolls toasted with butter and buttermilk or curd and papad. It is served as a breakfast dish, as a snack and also as a full meal .The curry is made from mixed sprouts and lentils that are rich in proteins .The spice content can be altered based on choice. Misal pav from Maharashtra is known for its high spice content.There are different versions of misal pav such as Kolhapuri misal, Nashik misal, Khandeshi misal, Nagpuri misal and Puneri misal; the first part indicates the regional origin. Other types are kalya masalyachi misal, shev misal, and dahi (yoghurt) missal.
Modak is an Indian sweet popular in many parts of India. The sweet filling on the inside of a modak consists of freshly grated coconut and jaggery while the outer soft shell is made from rice flour or wheat flour mixed with khava or maida flour .The modak can be fried or steamed. The steamed version (called ukdiche modak) is often eaten hot with ghee.
Classic Modak.
Ukadiche Modak: These modaks are made of Coconuts and Sugar/Jaggery. This variation is especially prepared during the time of Ganesh Festival. They are hand madeand cooked in a steamer. They are perishable and need to be consumed immediately.
Fried Modak: This modak is deep fried in oil instead of steaming. Frying makes the modak last longer and have different taste.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 61 | P a g e
Delhi Food Delights
Old Delhi
Fun Fact: All our favourite chat items, from Papri Chaat and Dahi Bhalla to Jalebi, originated in Old Delhi. Old Delhi is a popular hub for street food, authentic Mughlai cuisine, and sweets. If you really want an authentic experience with typical north Indian street food, Old Delhi is a must-visit.
Some of our recommendations are Khemchand Adesh Kumar’s Daulat Ki Chaat, Lotan Chole Wala, Jung Bahadur Kachori Wala, and Shree Balaji Chaat Bhandar and Bishan Swaroop for the best chaat you will ever have.
Gali Paranthe Wali
If there’s one place you’ve got to visit, particularly if you’re vegetarian, it’s Paranthe Wali Galli. Several tiny shops serving delicious paranthe, fresh, hot and in a variety of styles. In existence for over 50 years, some of the original shops are still operating.
Several celebrities and influential politicians and businessmen also visit this place, which is crowded through the evening and into the night.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 62 | P a g e
Khan Market
Khan Market is one of Delhi’s incredible food districts.It has a mix of cafes, fine dining options and fast food. A vibrant neighborhood, whose streets are filled with the delicious aromas of mutton kebab and fried rice, it is a hub for the best eateries, bars and restaurants.
A few restaurants here that you absolutely must visit are The Big Chill, Yellow Brick Road Restaurant, Wok in the Clouds, Azam’s Mughlai, and Cafe Turtle.
Jama Masjid
Food in Delhi is incomplete without a visit to this area. If you eat meat and love street food, Jama Masjid area is the place to be!
Jama Masjid and the lane opposite, Bazaar Matia Mahal, have some of the best non-vegetarian street food in Delhi. From keema samosas to grilled boti to kebabs and jalebi, this area is a paradise for foodies.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 63 | P a g e
Another street for best food in Delhi, which you most certainly shouldn’t miss, is Nizamuddin. There are dozens of amazing eateries in this area and you will find delicious kebabs, sweets, and Mughlai delicacies.
All your meat-lovers out there should definitely try out Karim’s, Gulfam Kashmiri Wazwan, and Ghalib Kabab Corner.
South Campus
If you are a college student or just someone on a tight budget, in search of some delicious food, South Campus is a great option, with a variety of awesome cafes.
The cafes here mostly serve shakes, fast food, American and Italian cuisines. Our favourites are Scooter on the Wall, Big Yellow Door, and QD’s. Check out one of these joints for some fantastic food.
Chittaranjan Park
CR Park is the place to go if you want the best Bengali food experience in town, sweets included!
From fish to rolls to sweets and pani puri, you get some heavenly Bengali food here. Wear some stretchy pants and head over here for a food binge to remember!
Try out Raju Puchka Wala, Kolkata Hot Kathi Roll, Mad About Momos, and Annapurna Sweet House for sure.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 64 | P a g e
Connaught Place
Connaught Place is the place in Delhi for food – no matter what your budget is. From fancy fine-dining restaurants to the delicious local rajma chawal, Connaught Place has food for everyone’s budget.
With the best restaurants in the city, Connaught Place is an area that has all kinds of cuisine – local and international.
New Friends Colony
New Friends Colony has some great eateries that serve delicious North and South Indian cuisine. From yummy shawarmas to dosas to cafes and fast food, this area has always been popular with foodies.
We recommend trying Sab Ki Khatir, Tunday Kababi (for great Lucknowi food in Delhi), Pebble Street, and Al Bake.
Karol Bagh
Karol Bagh area has an eclectic blend of all kinds of Indian cuisine. From street food, and shakes to dhabas and restaurants, it has some amazing food options.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 65 | P a g e
Roshan Di Kulfi, Anjalika, Om Corner Chhole Bhature, Art Of Spices, Sindhi Corner, Sandoz, and Changezi.
Amar Colony
Amar Colony is one of the oldest localities in Delhi, and is known for its delicious eateries. Chhole Bhature is an outstanding food to eat in Delhi, and particularly excellent here.
Residents of this colony consist of Indians, Africans and Afghans, and therefore the food options are many. Amar Colony is considered yet another paradise for foodies in Delhi.
Our best picks in this area are Dolma Aunty Momos, Baba Nagpal Ke Chhole Bhature, Muttu South Indian Anna, Kulfiano, Gopala, and Queen’s Kitchen.
Dilli Haat
Apart from the amazing set of traditional clothes, jewellery and handicrafts, Dilli Haat is also known for its amazing food. It has food stalls from all over India where you can get different state’s delicacies quickly and it’s affordable, too!
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 66 | P a g e
Haryanvi Food Delights:
• Haryana the land of courage and tradition.
• Among the world’s oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old. Haryana is found on 1 November 1966.
Hinduism (87.46%)
Islam (7.03%)
Sikhism (4.91%)
Jainism (0.21%)
Christianity (0.20%)
Buddhism (0.03%)
Others (0.18%)
• Famous for: tradition and culture (Haryana has its own unique traditional folk music, folk dances, saang (folk theater), belief system such as Jathera (ancestral worship),and arts such as Phulkari and Shisha embroidery.), zamindars, Sports, clothing & kadhiboli (language),geography, science and technology, medical and health, cultivation of crops.
Singri ki sabzi
Bazre ke roti
bathua raita
choliya ke sabzi
wheat roti
aalu raita
kadhi pakora
makki ke roti
gajar raita
bajara khichri
kuttu ke roti
ghiya raita
methi gajar ke sabzi
chana ke roti
mix dal and all dal prep.
stuffed paratas
kachri ki chutney
kachri ki sabzi
jowar(millet) ke roti
aalu ki chutney
mulli ki burji
laal mirch chutney
gawar ki sabzi
hari chutney
sorsoon ka saag
tamatar ke chutney
choli ka saag
chana ka saag
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 67 | P a g e
Haryana Desert
Aatte ke Laddu
Aate ka Halwa
Besan Burfi
Bazre ke Laddu
Besan ka Halwa
Gazar Ki Burfi
Alsi ke laddu
Gazar ka Halwa
Gole ki Burfi
Besan Ke Laddu
Moong ka Halwa
Khoya Burfi
Bundi ke Laddu
Suji ka Halwa
Moong Ki Burfi
Chane ke Laddu
Suji ki Burfi
Cholia ke Laddu
Chawal Ki Kheer
Churme ke Laddu
Kheer with Boora
Churma – Bazre ki Roti Ka
Goond Ke Laddu
Kheer with Shakkar
Churma – Cheeni Ka
Khoye ke Laddu
Sabudana Kheer
Churma – Gur Ka
Methi ke Laddu
Samakia Kheer
Churma – Paranthe Ka
Murmure Ke Laddu
Sewai ki Kheer
Churma – Poori Ka
Til ke Laddu
Churma – Shakkar ka
Other Sweets
• Balu Shahi
Meethi Ghee Bura Sewai
• Ghee Bura
Meethi Suwali
• Gud Chawal
Puda Chini Ka
• Guldana
Puda Gur Ka
• Gulgule
Puda – Sahad Ka
• Jalebi & Jaleba
• Kasar with Gur and Ghee
Shakkar Pare
• Kasar with Boora and Ghee
• Kheer lapsi
Mithe chawal
• Khees
• Khurmeni
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 68 | P a g e
Other highlights
• Tapsaya pratha – in rohtak
• Khoya ke barfi – in barifatapur
• Jallabhi – jind
• Ghewar – sonipath
• Pakora – bahadurgah
• Gajak – rohtak
• Ravidi – revadhi
badam ragda
kache doodh ke lassi
Lapsi – Cheeni ki
Lapsi – Gur Ki
dhai bhala
gur chana
Tamil Nadu Culinary Delight Puttu and kadala curry puttu is a cylindrical steamed rice cake cooked with coconut shavings. This is an extremely popular breakfast item and staple food of Kerala. This Kerala food item is usually served with kadala curry which is essentially black chickpeas but can be eaten in whichever way it tastes good They were very popular in ancient Tamil country (which included Tamil Nadu, Kerala and parts of Karnataka). According to eminent Indian food historian K.T. Achaya both idiyappam and appam were dishes sold by kaazhiyar and kuuviyar – vendors od snack foods on the seashore; Appam with stew Appam staple element of Kerala cuisine, it is essentially a thin pancake with crispy edges made from fermented rice flour, coconut milk, coconut water, and a teensy bit of sugar, These crepe-like bowls are best enjoyed with Ishtu, a kind of stew that has been originally derived from the European stew and is made from coconut milk, cinnamon, cloves and shallots, and sometimes also mango pieces and vegetables. The aroma of spices with the sweet fragrance of coconut milk is enough to lure foodies to the kitchen
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 69 | P a g e
According to eminent Indian food historian K.T. Achaya both idiyappam and appam were dishes sold by kaazhiyar and kuuviyar – vendors od snack foods on the seashore; they are graphically described in ancient Sangam poems, Perumpanuru, Mathuraikanchi and Silappathikaram which date back to a period from 300 BC to 300 AD. Pronounced as: Ap-pam with I-sh-tew Idiyappam. Also known as Noolappam in Kerala cuisine, it is made of rice flour, salt and water with a number of thin strands or sevai entwined together to make the lovely texture that this dish bears. It is this texture that makes it versatile. You can have it with all kinds of curries, but it tastes best with Egg Curry. This dish originating from South India and Sri Lanka. Also spread to Southeast Asia where it is called putu mayam in Malaysian and putu mayang in Indonesian sometimes, it is called string hoppers in English. Pronounced as: E-di-ap-pam Malabar Parota Originating from the Malabar region of the coast. It is an all-time favorite among all age groups! From the Indian subcontinent, made from Maida flour, popular in Southern India. It is a common street food in southern India, especially in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the neighboring country of Sri Lanka. .
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 70 | P a g e
It has a flaky, crispy and crumbly texture which melts in your mouth and leaves behind a sweet yet savory taste. Main ingredients: Maida flour, Eggs, Ghee or oil
Palada Payasam A traditional dessert, prepared during the festival of Onam or any other occasion is a simple rice pudding or kheer, made in almost all the households across Kerala. The most authentic version of this Kerala food dish is made out of rice ada (which is easily available in any Keralite grocery store), sugar, milk and ghee. After all any special occasion is incomplete without the favourite payasam! Thalassery Biryani The prominent cuisine from Thalassery the northernmost town in Kerala is a special biryani with relishing aroma and taste. Made of kaima or biryani rice, authentic masala made of specific spices and dry nuts and stuffed meat, this dish is made especially during the celebration of Eid in Malabar region of Kerala. The dish is especially savoured with curd, lime pickle (naranga achar) and salad. Ada Pradhaman Very sweet dessert with spices and nuts, ada pradhaman is the king of kheers in Kerala. With a warm and pleasant aroma, this payasam or kheer is a unique blend of thick coconut milk, jaggery and baked rice adda. It is specially served at the end of a sadhya as a dessert. Consisting of rice parcels encased in a dough made of rice flour
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 71 | P a g e
Made out of raw rice flour, sugar or jaggery and grated coconut. It is usually prepared on Onam Erissery
Filled with healthy ingredients of gram and pumpkin, is one of the traditional kootan in Kerala. The blend of coconut and other spices (cumin, turmeric, etc) along with the vegetables is amazing. It is should be savoured with hot rice for a better experience. Erissery is one of the main side dish (kootan) served in sadhya.
Lucknow Culinary Delight
• The food of Luchnow is broadly termed as “AWADHI FOOD”.
• Luchnow has always been the melting pot of nawabi culture.
• Known for its cultural refinement, luchnow has also been the epitome of legendary hospitality.
• The famous bawarchis, who with tremendous discipline, bordering on religious fervor, still follow the traditional style of cooking handed down to them by the ancestors.
• With an emphasis on traditional foods that truly rely on natural, fresh ingredients, we return to an age before “convenience foods”, ironically complicated our eating habits.
• The cuisine is incomplete if various systems and methods of cooking were not described.
The various types of techniques are used in the kitchen for the luchnow. These are as follows:
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 72 | P a g e
❖ BAGHAR: This is the method of tempering a dish with hot oil, ghee and spices. It may be done at the beginning or at the end.
For example: Dal, Kadhi, Baghare Baingan
❖ DHUNGAR: This is the quick smoke procedure used to
flavor meat dish, dals and raita. This is common procedure while making kebabs.
For example: Galavat Ke Kebab
❖ DUM DENA: Dum means breath and process involves placing semi-cooked ingredients in pot, sealing utensil with flour dough and applying very slow charcoal fire on top as well as below.
For example: Biryanis, curries
❖ LOAB: It refers to final stage in cooking when oil used during cooking rises to surface, giving dish the finished appearance.
For example: Rogan in curries
• Although awadh is not a state, the Mughlai food of luchnow is commonly termed as Awadhi cuisine.
• In the times of nawabs, this region was termed as awadh.
• Luchnow, commonly known as the ‘city of nawabs’, reflects the Persian culture of arts, country manners, poetry and fine cuisine.
• Luchnow is the capital of U.P and is also known as ‘Golden city of eastern U.P.
• It is situated in Gangetic plains and entire region is
surrounded by rural towns and villages such as Malihabad, Kakori, Gosaiganj.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 73 | P a g e
• River gomti flows through city dividing Luchnow into tho parts, trans-Gomti and cis-Gomti.
Luchnow is famous for its mangoes. Some of the best mangoes come from this region. Some other are as follows:
• All-spice (kebab chini)
• Royal cumin (shahi jeera)
• Mace (javitri)
• Saffron (kesar or zafraan)
• Lazzat-e-taam
• Bay berry (baobeer)
• Dried lemon grass (jarakhush)
• Sandalwood (chandan)
• Fox Nuts (makhana)
• Rose petals (gulab patti)
• Perfume (ittar)
• Clotted cream (balai)
• Gold leaf (sone ka warq)
Since Awadhi cuisine uses different typical techniques of cooking, the equipments used are very special. Some equipments used are as follows:
• Bhagona or patili.
• Deg or degchi (for dum cooking)
• Kadhai
• Lagan
• Lone Ka Tandoor
• Mahi tawa
• Seehi.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 74 | P a g e
The green fields of northern plains have encorouged people to farm animals such as goats, sheeps, cattle and chicken. Poultry farming around luchnow is also very famous and it is very common to see people enjoying the rooster fights on the streets.
❖ PULAO: Nawabs Abdul Quasim Khan was a nobleman of taste. The pulao was believed to be tasty and light for stomach. The rice used for dish was such nutritious as this used to be melted in mouth.
❖ NEHARI: At time of Nasir-ud-din Haider, a non-luchnavi, who was generally known as mahumdu, opened food stall in firangi mahal quarter. Nehari is a lamb preparation that is stewed with spices. It is usually had during Ramadan days as it gives a lot of energy.
❖ SHEERMAL: Mahumdu, who is considered a pride of luchnow, till date, who was also responsible for creation of sheermal. It is a light flaky bread often cooked in an iron tandoor because of its high fat content. After baking it is smeared with saffron and milk, accompanied with galouti kebab.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 75 | P a g e
❖ MALIDA: Pieces of bread mixed with ghee and sugar are an everyday sweet dish and also had on special occasions. It is sweet dish with semolina, which is so light. It led to development of panjgiri, a dish of semolina, dry fruits and milk.
❖ MURABBA: In Awadh, chefs used to prepare murabba of whole unripe small mangoes in such a way that green outer skin retained its original appearance.
❖ ZARDA: Spring is season of festivity on awadh cuisine celebrated with lots of music and dance. Fragnant basmati rice was prepared with saffron and sugar to celebrate this occasion.
❖ RIZALA: It is a mutton preparation and in a creamy white gravy. This was created to give different colour to gravy as most people associate red meats with red gravy. It is yoghurt based gravy, flavoured with cardamom and fresh green chillies.
❖ SHAMMI KEBAB: This is made from meat cooked with chana lentils and minced with spices. The tart flavor is quite close to raw mango. The texture is extremely soft and simply melts in mouth.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 76 | P a g e
❖ HALEEM: Haleem can be related to French pate, which has a paste like texture of meat. The meat is cooked with ghee, spices, broken wheat. The meat is slowly cooked till it shreads and then it is cooked until fibre breaks and resembles a texture of paste.
❖ GALOUTI KEBAB: These kebabs derive their name from word ‘ to melt in mouth’. The texture of meat is almost like paste and is cooked on large flat utensil. Also famous by name of tundey kebab. In this breast of lamb is used.
Rajasthan Culinary Delight 1. Dal Bati Churma: Dal Bati Churma is a very popular Rajasthani dish that is a treat for your taste-buds. It’s a staple food in several parts of India including Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh. It is served in a traditional way by first squashing the Bati and then pouring the Ghee on it. Yellow coloured daal (lentil) is also served with it. It is served in all the celebrations and festivals of Rajasthan including weddings, religious occasions or birthday parties. Daal is typically made of lentils and is spicy. Baati is made of flour. The sweet Churma is a combination of wheat flour, dry fruits & sugar. Ghee is added to all the three items. It is widely consumed in all parts of Rajasthan.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 77 | P a g e
2. Mawa Kachori:
Rajwada lands has its own unique taste and different ways to eat it. So mawa kachori which is famous in Jodhpur, is a round kachori but filled with sweet mawa and dipped in sugar syrup and various dry fruits.
3. Gulab Jamun Ki Sabji:
Gulab Jamun Ki Sabji is a delicious Rajasthani Curry which is popular in Jodhpur. It is best served with roti or steamed rice. Where jamun are made of mawa and Maida and deep fried and cooked in the curry till all the flavours are absorbed by the jamun. 4. Laal Maas: Laal maans is a meat curry from Rajasthan, India. It is a mutton curry prepared in a sauce of yoghurt and hot spices such as red Mathania chillies. This dish typically is very hot and rich in garlic, the gravy may be thick or liquid and is eaten with chapatis made out of wheat (usually eaten in summers) or bajra (a millet grown in Rajasthan and eaten in the winter months. It is very famous in Jaisalmer region of Rajasthan.
Besides spicy flavours, each region is distinguished by its popular sweets. Most people from Rajasthan have a natural liking for sweets or ‘Mithai’ as it is locally called. People residing in Rajasthan prefer ‘Jalebis’ and ‘Fafda’ with a large glass of hot milk in the morning. Each region has its own specialty. Laddoos from Jodhpur and Jaisalmer, Malpuas from Pushkar, Jalebies from most big cities, Rasogullas from Bikaner, Dil Jani from Udaipur, Mishri Mawa and Ghevar from Jaipur, Sohan Halwa from Ajmer, Mawa from Alwar.
Dil Jani from Udaipur: ‘Diljani’ the name refers to something which is close to your heart. Diljani sweet is basically several small boondis incorporated with Orange Juice, a single spoon of Diljani can relish all the sweet-buds in your mouth.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 78 | P a g e
UP Delights
A gourmet’s delight and an abode for those human souls given to joyous revelry, Uttar Pradesh is undoubtedly a foodista’s delight and redemption. Delicacies of various kinds are cooked inside it by the fire burning underneath the vessel for as many as three days at a stretch, with a lid on its mouth. Despite being classified as a tortuously slow method of putting in place a culinary delight, which indeed it is, the results produced nonetheless are a real treat to the taste buds.
This is what Uttar Pradesh Food is about-Perfection, no matter what it takes! Brought into existence by the bawarchis(royal chefs) of the Nawabs of Lucknow, the method is known popularly as ‘Dum Pukht’. Known for its remarkable ability to keep all the aromatic fragrances of the food surprisingly well-preserved, this one method is a sui generis from Lucknow.
Presenting, our best-loved recipes from this land of legendary food:
1) Bharwan chicken pasanda- A true blue royal delicacy- hearty and wholesome. Chicken breasts stuffed with a rich khoya-cheese mixture and drizzled with a luscious coconut-cashew sauce.
2) Mutton Kofta- This one’s winner on the dinner table. It can be served dried as kebabs or with a thick gravy which goes well with Basmati rice.
3) Arhar Ki Dal- nothing spells comfort like some steaming arhar dal drizzled on a plateful of rice. Every household in the state is sure to have its own version.
4) Kakori kebab- a famous Nawabi recipe from lucknow passed down through generations. It derives its name from the city of kakori on the outskirts of Lucknow. It is made with the finest meat of the lamb and a few spices.
5) Bhindi ka salan- It is native to the Mughlai cuisine. Crispy fried bhindi dipped in a zingy yogurt-based gravy with a melange of spices.
6) Aloo Rasedaar- a quick and easy indulgent fare, one of those breezy afternoons, aloo-puri is an all-time favourite food.
7) Bedmi- Paired with potato curry or chana it makes for a happy combination. Crisp and fluffy, the puris are made with whole meat flour and urad dal.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 79 | P a g e
8) Allahabad ki Tehri- a simple and speedy one-pot meal for those lazy days. With the goodness of Basmati rice and a melange of veggies, this recipe makes for a satisfying meal.
9) Baingan ki Lonje- this one’ a speciality from Benaras. Brinjals stuffed with an onion and spice mix and shallow fried.
10) Keema Dum- Rustic, char grilled flavours dominate this recipe. Minced meat marinated and cooked with a range of spices in mustard oil. Dum is a style of slow cooking.
11) Galouti Kebab- these non-veg kebabs were invented in the city of Nawabs, Lucknow. They are prepared with a melange of Indian spices.
History Background Uttar Pradesh as a state unfolds a fascinating past dating back to 4000 years ago, which still breathes fresh in every corner. This state sits around the three historically significant rivers- Yamuna, Ganga and the mythological Saraswati. The vast and fertile Gangetic Plains that make up the present-day Uttar Pradesh have played a key role in the rise and fall of major empires and dynasties going back more than 2500 years ago. Lying to the east of the capital of India, New Delhi, this was a strategic region which invaders and rulers sought to control in order to establish their power in North India.
List of peak seasons for fruits and veggie
❖ Winter Season- Chestnuts, Grapefruit, lemons, Oranges, Tangerines, Kale
❖ Spring Season- Apricots, Avocado, Mango, Pineapple, Rhubarb, Strawberries
❖ Summer Season- Blackberries, Blueberries, Nectarines, Peaches, Plums
❖ Fall Season- Apples, Cranberries, Figs, Grapes, Pears, Pomegranate
Seasonal availability under geographical indicators
❖ Malihabad Dasheri Mango- most popular variety of mango grown in different parts of India and it is the largest producer of the Dasheri mango.
❖ Allahabad Surkha Guava- cultivated across the Allahabad and known for sweet and strongly flavours and is known for its medical properties.
❖ Banarasi Langra- it is the prominent variety of mango and one of the most superior variety of Mango from the Northern India and are originally from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.


CAE 308 Food Quality Management
UNIT-1: QUALITY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT: Quality- Definition, Historical Perspective, Quality in different areas of society, Terminology of Quality, Basic tools of Quality, Quality Management- Importance, Principle, Processes, Requirements, Implementation & Certification of a QMS.
1.1 Quality
The Oxford American Dictionary defines quality as “a degree or level of excellence.” According to Garvin – Quality is an unusually slippery concept, easy to visualize and yet exasperatingly difficult to define. The word ‘quality’ normally conveys notions of nebulous factors that are not readily measured or tied down. Quality conveys a positive connotation to whatever it is applied The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something.
Concept of quality – historical background
The concept of a quality as we think of it now first emerged from the Industrial Revolution. Previously goods had been made from start to finish by the same person or team of people, with handcrafting and tweaking the product to meet ‘quality criteria’.
Quality, as a profession and the managerial process associated with the quality function, was introduced during the second half of the 20th century and has evolved since then. Over this period, few other disciplines have seen as many changes as the quality profession.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 3 | P a g e
1.2 Terminology of Quality Management
• The field of quality management has its own set of terminology that includes many acronyms. Here’s a list of some common terms, along with definitions, to help you navigate the world of operational excellence.
• Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP): Processes and Procedures, as part of the AIAG (Automotive Industry Action Group) industry best practices, put in place to ensure product design integrity throughout the manufacturing process. Find out more by watching our APQP webinar.
• Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA): A process of identifying the root cause of problems identified in the nonconformance process, as well as the definition of the initial issue correction, and finding a way to prevent future occurrences. Learn more.
• Change Management: Robust process to guarantee controls in place to maintain change process integrity, authorization, and traceability with process and documentation changes.
• Complaint Management: The process of logging, analysing, reporting, and responding to customer criticisms, as well as determining whether a regulatory filing is required. Read more on our Evaluation Page.
• Corrective Action Management: The method of taking steps to address nonconformances in the production process.
• Document Control and Management: The process of tracking, maintaining version control of, and storing documents to ensure document integrity through approvals and change management. Document Control is also a key component of Training Compliance Management. Explore the offering on our Support Page.
• Enterprise Quality Management Software (EQMS): End-to-end enterprise-wide quality management software, including full integration of applications that standardize and optimize production processes to help manufacturers optimize quality, minimize manufacturing interruption, and improve manufacturing margins as well as comply to industry requirements and regulations. Explore the QAD CEBOS suite of EQMS products.
• Gauge Management: Tracking and reporting the accuracy of a company’s gauge calibrations to guarantee inspection accuracy and reduce escaped defects. Read about QAD CEBOS Gauge Calibration and Management products on our Operations Page.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 4 | P a g e
• Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) Software: A solution that takes a preventative approach to food safety during the production process.
• International Automotive Task Force (IATF) 16949: An automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM) industry requirement that establishes global quality standards. Take a deeper dive into the need for IATF standards in our blog.
• International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standards: Worldwide process best practices for industrial and commercial production that are set by ISO, a global quality organization.
• ISO 9000/9001: International standards for quality management and assurance that specify the elements needed to enforce quality standards in any industry. Read our blog on ISO 9000 Standards.
• ISO 13485: Specifies the quality management system requirements for companies in the medical device manufacturing industry.
• ISO 17025: Outlines the requirements a laboratory needs to meet to demonstrate competence in calibration and testing.
• Layered Process Audit (LPA): A frequency and outcome-based proactive process-based method of conducting internal audits so companies can ensure that they are meeting quality management standards. Learn more about how QAD CEBOS supports LPAs.
• Materials Management Operations Guidelines (MMOG): MMOG/LE defines a global set of industry best practices for supply chain management and allows an organization to assess their internal processes and implement, verify, and track the resulting improvement.
• MQ1: QAD CEBOS’ suite of enterprise-wide quality management software that automates business processes and integrates data.
• New Product Introduction (NPI) or New Product Launch (NPL): Software that allows for the updating and revision of the product design, accelerating the design, development, and launch of a new or improved product while reducing costs and improving quality. Get the details on the QAD CEBOS approach to NPI. Watch our APQP webinar.
• Nonconformance Report (NCR): A document that records a problem with quality and the resulting corrective action that was taken, as well as steps taken to prevent the problem from happening again.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 5 | P a g e
• Production Part Approval Process (PPAP): A system put in place to ensure that suppliers produce quality products, particularly in the automotive manufacturing industry, and demonstrate good manufacturing practices (GMP). Check out the features of QAD CEBOS PPAP.
• Process Adherence: A group demonstrates with evidence that they understand and follow standards for business processes that ensure quality and consistency.
• Process Compliance: People in an organization follow governance and regulatory requirements.
• Process Audit: Evaluating outcomes to determine if production processes are being managed effectively enough to ensure quality.
• Quality Management System (QMS): A set of policies and procedures required for design, development, and production that ensure operational excellence and customer satisfaction. Explore the full range of QAD CEBOS QMS products.
• Quality Management Standards: Guidelines and requirements that ensure products consistently meet an expected level of quality based in ISO, AIAG, VDA MMOG/LE guidelines.
• Quality Process Compliance: Meeting the standards that external regulatory organizations set for product quality. Learn the steps to take to meet quality compliance in our blog.
• Risk Management: Identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing potential problems and mitigating actions so processes can be put in place to prevent product nonconformity. Find out more about how QAD CEBOS helps clients with Risk Management.
• Six Sigma: A method for improving processes to boost productivity and encourage consistency that was devised by engineer Bill Smith at Motorola and championed by Jack Welch at GE.
• Software Validation Procedure: A method of ensuring that an application fits its purpose, reducing risk and liability for the developer.
• Statistical Process Control (SPC): Using analytics to monitor and track the production process to ensure manufacturing within specification and identify issue trends to proactively improve quality and boost production. Get the details on QAD CEBOS SPC.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 6 | P a g e
• Total Quality Management (TQM): A company-wide approach to operational excellence that promotes quality at every stage of product design and manufacturing. Read our blog on TQM in automotive manufacturing.
• Training Compliance Management: Tracking employee training education and skills and awareness to ensure that production employees have the ongoing training required for manufacturing process optimization. See what QAD CEBOS has to offer for Training Management.
Quality Control (QC)
Quality control (QC) is implemented as a means of fulfilling quality requirements, reviewing all factors involved in production. The business confirms that the good or service produced meets organizational goals, often using tools such as operational auditing and inspection. QC is focused on process output
• Procedures used in each assay to assure a test run is valid and results are reliable
• A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in an individual
test or process
• A generic term that refers to the monitoring and assessment of laboratory testing processes to identify problems and maintain performance
• The operational techniques and activities used to fulfil requirements for quality
Quality Assurance (QA)
Quality assurance is implemented as a means of providing enough confidence that business requirements and goals (as outlined in quality planning) for a product and/or service will be fulfilled. This error prevention is done through systematic measurement, comparison with a standard, and monitoring of processes
• A part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled
• A formal and systematic exercise in identifying problems in medical care delivery, designing activities to overcome the problems, and carrying out follow-up monitoring to ensure that no new problems have been introduced and that corrective steps have been effective
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 7 | P a g e
• A broad spectrum of evaluation activities aimed at ensuring compliance with minimum quality standards
• All actions taken to establish, protect, and improve the quality of health care
Quality Improvement (QI)
Quality improvement is implemented as a means of providing mechanisms for the evaluation and improvement of processes, etc. in the light of their efficiency, effectiveness, and flexibility. This may be done with noticeably significant changes or incrementally via continual improvement
• A formal approach to the analysis of performance and systematic efforts to improve it.
• Systematic and continuous actions that lead to measurable improvement in health care services and the health status of targeted patient groups.
• Defining standards of care, reassessing those standards periodically, and continuously improving the medical systems that support those standards.
• A set of techniques for continuous study and improvement of the processes of delivering health care services and products to meet the needs and expectations of the customers of those services and products. It has three basic elements: customer knowledge, a focus on processes of health care delivery, and statistical approaches that aim to reduce variations in those processes.
Quality Management (QM)
Quality management ensures that an organization, product or service is consistent. It has four main components: quality planning, quality assurance, quality control and quality improvement. Quality management is focused not only on product and service quality, but also on the means to achieve it. Quality management, therefore, uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality. What a customer wants and is willing to pay for it determines quality. It is written or unwritten commitment to a known or unknown consumer in the market. Thus, quality can be defined as fitness for intended use or, in other words, how well the product performs its intended function
• The application of a quality management system in managing a process to achieve maximum customer satisfaction at the lowest overall cost to the organization while continuing to improve the process
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 8 | P a g e
• Management activities and functions involved in determination of quality policy and its implementation through means such as quality planning and quality assurance (including quality control)
• Quality management is the act of overseeing all activities and tasks needed to maintain a desired level of excellence. This includes the determination of a quality policy, creating and implementing quality planning and assurance, and quality control and quality improvement
• All activities of the overall management function that determine quality policy objectives and responsibilities; and implement them by means such as quality planning, quality processes, quality control, quality assessment, and quality improvement within the quality system
Quality Management System (QMS)
• Management system to direct and control an organization with regard to quality
• A formalized system that documents the structure, responsibilities and procedures required to achieve effective quality management. A QMS helps coordinate and direct an organization’s activities to meet customer and regulatory requirements and improve its effectiveness and efficiency on a continuous basis
• The organizational resources, processes and procedures to implement quality management, which is broader than both quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC). Besides QA, the laboratory quality management system also includes management of equipment, supplies and inventories, management of capital, finances and budgeting, and providing training and continuous support of staff and customer service
• The organizational structure, resources, processes, and procedures needed to implement quality management
Total Quality Management (TQM)
• A management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction
• A management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational functions (finance, production, customer service, etc.) to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 9 | P a g e
• A business philosophy that the long-term success of a company comes from customer satisfaction. TQM requires that all stakeholders in a business work together to improve processes, products, services and the culture of the company itself
Quality planning – Quality planning is implemented as a means of “developing the products, systems, and processes needed to meet or exceed customer expectations.” This includes defining who the customers are, determining their needs, and developing the tools (systems, processes, etc.) needed to meet those needs.
Food quality
Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. This includes external factors as appearance, texture, and flavour; factors such as federal grade standards and internal. Food quality in the United States is enforced by the Food Safety Act 1990. Public analysts carry out scientific analysis on the samples to determine whether the quality is of sufficient standard. Food quality is an important food manufacturing requirement, because food consumers are susceptible to any form of contamination that may occur during the manufacturing process. Many consumers also rely on manufacturing and processing standards, particularly to know what ingredients are present, due to dietary, nutritional requirements, or medical conditions. Besides ingredient quality, there are also sanitation requirements. It is important to ensure that the food processing environment is as clean as possible in order to produce the safest possible food for the consumer. As the matter of fact is that it depends on individual as their quality standards may vary from person to person.
1.3 Quality & Quality Management Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. This includes external factors as appearance (size, shape, colour, gloss, and consistency), texture, and flavour; factors such as federal grade standards (e.g. of eggs) and internal (chemical, physical, microbial). Food quality in the United States is enforced by the Food Safety Act 1990. Members of the public complain to trading standards professionals, who submit complaint samples and also samples used
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 10 | P a g e
to routinely monitor the food marketplace to public analysts. Public analysts carry out scientific analysis on the samples to determine whether the quality is of sufficient standard. Food quality is an important food manufacturing requirement, because food consumers are susceptible to any form of contamination that may occur during the manufacturing process. Many consumers also rely on manufacturing and processing standards, particularly to know what ingredients are present, due to dietary, nutritional requirements (kosher, halal, vegetarian), or medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, or allergies).
Raw Material Control
Raw materials are the basic ingredients used to create food products. These could be fruit and vegetables that are farmed and harvested; cows, chickens, pigs and sheep that are farmed for their meat, eggs and dairy products and various other items. Naturally, raw material control is directly related to process control as raw ingredients will need to meet certain guidelines before reaching processing phases.
Process Control
This principle relates to the process of food manufacturing. Ultimately, preventative measures are used alongside corrective measures – preventative strategies can only resolve a certain number of quality issues due to outside factors such as environment, storage and other such conditions. Many manufacturers work according to the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system as a result of this unpredictability. This system focuses on food safety as well as spoilage and other potential food risks. Total Quality Management (TQM) and ISO 9000 standards also relate to manufacturing processes and quality guidelines.
Finished Product Inspection
The third principle focuses on the final product – the packaged food that is then sold to consumers and suppliers. There are many forms of testing done at different stages – visual observation, physical tests and chemical tests are just some examples. Microbiological testing is very effective for determining health and sanitation controls, with a stringent monitoring process that incorporates records, data collection and the analysis of trends. External inspectors are also used alongside internal testers. Systems are designed for immediate corrective action when any products have raised red flags at any stage of the inspection, to reduce safety and hazard risks.
Quality management plays a vital role within the food industry, across many different stages of sourcing, processing and packaging. In addition to basic laws and regulations on nutritive value,
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 11 | P a g e
quality levels also incorporate factors such as shelf-life, raw materials, taste, texture, use of preservatives and many other indicators too.
Not surprisingly, this makes it all the more important for food manufacturers to adhere to an efficient quality management system (QMS) in order to achieve standardisation and meet the demands of consumers and authorities.
When it comes to food quality, the definition can vary considerably in its use – some may use the term to define high end products such as caviar, while others may use the term in reference to basic quality of everyday items such as bread. In terms of quality control and management however, the term is used universally to ensure that all food products are processed according to strict guidelines.
Businesses may choose to obtain external recognition or accreditation of their FS & QMS for a number of reasons.
• Gain independent confirmation that the systems operated comply with industry standards and are sufficiently robust.
• Customer assurance.
• Serve as a continuous improvement initiative.
• Gain a competitive advantage and access to new markets.
• Demonstrate control and legal ‘due diligence’.
Benefit from related impacts of the improvement in general site efficiency.
Gaining accreditation of a recognised quality standard typically starts with the selection of the appropriate ‘scheme/standard’ for the manufacturing operation. Such standards include:
• Global G.A.P;
• IFS (International Featured Standards);
• BRC (British Retail Consortium);
• ISO 9001 Food quality management standard (International Organization for Standardization);
• ISO22000 FSMS-Food Safety Management System;
• Food Safety System Certification (FSSC) 22000.
Defining technical and quality standards, for further information with regard to the selection of appropriate food industry standards and certification schemes.
After the appropriate standard has been selected by the organisation, the standard will often contain hundreds of clauses requiring the business to operate extensive systems and procedures to assure
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 12 | P a g e
ongoing and consistent control, all of which will have to be met before the site can achieve full approval/accreditation according to the standard. Therefore, a process cycle of gap analysis, procedure implementation and review can continue up to the point where the business feels sufficiently confident that all requirements of the chosen standard are met. At this point, the business should seek to secure the services of an accredited/authorised independent third-party audit body to assess the operation against the requirements of the standard.
Once the audit has been completed, and any nonconformances raised dealt with appropriately (and within the timescales required), then the operation can be awarded certification or approval against the selected standard.
Accreditation will often be on a graded basis and usually will be for a fixed period, after which another audit will be required to ensure that the operation continues to meet the requirements of the standard, including incorporating any updates or additions to the standard since the last site assessment.
Food fraud is a significant and growing problem, driven by globalization, economic opportunity, and the low probability and severity of punishment. Although food fraud is economically motivated, it may result in serious health consequences. Therefore, emerging food fraud issues are described in this chapter, including the usage of food fraud databases. Analytical verification of food fraud and food authentication is needed to support proper food safety management systems. However, due to time and money constraints, only a restricted number of samples can be analysed in a laboratory. For analysis outside the laboratory, rapid, non-destructive, nontargeted methods are needed. This can be either handheld equipment for food safety inspectors or in-line equipment for the food manufacturers.
1.4 Quality Control in the Food Industry– Defect Identification
Quality control (QC) is a set of activities for ensuring quality in products by identifying defects in the actual products produced. It’s a reactive process and aims to identify (and correct) defects in finished products.
QC can be achieved by identifying and eliminating sources of quality problems to ensure customer’s requirements are continually met. It involves the inspection aspect of quality management and is typically the responsibility of a specific team tasked with testing products for defects.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 13 | P a g e
Quality management is the act of overseeing all activities and tasks needed to maintain a desired level of excellence. This includes the determination of a quality policy, creating and implementing quality planning and assurance, and quality control and quality improvement. It is also referred to as total quality management (TQM).
Within the master’s programme you can choose one of the following Specialisations to meet your personal interests.
• Quality Control and Assurance
• Quality and Food Logistics
• User-oriented Food Quality
• Quality Management and Entrepreneurship
Master’s Food Quality Management
The Food Quality Management Master of Science study programme offers an integrated approach to the study and assessment of quality processes in the agri-food chain through an exclusively developed techno-managerial approach. The whole supply chain is studied from the primary sector to the final consumer. Food, flowers and cattle are also discussed. This two-year MSc gives you the chance to analyse problems using both the social and life sciences. This allows you a higher level of approach on the topics of food quality, quality management, quality design, quality control, quality improvement, quality assurance, quality policy and business strategy.
Importance of Quality Control
We have identified a few reasons why brands dealing in food items must not ignore quality control:
Reduced production cost SE banner Square
By undertaking effective inspection and control in the production processes and operations, companies in the food industry can reduce their production costs considerably. Wastages and poor product quality further increase production costs. Quality control keeps tabs on the production of inferior products and wastages thereby bringing down the cost of production significantly.
Better goodwill
By producing goods of better quality and satisfying customer’s needs, quality control gives a boost to the goodwill of the company in the minds of people. This consequently results in a good brand reputation and positive word-of-mouth on both offline and online channels. A reputed concern can
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 14 | P a g e
easily raise finances from the market. Furthermore, when a company has enhanced goodwill, the chances of its survival in the highly competitive market are also high.
Facilitates Pricing
By employing quality control measures, food industry companies can ensure that uniform products of the same quality are produced. This greatly facilitates the problem of price fixation for food products. This also eliminates the worry of constantly changing the prices of commodities.
Increase sales
Quality control ensures the production of good quality products which is immensely helpful in attracting more customers to the product thereby increasing sales. It is significantly beneficial in maintaining the existing demand and also creating new demand for the company’s products. Also, the rise in the use of social media has made it more essential for brands to be on their toes. Any negative comment or review by a customer could affect the brand image.
Improved techniques of production
Quality control ensures that commodities are produced at reasonable rates and the desired standards. By supplying technical and engineering data for the product and manufacturing processes, better methods and designs of production are contact Unsure by quality control.
Higher employee morale
An effective quality control system is greatly useful in increasing the morale of employees. When employees start to feel that they are working in a concern producing good and higher quality products their willingness and motivation to work towards the company’s objectives tend to increase. Also, these employees are more likely to keep up with the company’s standards of quality control in their operations.
1.5 Quality Management System
A Quality Management System (QMS) is defined as a formalized system that documents processes, procedures, and responsibilities for achieving quality policies and objectives. A QMS helps coordinate and direct an organization’s activities to meet customer and regulatory requirements and improve its effectiveness and efficiency on a continuous basis.
Quality management serves many purposes: –
• Improving processes
• Reducing waste
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 15 | P a g e
• Lowering costs
• Facilitating and identifying training opportunities
• Engaging staff
• Setting organization wide direction
Requirements of quality management system: –
➢ Design
➢ Deploy
➢ Build
➢ Control
➢ Measure
➢ Review
➢ Improve
1. Design and Build: – The design and build portions serve to develop the structure of a QMS, its processes, and plans for implementation. Senior management should oversee this portion to ensure the needs of the organization and the needs of its customers are a driving force behind the systems development.
2. Deploy: – Deployment is best served in a granular fashion by breaking each process down into subprocesses and educating staff on documentation, education, training tools, and metrics. Company intranets are increasingly being used to assist in the deployment of quality management systems.
3. Control and Measure: – Control and measurement are two areas of establishing a QMS that are largely accomplished through routine, systematic audits of the quality management system. The specifics vary greatly from organization to organization depending on size, potential risk, and environmental impact.
4. Review and Improve: – Review and improve detail how the results of an audit are handled. The goals are to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of each process toward its objectives, to communicate these findings to the employees, and to develop new best practices and processes based on the data collected during the audit.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 16 | P a g e
Requirement of Quality Management System
Design and Build
The design and build portions serve to develop the structure of a QMS, its processes, and plans for implementation. Senior management should oversee this portion to ensure the needs of the organization and the needs of its customers are a driving force behind the systems development.
Deploy Deployment is best served in a granular fashion by breaking each process down into subprocesses and educating staff on documentation, education, training tools, and metrics. Company intranets are increasingly being used to assist in the deployment of quality management systems.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 17 | P a g e
Control and Measure
Control and measurement are two areas of establishing a QMS that are largely accomplished through routine, systematic audits of the quality management system. The specifics vary greatly from organization to organization depending on size, potential risk, and environmental impact.
Review and Improve
Review and improve detail how the results of an audit are handled. The goals are to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of each process toward its objectives, to communicate these findings to the employees, and to develop new best practices and processes based on the data collected during the audit.
Quality management systems serve many purposes, including:
• Improving processes
• Reducing waste
• Lowering costs
• Facilitating and identifying training opportunities
• Engaging staff
• Setting organization-wide direction
QMS Certification
QMS Certification Services are responsible for auditing and certifying thousands of organisations in a range of industries, across the world. By building a strong reputation for the highest quality service, market leading pricing and simplified client process, QMS are Australia’s most trusted accredited third-party International Certification Body.
QMS was formed with customer service and value in mind and these aims have been embodied into every internal and external process.
Our certification services are designed with a customer-first focus, to help us create and deliver value through everything we do. We strive to be proactive in enhancing the quality of our offerings, so we can proudly lead the market in certification services. Our teams are comprised of experienced professionals that have previously been involved in the development of quality management systems, either as auditors, auditees or trainers. This experience allows us to understand every aspect of management system and how to deliver optimal results consistently.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 18 | P a g e
1.6 Environmental Management System (EMS)
An environmental management system (EMS) is “a system and database which integrates procedures and processes for training of personnel, monitoring, summarizing, and reporting of specialized environmental performance information to internal and external stakeholders of a firm”.
The most widely used standard on which an EMS is based is International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) 14001.
An environmental management information system (EMIS) or Environmental Data Management System (EDMS) is an information technology solution for tracking environmental data for a company as part of their overall environmental management system.
Goals/Aim of EMS
The goals of EMS are to increase compliance and reduce waste. Compliance is the act of reaching and maintaining minimal legal standards. By not being compliant, companies may face fines, government intervention or may not be able to operate. Waste reduction goes beyond compliance to reduce environmental impact. The EMS helps to develop, implement, manage, coordinate and monitor environmental policies. Waste reduction begins at the design phase through pollution prevention and waste minimization. At the end of the life cycle, waste is reduced by recycling.
To meet these goals, the selection of environmental management systems is typically subject to a certain set of criteria: a proven capability to handle high frequency data, high performance indicators, transparent handling and processing of data, powerful calculation engine, customised factor handling, multiple integration capabilities, automation of workflows and question & answer processes and in-depth, flexible reporting.
Features of EMS
Serves as a tool, or process, to improve environmental performance and information mainly “design, pollution control and waste minimization, training, reporting to top management, and the setting of goals”. Provides a systematic way of managing an organization’s environmental affairs. The aspect of the organization’s overall management structure that addresses immediate and long-term impacts of its products, services and processes on the environment. EMS assists with planning, controlling and monitoring policies in an organization.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 19 | P a g e
Gives order and consistency for organizations to address environmental concerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibility and ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. Creates environmental buy-in from management and employees and assigns accountability and responsibility. Sets framework for training to achieve objectives and desired performance. Helps understand legislative requirements to better determine a product or service’s impact, significance, priorities and objectives. Focuses on continual improvement of the system and a way to implement policies and objectives to meet a desired result. This also helps with reviewing and auditing the EMS to find future opportunities. Encourages contractors and suppliers to establish their own EMS. Facilitates e-reporting to federal, state and provincial government environmental agencies through direct upload.
EMS Model
An EMS follows a Plan-Do-Check-Act, or PDCA, Cycle. The diagram shows the process of first developing an environmental policy, planning the EMS, and then implementing it. The process also includes checking the system and acting on it. The model is continuous because an EMS is a process of continual improvement in which an organization is constantly reviewing and revising the system.
This is a model that can be used by a wide range of organizations — from manufacturing facilities to service industries to government agencies.
Other Meaning
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 20 | P a g e
An EMS can also be classified as: A system which monitors, tracks and reports emissions information, particularly with respect to the oil and gas industry. EMSs are becoming web-based in response to the EPA’s mandated greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting rule, which allows for reporting GHG emissions information via the internet. A centrally controlled and often automated network of devices (now frequently wireless using z-wave and zigbee technologies) used to control the internal environment of a building. Such a system namely acts as an interface between end user and energy (gas/electricity) consumption.
Companies Providing Environmental Management Systems Wisdom business development agency workflow-based environmental management software NEMS environmental management suite Emisoft’s environmental management, reporting and compliance platform Medgate environmental management software Monitor Pro environmental data management system EsDat environmental data management system Enviance regulatory compliance system ERA Environmental’s environmental management system
The purpose of the ISO 14001 management system standard is to specify general requirements and guidelines that, when followed, should provide reasonable assurance that the outputs from
the system will have minimal negative environmental impact and improved environmental performance. It should be noted that the ISO 14001 standard is no prescriptive; that is, it details what should be done, not necessarily how to do it.
The ISO 14001 standard is developed around the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) model of improvement, an iterative process that must be applied regularly to ensure benefits are being realized and the standard is being upheld. The primary operational components of an ISO
14001 EMS can be grouped as follows:
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 21 | P a g e
1. Create/update environmental policy.
2. Plan:
1. Environmental aspects
2. Legal and other requirements
3. Objectives, targets, and programs
3. Do:
1. Resources, responsibilities, and authority
2. Competence, training, and awareness
3. Communication
4. Documentation
5. Control of documents
6. Operational control
7. Emergency preparedness and response
4. Check:
1. Monitor and measure
2. Evaluate compliance
3. Nonconformity, corrective and preventive action
4. Control of records
5. Internal audits
5. Act:
1. Management review
2. ISO 14001 audit
History of Environmental Management Systems
Quality approaches have traditionally maintained a fairly strict focus on business and customer issues, such as reducing defects and waste and improving efficiency, profitability, and customer satisfaction.
Environmental and sustainability goals for quality initiatives are relatively recent. Because the business world is accustomed to treating environmental practices as sources of added costs, the challenge for quality practitioners is to identify where environmental and sustainability quality issues, such as reduction of waste and use of renewable energy, also serve business and customer interests.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 22 | P a g e
In EMS the Bridge to Sustainability, a presentation available from the Energy and Environmental Division, Chris Spire of the ANAB Accreditation Council explains the characteristics of each stage in the evolution of compliance management to sustainability:
1990 to 1994: Compliance management (CM) meant focusing on regulation and relying on environmental departments to react to issues. 1994 to current: Environmental management systems (EMS) brought a more systematic, organization-wide focus on environmental issues. 1998 to current: Environmental information management systems (EIMS) involve using web- based systems and integrating multiple systems. 2002 to current: Environmental process management systems (EPMS) make use of quality tools, using a project focus to drive improvements. 2006 to current: Sustainability requires integrating environmental, social, and economic goals and using best practices to address risk and uncertainty.
In 2004, Larry R. Smith of Ford Motor Co. defined sustainability as “finding win/win/win solutions for both the short- and long-term effects of design on social responsibility, environmental performance and business results—the triple bottom line.”
Importance of EMS
It is expected that a company will know and meet all the environmental requirements that are specified for their operations, but not every company will look past this and work towards improving their operations with respect to reducing the negative impacts on the environment. This is the reason for having an environmental management system, and is the biggest selling point for why a company would want to implement such a system. Reducing your environmental impact can help gain market share in a world with ever growing environmental awareness.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 23 | P a g e
UNIT-2: System of Quality Management: TQM and TQM in Practice, Components of TQM Principles of TQM, Steps of TQM, Models of TQM, Implementation of TQM, Evaluation of TQM, Banners of TQM.
2.1 Total Quality Management (TQM)
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a concept created by W. Edwards Deming. It was originally introduced in Japan after World War II to assist the Japanese in re-building their economy. The main focus of TQM was and is continuous quality improvement in the areas of product or service, employer-employee relations and consumer-business relations. Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the 1950s and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980s.
ISO defined TQM as “A management approach of an organization centered on quality, based on participation of all its members and aiming at long term benefits to all members of the organization and society.”
TQM is “a system of continuous improvement employing participative management and centered on the needs of customers” (Jurow and Barnard, 1993)
Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a company that strives to provide customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company’s operations, with processes being done right for the first time to eradicate defects waste from operations.
Total Quality Management is a method by which management and employees can become involved in the continuous improvement of the production of goods and services. It is a combination of quality and management tools aimed at increasing the business and reducing losses due to wasteful practices.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is a proven technique to guarantee survival in world-class competition. Only by changing the actions of management will the culture and actions of an entire organization be transformed. TQM is for the most part common sense. Analyzing the three words, we have:
Total: Makeup of the whole.
Quality: Degree of excellence a product or service provides.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 24 | P a g e
Management: Act, art, or manner of handling, controlling, directing, etc.
The Principles of Total Quality Management
1. Primary responsibility for product quality rests with top management.
2. Quality should be customer focused and evaluated using customer-based standards.
3. The production process and work methods must be designed consciously to achieve quality
4. Every employee is responsible for achieving good product quality.
5. Quality cannot be inspected into a product, so make it right the first time.
6. Quality must be monitored to identify problems quickly and correct quality problems immediately.
7. The organization must strive for continuous improvement.
8. Companies must work with, and extend TQM programs to their suppliers to ensure quality inputs.
Following are the various models of total quality management:
1. Deming Application Prize
2. Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence
3. European Foundation for Quality Management, and
4. ISO quality management standards
Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to “install and make permanent climate where employees continuously improve their ability to provide on demand products and services that customers will find of particular value.”[1] “Total” emphasizes that departments in addition to production (for example sales and marketing, accounting and finance, engineering and design) are obligated to improve their operations; “management” emphasizes that executives are obligated to actively manage quality through funding, training, staffing, and goal setting. While there is no widely agreed-upon approach, TQM efforts typically draw heavily on the previously developed tools and techniques of quality control. TQM enjoyed widespread attention during the late 1980s and early 1990s before being overshadowed by ISO 9000, Lean manufacturing, and Six Sigma.
Steps in Total Quality Management
Clarifying Vision
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 25 | P a g e
If a business wants to be known for quality, it must start by defining “quality.” Is it a lack of mistakes in providing a product or service, for example? Or is it the greatest return on investment for customers? Everyone in the business must know what it does and where it wants to go to help it reach its destination.
Defining Success
TQM initiatives should be actionable and measurable. Identifying critical success factors like customer satisfaction and market share allow companies to align their actions with their objectives. Then they can track their progress by monitoring metrics, like customer satisfaction ratings and market share percentages.
Engaging Everyone
In TQM, customer satisfaction isn’t confined to one department. Nor is it the responsibility of management alone. All employees contribute to the cause. So, businesses must inform employees of their roles and solicit their input before planning an approach.
Planning an Approach
Once a company targets the desired improvement, like increasing customer satisfaction ratings, it takes steps like:
• Defining the problem: Customers aren’t happy.
• Collecting related data: Customer survey responses for the past three months.
• Finding the root cause: Customers wait too long on the phone for service.
Doing the Work
Total quality management helps businesses to systematically tackle problems and seize opportunities through steps like:
• Developing a solution: Automatically routing calls to the next available customer service representative.
• Picking a measurement: Hold time for customers.
• Implementing changes: Start automatically routing calls.
Checking the Results
Companies can gauge the effectiveness of their TQM initiatives by comparing data from before changes were made to after. If automatically routing calls to the next available service representative is successful, then the company should see shorter h old times for customers. Satisfaction scores should increase as well.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 26 | P a g e
Acting on the Findings
A business can reap long-term benefits by documenting the results of successful TQM initiatives and sharing them throughout the organization. When the customer service team improves its performance, that can help sales and marketing do better as well because they can point to those same improvements when working with prospective customers.
Systematizing Improvements
Also, the process that was used to increase customer satisfaction scores could be applied to other problems, perhaps with refinements based on lessons learned. For example, the production department might be able to compare pre-change and post-change data to measure the effectiveness of its efforts to reduce the number of defective products.
Sustaining Success
Just as everyone shares in the work, everyone should share in the rewards. If the company achieves its goal of improving customer satisfaction, it might pay employees bonuses for reaching the targets it has set for individuals, departments and the organization as a whole
Management Models
Total Quality Management is a combined effort of both top-level management as well as employees of an organization to formulate effective strategies and policies to deliver high quality products which not only meet but also exceed customer satisfaction.
Total Quality management enables employees to focus on quality than quantity and strive hard to excel in whatever they do. According to total quality management, customer feedbacks and expectations are most essential when it comes to formulating and implementing new strategies to deliver superior products than competitors and eventually yield higher revenues and profits for the organization.
Credits for the process of total quality management go to many philosophers and their teachings. Drucker, Juran, Deming, Ishikawa, Crosby, Feigenbaum and many other individuals who have in due course of time studied organizational management have contributed effectively to the process of total quality management.
There are many models of total quality management and it is really not necessary that every organization should select and implement the same model.
Following are the various models of total quality management:
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 27 | P a g e
▪ Deming Application Prize
▪ Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence
▪ European Foundation for Quality Management, and
▪ ISO quality management standards
Customers and their feedbacks are the foundation of every Total Quality Management model. In simpler words, Total Quality Management begins with understanding customers, their needs and what they expect from the organization. Design fool proof processes and systems to collect customer data, information to further study, analyse and act accordingly. Such activities not only help you understand your target customers but also predict customer behaviour.
As a business marketer, you need to know the age group of your target customers, their preferences and needs. Employees need to know how their products or services can fulfil customer needs and demands.
Total Quality Management model requires meticulous planning and research. Every total quality management model integrates customer feedbacks with relevant information and plans accordingly to design effective strategies to achieve high quality products.
Strategies formulated to yield better quality products need to be evaluated and reviewed from time to time. Remember, customers are satisfied only when products meet their expectations, fulfil their needs and are value for money. Their overall experience with the organization needs to be pleasant for them to be happy and return to the organization even the next time.
Continuous improvements, changes and modifications in the existing processes according to customer expectations are necessary to yield higher profits. Processes can’t be same always. If a customer complaint about a particular product of yours, find out the root cause of problem. Understand and implement necessary total quality management models to rectify the problem, remove the defect for a high-quality product.
The successful implementation of Total quality Management model needs extensive planning and most importantly participation of every single member who is benefitted out of the organization (Management, suppliers, clients and even customers). Without the participation of each and every employee, total quality management model would be a complete failure.
Total Quality Management model begins with research and collecting information about end-users followed by planning and full participation of employees for successful implementation. Top level Management needs to make other team members aware of the benefits of total quality management
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 28 | P a g e
process, importance of quality to survive in the long run and how they can implement various TQM models by prioritizing their customers and their feedbacks.
Steps to Creating a Total Quality Management System
1. Clarify Vision, Mission, and Values
Employees need to know how what they do is tied to organizational strategy and objectives.
All employees need to understand where the organization is headed (its vision), what it hopes to accomplish (mission) and the operational principles (values) that will steer its priorities and decision making.
Develop a process to educate employees during new employee orientation and communicate the mission, vision, and values as a first step.
2. Identify Critical Success Factors (CSF)
Critical success factors help an organization focus on those things that help it meet objectives and move a little closer to achieving its mission.
These performance-based measures provide a gauge for determining how well the organization is meeting objectives.
Some example CSF:
• Financial Performance
• Customer Satisfaction
• Process Improvement
• Market Share
• Employee Satisfaction
• Product Quality
3. Develop Measures and Metrics to Track CSF Data
Once critical success factors are identified, there needs to be measurements put in place to monitor and track progress.
This can be done through a reporting process that is used to collect specified data and share information with senior leaders.
For example, if a goal is to increase customer satisfaction survey scores, there should be a goal and a measure to demonstrate achievement of the goal.
4. Identify Key Customer Group
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 29 | P a g e
Every organization has customers. Those that understand who the key customer groups are can create products and services based on customer requirements.
The mistake a lot of organizations make is not acknowledging employees as a key customer group.
Example Key Customer Groups:
• Employees
• Customers
• Suppliers
• Vendors
• Volunteers
5. Solicit Customer Feedback
The only way for an organization to know how well they are meeting customer requirements is by simply asking the question.
Create a structured process to solicit feedback from each customer group in an effort to identify what is important to them.
Organizations often make the mistake of thinking they know what is important to customers and ask the wrong survey questions. This type of feedback is obtained through customer focus groups.
6. Develop a Survey Tool
Next, develop a customer satisfaction survey tool that is based on finding out what is important to customers.
For example, customers might care more about quality than cost but if you are developing a product and trying to keep the cost down and skimping on the quality, you are creating a product that might not meet the needs of the customer.
7. Survey Each Customer Group
Create a customized survey for each customer group. This survey will help to establish baseline
data on the customers’ perception of current practice.
Now you will have a starting point for improvements and will be able to demonstrate progress as improvement plans are implemented.
8. Develop Improvement Plan
Once the baseline is established you should develop an improvement plan based on customer feedback from each group.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 30 | P a g e
Improvement plans should be written in SMART goals format with assignments to specific staff for follow through.
• Process improvement initiatives: such as customer call hold times
• Leadership Development: Walk-the-Talk
• Management Training/Development: How to manage employees in a quality environment
• Staff Training/Development: Customer Service
• Performance Management: Setting expectations, creating job descriptions that support the vision and holding staff accountable.
9. Resurvey
After a period of time (12-18 months), resurvey key customers to see if scores have improved. Customer needs and expectations change over time so being in-tune to changing needs and expectations is critical to long-term success.
10. Monitor CSF
It is important to monitor CSF monthly to ensure there is consistent progress toward goals. This also allows for course correction should priorities and objectives change during the review period.
11. Incorporate Satisfaction Data into Marketing Plans
Once you’ve achieved some positive results with your satisfaction data, use it as a marketing tool!
A lot of successful organizations miss the boat by not letting others know what they do well. Customers want to know how an organization’s internal processes work, especially if those processes help to deliver an outstanding product or service!
12. Technology
Make sure technology is user-friendly and supports targeted improvements. For example, a website should be easy to navigate as well as easy to find (SEO) and the content should be easy to understand.
Final Thoughts
Make sure employees understand the vision as well as their role in supporting it. Look for ways to ensure that all internal processes are standardized and that employees receive the training to understand the standardization.
• Some of the first seeds of quality management were planted as the principles of scientific management swept through U.S. industry.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 31 | P a g e
• Businesses clearly separated the processes of planning and carrying out the plan, and union opposition arose as workers were deprived of a voice in the conditions and functions of their work.
• The Hawthorne experiments in the late 1920s showed how worker productivity could be impacted by participation. quality.
1950s• Walter Shewhart developed the methods for statistical analysis and control of
• W. Edwards Deming taught methods for statistical analysis and control of quality
to Japanese engineers and executives. This can be considered the origin of TQM.
• Joseph M. Juran taught the concepts of controlling quality and managerial breakthrough.
• Armand V. Feigenbaum’s book Total Quality Control, a forerunner for the present understanding of TQM, was published.
•Philip B. Crosby’s promotion of zero defects paved the way for quality improvement in
many companies.
•The Japanese named their approach to total quality “companywide quality control.” It is around this time that the term quality management systems arises.
• Kaoru Ishikawa’s synthesis of the philosophy contributed to Japan’s ascendancy as a
quality leadern Today
• TQM is the name for the philosophy of a broad and systemic approach to managing organizational quality.
• Quality standards such as the ISO 9000 series and quality award programs such as the Deming Prize and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award specify principles and processes that comprise TQM.
• TQM as a term to describe an organization’s quality policy and procedure has fallen out of favor as international standards for quality management have been developed. Please see our series of pages on quality management systems for more information.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 32 | P a g e
UNIT-3: ISO 9000 AND 14000 FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE: Origin and History of ISO 9000, Implementation of ISO, ISO 9000 Registration Process, ISO and World Trade, ISO in Developing countries, who develops ISO SFDS, How ISO standards are developed, Auditing Standards Disadvantages to adopting ISO 9000 requirement, ISO 14000- History Who and what do the standards apply to, ISO 14000 Family, EMS Mood, Elements of ISO 14001 standards, Total Quality Environmental Management.
3.1 International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and works in 164 countries.
It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. It is the world’s largest developer of voluntary international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Over twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety, agriculture and healthcare.
Use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality. The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste. By enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis. The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally.
International Standards are developed by ISO technical committees (TC) and subcommittees (SC) by a process with six steps:
1: Proposal stage
2: Preparatory stage
3: Committee stage
4: Enquiry stage
5: Approval stage
6: Publication stage
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 33 | P a g e
ISO is funded by a combination of:
• Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work.
• Subscriptions from member bodies. These subscriptions are in proportion to each country’s gross national product and trade figures.
• Sale of standards.
The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard- setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and works in 164 countries.
It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United
Nations Economic and Social Council.
What is ISO 9001?
❖ Full form of ISO- international organization system
❖ It’s a quality management system that can be adopted by any kind of organization.
❖ The system focuses towards meeting the customer requirements and enhancing of customer satisfaction.
❖ It was published in the year 2005
❖ Its formation took place on 23 February 1947.
❖ Its headquarters lies in geneva
❖ There are 63 countries as its members
Use of the standard aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality. The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste.
The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and the end users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally HISTORY:
The organization today known as ISO began in 1928 as the International Federation of the N during World War II, but after the war ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 34 | P a g e
and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization; the new organization officially began operations in February 1947.
ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISO’s strategic objectives. The organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva.
A Council with a rotating membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance, including setting the Central Secretariat’s annual budget. The Technical Management Board is responsible for over 250 technical committees,
who develop the ISO standards? IEC joint committees
ISO has formed two joint committees with the International Electro technical Commission (IEC) to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) was created in 1987 to “[d]evelop, maintain, promote and facilitate IT standards”, where IT refers to information technology.
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 (JTC 2) was created in 2009 for the purpose of
“tandardization in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources”
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 35 | P a g e
ISO member countries with a national standards body and ISO voting rights. Correspondent members (countries without a national standards body). Subscriber members (countries with small economies).
ISO has 163 national members.
ISO has three membership categories
• Member bodies are national bodies considered the most representative standards body in each country. These are the only members of ISO that have voting rights.
• Correspondent members are countries that do not have their own standards
organization. These members are informed about ISO’s work, but do not participate in standards promulgation.
• Subscriber members are countries with small economies. They pay reduced membership fees, but can follow the development of standards.
Participating members are called “P” members, as opposed to observing members, who are called “O” members.
A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long process that commonly starts with the proposal of new work within a committee. Here are some abbreviations used for marking a standard with its status
• PWI – Preliminary Work Item
• NP or NWIP – New Proposal / New Work Item Proposal
• AWI – Approved new Work Item
• WD – Working Draft
• CD – Committee Draft
• FCD – Final Committee Draft
• DIS – Draft International Standard
• FDIS – Final Draft International Standard
• PRF – Proof of a new International Standard
• IS – International Standard
Abbreviations used for amendments
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 36 | P a g e
• NP Amd – New Proposal Amendment
• AWI Amd – Approved new Work Item Amendment
• WD Amd – Working Draft AAmendmen
• CD Amd / PDAmd – Committee Draft Amendment / Proposed Draft Amendment
• FPDAmd / DAM (DAmd) – Final Proposed Draft Amendment / Draft Amendment
• FDAM (FDAmd) – Final Draft Amendment
• PRF Amd
• Amd – Amendmen
Other abbreviations
• TR – Technical Report
• DTR – Draft Technical Report
• TS – Technical Specification
• DTS – Draft Technical Specification
• PAS – Publicly Available Specification
• TTA – Technology Trends Assessment
• IWA – International Workshop Agreement
The fact that many of the ISO-created standards are ubiquitous has led, on occasion, to common use of “ISO” to describe the actual product that conforms to a standard. Some examples of this are:
• Many CD images end in the file extension “ISO” to signify that they are using the ISO 9660 standard file system as opposed to another file system—hence
CD images are commonly referred to as “ISOs”. Virtually all computers with CD-
ROM drives that can read CDs use this standard. Some DVD-ROMs also use ISO 9660 file systems.
• Photographic film’s sensitivity to light (its “film speed”) is described
by ISO 6, ISO 2240 and ISO 5800. Hence, the film’s speed is often referred to by its
ISO number.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 37 | P a g e
• As it was originally defined in ISO 518, the flash hot shoe found on cameras is often called the “ISO shoe”.
• ISO 11783, which is marketed as ISOBUS.
• ISO 13216, which is marketed as ISOFIX.
International Standards and other publications:
ISO’s main products are international standards. ISO also publishes technical reports, technical specifications, publicly available specifications, technical corrigenda, and guides.
International standards
These are designated using the format, where nnnnn is the number of the standard, p is an optional part number, yyyy is the year published,
and Title describes the subject. IEC for International Electrotechnical
Commission is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1 (the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee). ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International. yyyy and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard and may under some circumstances be left off the title of a published work.
Technical reports
These are issued when a technical committee or subcommittee has collected data of a different kind from that normally published as an International Standard, such as references and explanations. The naming conventions for these are the same as for standards, except TR prepended instead of IS in the report’s name.
For example:
• ISO/IEC TR 17799:2000 Code of Practice for Information Security Management
• ISO/TR 19033:2000 Technical product documentation — Metadata for construction documentation
Technical and publicly available specifications
Technical specifications may be produced when “the subject in question is still under development or where for any other reason there is the future but not immediate possibility of an agreement to publish an International Standard”. A publicly available specification is usually
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 38 | P a g e
“an intermediate specification, published prior to the development of a full International Standard, or, in IEC may be a ‘dual logo’ publication published in collaboration with an external organization”. By convention, both types of specification are named in a manner similar to the organization’s technical reports.
For example:
• ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation — Reference designation system — Part 1: General application rules
• ISO/PAS 11154:2006 Road vehicles — Roof load carriers
Technical corrigenda
ISO also sometimes issues “technical corrigenda” (where “corrigenda” is the plural of corrigendum). These are amendments made to existing standards due to minor technical flaws, usability improvements, or limited-applicability extensions. They are generally issued with the expectation that the affected standard will be updated or withdrawn at its next scheduled review.
ISO guides
These are meta-standards covering “matters related to international standardization”. They are named using the format
For example:
• ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004 Standardization and related activities — General vocabulary
• ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996 General requirements for bodies operating product certification
Document copyright
ISO documents are copyrighted and ISO charges for most copies. It does not, however, charge for most draft copies of documents in electronic format. Although they are
useful, care must be taken using these drafts as there is the possibility of substantial change before they become finalized as standards. Some standards by ISO and its official U.S. representative (and, via the U.S. National Committee, the International Electrotechnical Commission) are made freely available.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 39 | P a g e
UNIT-4: QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLES: Define and Objectives, Principles of QCC, Benefits of QCC, Implementation of QCC, Steps invoiced in QCC, Quality Management in the food Industry-HACCP and development of HACCP, Steps of HACCP, Principles and Implementation HACCP, Similarity and Differences in ISO 9000 & HACCP.
4.1 Quality Control Circles
Participate methods in the workplace are one way to improve both the work environment for employees and productivity and quality for the company. Quality Circle is one of the employee participation methods.
It implies the development of skills, capabilities, confidence and creativity of the people through cumulative process of education, training, work experience and participation. The creation of facilitative conditions and environment of work, which creates and sustains their motivation and commitment towards work excellence.
This resulted in the Quality Circle concept being accepted all over the world as a very effective technique to improve the total quality of work life.
Concept of QCC
Participative Management Technique Suggestion Effecting Workplace Performance Related Problems Organizes. It is based upon recognition of the value of the worker. As a human being. As someone who willingly activists on his job, his wisdom, intelligence, experience, attitude and feelings.
3 Major Attributes:
1. Quality Circle is a form of participation management.
2. Quality Circle is a human resource development technique.
3. Quality Circle is a problem-solving technique.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 40 | P a g e
A quality circle or quality control circle is a group of workers who do the same or similar work, who meet regularly to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems.
It consists of minimum three and maximum twelve members in number.
Normally small in size, the group is usually led by a supervisior or manager and presents it’s solutions to management where possible, workers implement the solutions themselves in order to improve the performance of the organization and motivate employees.
Quality circles were at their most popular during the 1980s, but continue to exist in the form of kaizan groups and similar worker participation schemes.
Quality circles are typically more formal groups. They meet regularly on company time and are trained by competent persons (usually designated as facilitators) who may be personnel and industrial relations specialists trained in human factors and the basic skills of problem identification, information gathering and analysis, basic statistics, and solution generation.
METHODOLOGY This program involves a wide range of learning approaches, including self – assessments, case studies, small group activities, discussions, interactive lectures, experimental learning group assignments, exercises, presentations and critiques. It will also include computer simulations to help reinforce participant’s understanding of the QC tools functions in problem solving cycles.
Quality circles were originally described by W. Edwards Deming in the 1950s, Deming praised Toyota as an example of the practice. The idea was later formalized across Japan in 1962 and
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 41 | P a g e
expanded by others such as Kaoru Ishikawa. The Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) coordinated the movement in Japan. The first circles started at the Nippon Wireless and Telegraph Company; the idea then spread to more than 35 other companies in the first year. By 1978 it was claimed that there were more than one million quality circles involving some 10 million Japanese workers. Quality circles have been implemented even in educational sectors in India, and QCFI (Quality Circle Forum of India) is promoting such activities. However, this was not successful in the United States, as the idea was not properly understood and implementation turned into a fault-finding exercise – although some circles do still exist. Don Dewar together with Wayne Ryker and Jeff Beardsley established quality circles in 1972 at the Lockheed Space Missile factory in California
There are seven basic quality improvement tools that circles use:
1. Cause-and-effect diagrams (sometimes called Ishikawa or “fishbone” diagrams)
2. Pareto charts
3. Process mapping, data gathering tools such as check sheets
4. Graphical tools such as histograms, frequency diagrams, spot charts and pie charts
5. Run charts and control charts
6. Scatter plots and correlation analysis
7. Flowcharts
Quality Circle Process
Most quality circles will work through a set process with each meeting. In general, this will follow the Plan, Do, Check, Act process, which is ideal for continuous improvement projects.
Following this process not only makes it easier to identify potential solutions and implement them, but it also has an established flow for moving from one process improvement to the next. This is
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 42 | P a g e
important because this type of group meeting is scheduled to take place on a regular basis, with new problems being identified and resolved on a regular basis.
“HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. “HACCP is designed for use in all segments of the food industry from growing, harvesting, processing, manufacturing, distributing, and merchandising to preparing food for consumption. Prerequisite programs such as current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. Food safety systems based on the HACCP principles have been successfully applied in food processing plants, retail food stores, and food service operations. The seven principles of HACCP have been universally accepted by government agencies, trade associations and the food industry around the world.”
HACCP is emerging as an industry-driven concept that the firm should take a proactive role in assuring the food processing procedure will lead to a safe product.
• HACCP is considered an alternative to traditional government inspections; but the government retains a role in the overall process by using its regulatory authority to assure that businesses have adequate HACCP plans and that the plan is being appropriately implemented.
• HACCP allows (requires) each business to focus on their operation and its unique characteristics rather than having a standardized inspection process that may not offer the flexibility to consider the uniqueness of each business and each food product. The focus of HACCP is not on having a standardized production process but on having a monitoring
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 43 | P a g e
process that is adequate to assure each business (regardless of its manufacturing process) is producing a safe product by minimizing the risk of a food safety problem.
Seven principles of HACCP;
• Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.
• Principle 2: Determine the critical control points (CCPs).
• Principle 3: Establish critical limits (CL).
• Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures.
• Principle 5: Establish corrective actions.
• Principle 6: Establish verification procedures.
• Principle 7: Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.
HACCP also can generally be implemented with a 12-step process
Step #1 Assemble a HACCP Team
• A commitment from management.
• Multidisciplinary membership.
• Know the manufacturing process and the products
• Know how to take corrective action.
• Understand the HACCP principles.
Step #2 Processing and Distribution of Foods
• A separate HACCP is needed for each product.
• What method will be used for distributing the product?
• Is the product refrigerated, frozen or shelf-stable?
• What safety hazard or quality issue are associated with this food product?
Step #3 Intended Use and Consumers
• What impact will the product have on the general public?
• Are you targeting a specific segment of the market? Particular consumers? Are you targeting a wholesale or retail market?
• What are the ingredients? Do any ingredient pose a food safety risk?
• Does the food offer specific characteristics, such as, a low fat products
Step #4 Develop a Flow Diagram
• The diagram or flow chart must cover all steps of the manufacturing process.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 44 | P a g e
• It is not an engineering drawing.
• Verify the accuracy and completeness of the flow diagram.
• Take the diagram to the production floor to assure/verify its accuracy.
Step #5 Conduct a Hazard Analysis
• Are you concerned about microbiological, chemical or physical hazards (again, this list is expanding)?
• Identify steps in the manufacturing process where a hazard can happen.
• Consider risk (probability) of the hazard and severity if the hazard occurs.
• Remember — hazard is limited to safety; it does not focus on quality issues (even though they may be related).
• Identify preventative measures that can be applied.
Step #6 Critical Control Points (CCP)
• CCP — any place in the manufacturing and distribution process where control can be applied to prevent a hazard.
• GMPs can and should control many hazards.
• A CCP for one product many not be a CCP for another product.
Step #7 Critical Limits (CL)
• Limit that must be met to ensure safety of the product.
• Exceeding the CL means a health hazard exists.
• CLs can be derived from regulatory standards (e.g., dairy), guidelines, studies, experts, etc.
• Examples of CLs: temperatures (for some products it may be what is too high and for other products it may be what is too low), time, pH, residues, kind and count of bacteria.
Step #8 Monitoring/Inspection
• Planned sequence of observations or measurements.
• Must control CCP’s
• Must be effective.
• Monitoring intervals must be reliable.
• Must be rapid, no lengthy analysis.
• Adequate plan to see that the monitoring is carried out.
Step #9 Corrective Actions
• Specify procedures to be taken when deviations occur.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 45 | P a g e
• Corrective actions must be documented.
• Eliminate actual or potential hazards.
• Be prepared to put products on hold if a problem is identified.
• Make changes to prevent future occurrence.
Step #10 Records
• Must include every part of the HACCP program, from team membership through all actions — steps #1 – 12
Step #11 Verification
• Consists of methods, procedures or tests used in monitoring compliance.
• CCP’s are under control
• Necessary changes have been made.
• All records are complete.
• Sample analysis to verify.
• Training and knowledge.
Step #12 Evaluation and Revision
• At least an annual review.
• Anytime manufacturing process is changed or products are changed.
• Anytime new raw materials or sources are used.
• Anytime formulation is changed.
• Anytime new equipment is installed; in some cases, even adjusting the performance of the equipment may necessitate are review of the HACCP.
• Anytime there is a change in personnel or shifts.
• Anytime there is a changes in storage or distribution.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 46 | P a g e
UNIT 5 CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION (CAC), FSSAI AND BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS: Introduction, Role, Actions, Motive of establishment, Consumer Protection Law, Legal Meteorology and Standards, Management of Advertisements
5.1 Codex Alimentarius:
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.
Its name is derived from the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus. Its texts are developed and maintained by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a body that was established in early November 1961 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), was joined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 1962, and held its first session in Rome in October 1963. The Commission’s main goals are to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the international food trade. The Codex Alimentarius is recognized by the World Trade Organization as an international reference point for the resolution of disputes concerning food safety and consumer protection.
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety. Its name is derived from the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus.
The regulations of the codex refer to food hygiene and quality, including microbiological standards, food additives, pesticide, and residues from veterinary drugs, contaminants, food labelling and marketing, methods for sampling and hazard analysis, food import and export, certification system, etc.
It also ensures that product complying with codex standard can be sold on the international market without compromising health or interest of consumer. Codex standard ensure product is safe internationally
Scope of Codex Alimentarius
The Codex Alimentarius covers all foods, whether processed, semi-processed or raw. In addition to standards for specific foods, the Codex Alimentarius contains general standards covering matters such as food labelling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticide residues, and procedures for assessing the safety of foods derived from modern biotechnology. It also contains guidelines
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 47 | P a g e
for the management of official i.e. governmental import and export inspection and certification systems for foods.
Codex Commission
Develop codex in 1962, subsidiary of food and agriculture organisation (FAO), united nations (UN) and world health organization (WHO)
Joint venture between FAO and WHO to formulate internationally accepted food safety standard for protection of human health and to ensure fair trade practices.
• Coordination of all food standards
• Initiation and supervision of draft standard
• Finalisation of food standard
• Publication of standard worldwide
• Amend standard in face of new technology
The Codex Alimentarius includes standards for all the principle foods, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, for distribution to the consumer. Materials for further processing into foods should be included to the extent necessary to achieve the purposes of the Codex Alimentarius as defined. The Codex Alimentarius includes provisions in respect of food hygiene, food additives, residues of pesticides and veterinary drugs, contaminants, labelling and presentation, methods of analysis and sampling, and import and export inspection and certification.
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally adopted food standards and related texts3 presented in a uniform manner. These food standards and related texts aim at protecting consumers’ health and ensuring fair practices in the food trade. The publication of the Codex Alimentarius is intended to guide and promote the elaboration and establishment of definitions and requirements for foods to assist in their harmonization and in doing so to facilitate international trade
The significant contributions of Codex have historically centered on its effort to protect consumer health and safety; the Codex impact on international trade has been believed by many to be of secondary importance. While one of the major goals of Codex continues to be focused on consumer protection, recent events have brought new attention to the role of Codex in assuring fair practice
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 48 | P a g e
in food trade. In 1995, establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) highlighted a place for Codex in the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee (SPS) dispute settlement process. Codex was referenced by the SPS document as the international body to be used for scientific advice on food matters brought before the WTO under SPS.
The Codex Alimentarius Commission consists of the following main organizational elements:
• Commission
• Executive Committee
• Codex Secretariat
• Codex subsidiary bodies
With the exception of the Codex Secretariat, all these elements are made up of Codex Members (i.e. national delegations and representatives of “observers”) , endeavouring to reflect stakeholder views as appropriate.
The Commission
• The decision-making body of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
• Consists of member governments, as well as a number of international government (IGOs) and nongovernment organizations (INGOs) which have official observer status with the Commission
• Presently meets annually, with meetings alternating between Rome (FAO Headquarters) and Geneva (WHO Headquarters)
The Executive Committee
• Executive Committee is established by CAC – CCEXEC acts as the executive organ of CAC.
• Responsible for managing the standards development process, developing the draft strategic plan, reviewing applications for observer status and making other recommendations about the general direction of the Commission’s work.
• The Commission elects executive officers for a period starting at the end of the session in which elected until the end of the following regular session.
• Elected officials include a chairperson and three vice-chairpersons elected among the delegates of the Members of the Commission. (These officers are chairperson and vice-chairpersons of the CAC & CCEXEC).
• The CCEXEC meets between Commission sessions.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 49 | P a g e
• The Executive Committee is geographically balanced – one member country elected from each geographic regions: 1.Africa 2.Asia 3.Europe 4.Latin America and the Caribbean 5.Near East 6.North America 7.The Southwest Pacific
• The Regional Coordinators of the six regions
• Chair is same as of CAC
• The total membership of the CCEXEC is 17
The Secretariat
• The Codex Secretariat assists the CAC in the implementation of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
• Reports to the Director-Generals of FAO and WHO.
The Codex Secretariat is located at FAO headquarters in Rome.
The Subsidiary Bodies
Under its Rules of Procedure, CAC is empowered to establish four kinds of subsidiary bodies:
• General Subject Committees (sometimes referred to as horizontal), which establish standards and guidelines applicable to all foods;
• Commodity Committees (sometimes known as vertical), which prepare standards for specific commodities;
• FAO/WHO Coordinating Committees, through which regions or groups of countries coordinate food standards activities in the region, including the development of regional standards;
• Intergovernmental Task Forces, which are time-limited and prepare standards and guidelines on specific issues.
Codex General Subject Committee
• General Principles – France
• Food Additives – China
• Contaminants in food – Netherlands
• Food Hygiene – USA
• Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems – Australia
• Methods of Analysis & Sampling – Hungary
• Pesticide Residues – China
• Residue of Veterinary Drugs in Foods – USA
• Food Labelling – Canada
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 50 | P a g e
• Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses – Germany
Codex Alimentarius Commission and Member Countries
• Most of Members use some of Codex Standards/ texts as the basis of their legislation/ regulations/ guidelines etc.
. • Because – Internationally recognized – Based on sound science
Management of Codex Activities at National Level
1) Strengthening National Codex capacity through improving familiarity and understanding of Codex structures and processes – establishment and strengthening of NCCP, NCC, Codex Country Manual/ working procedures, websites;
2) Providing practical guidance on how to participate in Codex committees;
3) Support networking and collaboration at the national level bringing together all interested parties – National Codex Committee,
Codex Procedural Manual
• Intended to help Member Governments participate effectively in the work of the joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
• Outlines the agreed set of rules to ensure the Commission and its subsidiary bodies work in a uniform manner
• Contains – Statues of CAC – Rules of Procedure – Additional procedures for the elaboration of Codex standards & related texts, basic definitions and guidelines for the operation of CAC & its subsidiary bodies (Codex committees)
Statutes of Codex
The Statutes of the Codex Alimentarius Commission
: • provide the legal basis for the Commission’s work;
• provide its mandate or terms of reference;
• describe the formal operating procedures; and
• reflect the concepts behind and reasons for the establishment of Codex.
The Statutes can be found in Section I of the Codex Procedural Manual
Statutes of Codex-Mandate
The mandate of the Codex Alimentarius Commission is clearly specified in the first article of its Statutes:
Article 1 – Mandate
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 51 | P a g e
(a)protecting the health of the consumers and ensuring fair practices in the food trade;
(b)promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations;
(c) determining priorities and initiating and guiding the preparation of draft standards through and with the aid of appropriate organizations;
(d)finalizing standards elaborated under (c) above and publishing them in a Codex Alimentarius either as regional or worldwide standards, together with international standards already finalized by other bodies under (b) above, wherever this is practicable; (e)amending published standards, as appropriate, in the light of developments.
Statutes of Codex Membership
Article 2 – Membership
Membership of the Commission is open to all Member Nations and Associate Members of FAO and WHO that are interested in international food standards. Membership shall comprise such of these nations as have notified the Director-General of FAO or of WHO of their desire to be considered as Members.
Membership conditions to become a Member of the CAC, two conditions must be met: 1) The country must be a Member of either FAO or WHO. 2) The country must notify either the Director-General of FAO or of WHO of its wish to become a Member.
Codex Commodity Committees
• Commodity Committees that are active: – Milk and Milk Product – New Zealand – Fish And Fishery Products – Norway – Fats And Oils – Malaysia – Sugars – Colombia – Processed Fruits and Vegetables – USA – Fresh Fruits And Vegetables – Mexico – Cereal, Pulses and Legumes – USA – Spices and Culinary Herbs – India
• Commodity Committees that have been adjourned: – Meat Hygiene – New Zealand – Natural Mineral Water – Switzerland – Vegetable Proteins – Canada – Cocoa Products and Chocolates – Switzerland
In summary, practically all the work of Codex has had, and is having, a positive impact on safeguarding consumers and international trade. Harmonization of regulatory systems, including certification systems that promote increased competition in world trade while maintaining the highest level of protection for consumers, will result in a safer and less costly food supply
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 52 | P a g e
throughout the world. Significant progress has been made in many of these areas through Codex Alimentarius but there is still much work to be done.
5.2 FSSAI (Food Safety and Standards Authority of India)
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is an autonomous body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. The FSSAI has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which is a consolidating statute related to food safety and regulation in India. FSSAI is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety.
The FSSAI is headed by a non-executive Chairperson, appointed by the Central Government, either holding or has held the position of not below the rank of Secretary to the Government of India. FSSAI has its headquarters at New Delhi. The authority also has 6 regional offices located in Delhi, Guwahati, Mumbai, Kolkata, Cochin, and Chennai.
The FSSAI consists of a chairperson & 22 members. The FSSAI is responsible for setting standards for food so that there is one body to deal with and no confusion in the minds of consumers, traders, manufacturers, and investors.
The following are the statutory powers that the FSS Act, 2006 gives to the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
• Framing of regulations to lay down food safety standards
• Laying down guidelines for accreditation of laboratories for food testing
• Providing scientific advice and technical support to the Central Government
• Contributing to the development of international technical standards in food
• Collecting and collating data regarding food consumption, contamination, emerging risks etc.
• Disseminating information and promoting awareness about food safety and nutrition in India
The FSSAI functions under the administrative control of the Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare. The main aim of FSSAI is to
• Lay down science-based standards for articles of food
• To regulate manufacture, storage, distribution, import and sale of food
• To facilitate safety of food
The FSSAI has prescribed standards for following food products:
• Dairy products and analogues
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 53 | P a g e
• Fats, oils and fat emulsions
• Fruits and vegetable products
• Cereal and cereal products
• Meat and meat products
• Fish and fish products
• Sweets & confectionery
• Sweetening agents including honey
• Salt, spices, condiments and related products
• Beverages, (other than dairy and fruits & vegetables based)
• Other food product and ingredients
• Proprietary food
• Irradiation of food
FSSAI FSSAI stands for Food Safety and Standards Authority of India which is an organization that monitors and governs the food business in India. It ensures the food products undergo quality checks thereby curtailing the food adulteration and sale of sub-standard products. It is responsible for the registering and licensing of the food business operators (FBO) in India and it lays down the rules and regulation for running the food business in India.
Importance FSSAI Enrollment
Each nourishment business administrator associated with the assembling, preparing, capacity dispersion and clearance of nourishment items should obligatorily get FSSAI Enrollment or Permit. FSSAI Enrollment is not quite the same as FSSAI Permit as in relying upon the size and nature of the business, FBO ought to acquire the essential enlistment or permit.
It is a 14-digit enlistment or a permit number which is imprinted on all the nourishment bundles. This enrollment technique is intended to make greater responsibility on the FBO to keep up the nature of the nourishment items.
FSSAI Enlistment/Permit System
FSSAI enlistment or permit depends on the business volume and premises. Contingent on the introduced limit or turnover or area, candidate premises are qualified for the permit, for example, focal permit, state permit, enlistment, railroad and so forth
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 54 | P a g e
FSSAI Enlistment Prerequisites
FSSAI Enlistment is a fundamental permit and it is required for all the FBO engaged with the little scale nourishment business. This class covers the accompanying business
1. Any FBO with a yearly turnover of not more than Rs. 12 Lakhs
2. Petty retailer managing in nourishment items
3. Any individual who fabricates or sells any nourishment article independent from anyone else
4. Food deal is finished by the impermanent slow down holder
5. Any person who appropriates nourishment in any strict or get-together with the exception of a cook
6. Small-scale or bungalow ventures managing in the nourishment business and the accompanying:
Methodology for Getting FSSAI Enrolment
1. FSSAI enrollment is started by submitting Structure An (application) to nourishment and wellbeing division.
2. This application can be acknowledged or it might be dismissed by the Division inside 7 days from the application date and the reality must be suggested to the candidate recorded as a hard copy
3. If the application is acknowledged, at that point the division will give an enrollment authentication with the enlistment number and the photograph of the candidate.
4. FBO ought to unmistakably show the declaration of enrollment at the spot of business during the business hours.
Regular reports required for getting FSSAI enrollment
1. Form B – finished and marked
2. Photo Character of FBO
3. Proof of ownership of premises (eg. Tenant contract)
4. Partnership Deed/Endorsement of Joining/Articles of Affiliation and so on
5. List of nourishment items to be managed
6. Food security the executive’s framework plan
FSSAI Permit Necessity
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 55 | P a g e
For all other FBO separated from little scale business, FSSAI permit must be acquired. FSSAI Permit can be characterized into two classifications for example State FSSAI Permit and Focal FSSAI Permit dependent on the size of the business whether it is a medium scale or enormous scale business.
For the most part, FBO who are enormous makers, merchants, exporters managing in huge scale nourishment business need to acquire FSSAI enlistment from focal government and FBO with little to medium measured assembling units, transporters, advertisers, brokers, and so forth., need to take FSSAI enrollment from the state government.
Documents required for obtaining the central license:
1. Form B properly finished and marked
2. Plan of the handling unit demonstrating the measurements and activity astute region allotment
3. List of Chiefs/Accomplices/Owner with address, contact subtleties, and picture ID
4. Name and rundown of hardware and apparatus utilized with the number and introduced limit
5. List of nourishment classification to be made
6. Authority letter from maker named a dependable individual name and address
7. Analysis report of water to be utilized in the process to affirm the movability
8. Source of crude material for milk, meat and so on
9. Recall plan any place relevant
10. Ministry of Trade Declaration for 100% EOU
11. NOC/Dad record gave by FSSAI
12. IE code record gave by DGFT
13. Form IX
14. Certificate from Service of The travel industry
15. Proof of ownership of premises
16. Partnership deed/affirmation of ownership
17. NOC and duplicate of Permit from the producer
18. Food wellbeing the board framework plan or testament
19. NOC from the district or neighborhood body
20. Supporting report for confirmation of turnover and transportation
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 56 | P a g e
21. Declaration structure
Reports required for the acquiring the state permit:
1. Form B appropriately finished and marked
2. Plan of the preparing unit demonstrating the measurements and activity savvy territory assignment
3. List of Executives/Accomplices/Owner with address, contact subtleties, and personal ID
4. Name and rundown of hardware and apparatus utilized with the number and introduced limit
5. List of nourishment class to be fabricated
6. Authority letter from producer designated a capable individual name and address
7. Analysis report of water to be utilized in the process to affirm the conveyability
8. Proof of ownership of premises
9. Partnership deed/sworn statement of ownership
10. NOC and duplicate of Permit from the producer
11. Copy of testament acquired under Coop Act 1861/Multi state Coop Act 2002
12. Food wellbeing the executive’s framework plan or authentication
There are various structures and reports which are required to be submitted transformation, recharging, and adjustment of permit.
BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) BIS stands for Bureau of Indian Standards. BIS is the National Standard Body of India established under the BIS Act 2016 for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. BIS has been providing traceability and tangibility benefits to the national economy in a number of ways – providing safe reliable quality goods; minimizing health hazards to consumers; promoting exports and imports substitute; control over proliferation of varieties etc. through standardization, certification and testing. It is headquartered at New Delhi and has five regional offices which are located at Chandigarh, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, and Delhi. As of 2015, Smt. Alka Panda is the Director General of BIS.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 57 | P a g e
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) came into existence, through an Act of Parliament on 1 April 1987, with a broadened scope and more powers taking over the staff, assets, liabilities and functions of erstwhile Indian Standards Institution (ISI) with following objectives. • Harmonious development of activities of standardization, marking and quality certification • To provide new thrust to standardization and quality control • To evolve a national strategy for according recognition to standards and integrating them with growth and development of Industrial production and exports. BIS is involved in multifarious activities like Standards Formulation, Certification, Product/Schemes. Laboratory Services, International Activities, Consumer – related Activities, Promotional Activities, Training Services, Information services, Sale of Standards & Publication. Standards Formulation Under Standards formulation, it is engaged in formulation of Indian Standards for 14 sectors namely Chemicals, Food and Agriculture, Civil, Electrical, Electronics & Telecommunications and Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Management & Systems, Metallurgical Engineering, Petroleum, Coal & related Products, Medical and Hospital Planning, Textile, Transport engineering and Production and General Engineering, Water Resources under Division Councils which have 308 Sectional Committees working under them. As on 31 March 2008, 18424 Standards formulated by BIS, are in force. These cover important segments of economy, which help the industry in upgrading the quality of their goods and services. BIS formulates need-based Indian Standards in line with the national priorities as a time-bound programme. Product Certification Scheme
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 58 | P a g e
BIS Product Certification Scheme is basically voluntary in nature. However, keeping in view the health and safety of the consumer, it has been made mandatory for 68 items by the Government through various statutory measures such as Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, Coal Mines Regulations and Indian Gas Cylinders Rules besides BIS Act. Some of the items brought under mandatory certification on consideration of health and safety are milk powder, packaged drinking water, LPG cylinders, oil pressure stoves, clinical thermometers etc. As on 31 March 2008, 20025 certification marks licences are in operation under the Scheme, covering about 1000 different items ranging from food products to electronics. All foreign manufacturers of products who intend to export to India are required to obtain a BIS product certification licence. Towards this, BIS launched its Product Certification Scheme for overseas manufacturers in the year 1999. Under the provisions of this scheme, foreign manufacturers can seek certification from BIS for marking their product(s) with BIS Standard Mark. Under this scheme, about 101 licences of foreign manufacturers in about 15 countries are in operation as on 31 March 2008. Under the scheme for Indian importers, Certification Marks Licence can be granted to Indian importers for the product imported into the country and are not covered under Regulatory Requirements. Indian importers can apply for BIS licence on such products and they are treated as Indian manufacturers. Three licences are in operation under this scheme. BIS also runs other certification schemes like IECEE-CB, IECQ and IECEs Schemes of IBC under different provisions. India is a certifying member of the IEC System of Quality Assessment of Electronic Components (IECQ) and IEC System for Conformity Testing to Standards for Safety of Electrical Equipment (IECEE). Further, BIS has taken new initiatives like simplification of procedure for grant of licence, basically to reduce the procedural time. This has yielded some encouraging results. Laboratories To support the activities of product certification, BIS has a chain of 8 laboratories. These laboratories have established testing facilities for products of chemical, food, electrical and mechanical disciplines. Approximately, 25000 samples are being tested in the BIS laboratories every year. In certain cases where it is economically not feasible to develop test facilities in BIS laboratories and also for other reasons like overloading of samples, equipment being out of order, the services of outside approved laboratories are also being availed. Except for the two labs,
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 59 | P a g e
all the other labs are NABL (National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories) accredited. BIS has recognized about 116 laboratories for product certification purposes. BIS has undertaken the project of modernization of all its testing laboratories in order to increase the in-house capacity of testing of samples as well as to reduce the time taken in testing. Hallmarking Hallmarking of Gold Jewellery started in April 2000 on voluntary basis under BIS Act 1986. It is aimed at to protect the consumer’s interest and providing third party assurance to consumers on the purity of gold. Till 31 Mar 2008, 91 hallmarking centres have been recognized. Since the launch of the scheme, over 5403 gold jewellers have taken licence from BIS, a figure which stood at 186 in the year 2001-02. So far, over 381 lakh jewellery articles have been hallmarked. The list of hallmarked jewellers with BIS licence and BIS recognised hallmarking centres has been hosted on BIS website. Under a similar scheme of Hallmarking of Silver, 405 licences have been granted since its launch in October 2005. Management Systems Certificate BIS runs other important systems certification schemes under the Management Systems Certification. Under Quality Management System Certification Scheme (QMSCS), which was launched in September 1991, the total number of operative licences as on 31 Mar 2008 is 1161 which has grown from the figure of 916 in 2001-2002. BIS Quality Management System Certification has been accredited by Raad voor Accreditatie (RvA) Netherlands for 23 major economic activities. • Under Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Certification (HACCP) Integrated Scheme, 64 certified companies are under operation as on 31 March 2008. Under the Environmental Management Systems Certification Scheme (EMSCS), the total number of operative licences as on 31 March 2008 is 131 which has grown from a figure of 61 in 2001-02. Under the Occupational Health & Safety Management System (OH & SMS) Certification Scheme, which was launched in January 2003, the total number of operative licences as on 31 Mar 2008 is 35. • Among the new Schemes, BIS has launched public Service Delivery Management systems as per IS 15700-2005 “Quality Management Systems – Requirements for Service Quality by Public Service Organizations.” in order to ensure minimum standards of service delivery in all sectors pertaining to or influenced by the government.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 60 | P a g e
Enforcement activity • With the growth and popularity of the BIS Certification Marks Scheme, there have been instances of misuse of BIS Standard Mark also. BIS, therefore, lays emphasis on enforcement activity to stop misuse of Standard mark, enforcement raids are carried out and prosecution cases filed in the court of law wherever legally tenable. To strengthen this activity, two outsourced agencies have been engaged for providing intelligence and assisting in carrying out raids against offending parties for an initial period of one year in selected locations. The number of search and seizures operations carried out in 2007-08 stand at 125. International Activities • Since its inception in 1947, the then ISI and now BIS has been an active member of international organisations namely, ISO and International Electronical Commission (IEC). BIS represents India as Member Body in ISO and IEC. It holds Participating Membership (P) status in 259 Technical Committees/ Sub-committees of ISO and 62 Technical Committees/ Sub-committee of IEC, whereas it is Observer Member (O) on 308 Technical committees/ Sub-committees of IDO and 84 Technical Committees/Subcommittees of IEC. It participates in various policy-making committees of these international standards bodies. BIS also holds secretariat of some of the important ISO/IEC Committees which are of trade interest of India. As member of ISO, BIS also takes active part in the development of International Standards with a view to protect the interests of Indian trade & industry. BIS is actively involved is Regional and Bilateral Cooperation Programmes pertaining to standardization, conformity assessment & accreditation etc. It has signed MoU/MRA with 16 countries/organizations including ISO and American National Standards Institute (ANS) of USA to this effect. Consumer protection • To meet with the growing expectations of consumers in the country, BIS has established a separate department with a specific mandate of providing consumer protection and welfare and dealing with public grievances. This department maintains liaison with Central Consumer Protection Council and consumer associations and coordinates with the Ministry of Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution on consumer issues. It is guided in its activities by a Consumer Policy Advisory Committee which advise BIS on all policy
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 61 | P a g e
matters relating to efficient discharge of the functions and for making standardization and certification activities user-friendly. A well-defined procedure has been established for handling complaints. The complaints can also be lodged on line, and are monitored regularly. • Promotion of Indian Standards assumes great significance and has been a prime objective of BIS . All standards are generally voluntary in nature. Promotional activities are, therefore, essential to implement the standards for deriving the desired benefits. • The promotion of standardization involves varied interests ranging from ordinary consumers to educational institutions. To propagate the concept of standardization and quality systems among small scale industries, discussions and video film shows are organised where the participants are exposed to the concepts of standardization, quality system, product certification and other BIS activities. Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award • With a view to encourage manufacturers and service organizations to strive for excellence, Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award was instituted by the Bureau in 1991. This annual award compares well with similar international awards, such as, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award of USA and European Quality Award. The assessment for this award is made based on parameters, such as, Leadership, Policies objectives and Strategies; Human Resources Management; Resources, Processes; Customer Focus; Employees’ Satisfaction; Business Results and Impact on Environment and Society. Information & SSI Facilitation Cell • Marching further ahead on the path of ‘total customer satisfaction’ BIS had set up a single window Information & SSI Facilitation Cell at its headquarters in New Delhi which became operational since 1997 with the aim of providing variety of information/assistance. Several entrepreneurs, consumers and professionals visit this centre. National Institute of Training for Standardization (NITS) • To impart training to technical and management personnel from industry, consumer organizations, public sector undertakings, government bodies and developing countries, BIS has established, the National Institute of Training for Standardization (NITS) at NOIDA (U.P.)
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 62 | P a g e
• NITS conduct training on Quality Management Systems as per IS/ISO 9001, Environment Management Systems as per IS/ISO 14001, Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems as per IS 18001, Food Safety Management Systems as per IS/ISO 22,000, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) and Laboratory Management Systems as per IS/ISO/IEC 17025. It also conducts International Training Programmes in Standardization and Quality Systems and on Management systems for developing countries of Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America every year since 1968. NITS also conduct training programmes for BIS employees. On an average, about 630 personnel have been trained/retrained every year since last six years. Library • BIS Technical Library is a national resource centre for information on standards and related matters and meets the needs of industry, trade, government, researchers and consumers. It is the largest library of standards in the South Asian Region, covering a floor area of 1000 square meters. The collection includes about 6 lakh standards from all over the world and 50,000 technical books. The Bureau’s library system comprises the Headquarters’ Library (New Delhi) and four Regional Office Libraries at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chandigarh and Chennai. BIS has also been designated as WTO/TBT Enquiry Point by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India under the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of World Trade Organization. • BIS has brought out all Indian standards on CD-ROMs through a franchisee with a view to computerize its sales points as well as to provide standards in electronic form directly to the customers. The product has been well received by the industry and provides excellent full text searching facility in over 18,000 standards formulated by the Bureau. • BIS has a website with domain name which includes its Hindi version also. Information of interest to the Indian industry as well as consumers, relating to various activities and schemes of the Bureau, such as certification, standards formation, consumer affairs, various application forms, laboratory services and other support services, is available on the website. Finance & Account
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Food Quality Management Note 63 | P a g e
For over a decade now, BIS is self-reliant in meeting its non-plan expenditure without any budgetary support from the Government of India. Financial resources of BIS are broadly mobilized under the following heads: • product Certification • Management System Certification • Hallmarking • Sale of BIS Standards and Publications • Training Institute.
Question Bank for Food Quality Management
Write a detail note on
Quality Control Circle
Codex Alimentarius
Quality Assurance
Importance of quality management in the organization
Advantages of ISO certificate
legal meteorology department
Quality Control
• What is HACCP? Explain the principle and implemented process of HACCP
• Write an essay on International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
• What do you understand by QCC
• What is the role of FSSAI
• Responsibilities of codex Alimentarius commission (CAC).
• Basic tools of quality management




As one travels around the world today, one cannot help being impressed by the extent to which Chinese food and cooking has been established in almost every corner of the earth.  But this popularization of the Chinese cuisine seems to have gathered a sudden and overwhelming momentum only in the last couple of decades.  So, what is it that has caused this sudden success of Chinese cuisine?  The answer lies in the unique traditions and techniques of Chinese cooking, and in the inherent appeal of Chinese food and flavors to the palate. Also Chinese food can be extremely economical as well as being highly nutritious, because, most ingredients are cut into small pieces, and then quickly cooked so as to retain their natural goodness.


Trade and cultural change between China and the outside world took place as early as the time of the Roman Empire and over the past centuries, foreign influence and modern technology has affected nearly all walks of everyday life in China, except one, namely, the Culinary Art of China.  In fact, foreign foodstuffs have been introduced in China since the dawn of history, but they all became integral parts of Chinese food.


Obviously, Chinese culinary art has gone through thousands of years of refinement and development, but the Chinese unique way of cooking and preparing food, remains basically unchanged.  Archaeological finds of the bronze age (around 1850 BC) indicate that the Chinese had utensils such as bronze CLEAVER for cutting up foods into small pieces and cooking them in animal fat, using a bronze pot not dissimilar to the modern wok.  There is data to prove that as long as the ZHOU dynasty (12th C BC) the Chinese used soya sauce, vinegar, rice wine, fruit jam and spices as seasonings in the cooking and that elaborate and complicated cooking methods were already being employed.


By the time of China’s greatest sage CONFUCIUS (551 – 479 BC) who was an acknowledged gourmet besides, it was recorded that the importance of heat application and blending of different flavors were emphasized in Chinese cooking; and the uses of high, moderate or low heat, the blending of sour, piquant, salty, bitter or sweet flavors were all given their correct application in order to achieve a harmonious whole.  This theory of harmony is one of the main characteristics of Chinese cuisine of this day.





There exists a certain ‘uniqueness’ that distinguishes Chinese cooking from other food cultures.  To start with, there is the Chinese division when preparing and serving food, between ‘FAN’ (grain & other starch food) and ‘CAI’ (meat and vegetable dishes). Grains in various forms of rice or wheat flours (bread, pancakes, noodles or dumplings) make up the FAN half of the meal.  Vegetables and meat (including poultry, meat and fish) cut up and mixed in various combinations into individual dishes constitute the CAI half.  A balanced meal must have an appropriate amount of both FAN & CAI.  It is in combining various ingredients and the lending of different flavors for the preparation of CAI, that lies the fine art and skill of Chinese cuisine.


The other distinctive feature of Chinese cuisine is the harmonious blending of colors, aromas, flavors, shapes and texture in one single CAI dish.  The principle of blending complimentary or contrasting colors and flavors is a fundamental one – the different ingredients must not be mixed indiscriminately.  The matching of flavors should follow a set pattern and is controlled and not casual.  The cutting of ingredients is another important element of Chinese cooking in order to achieve the proper effect. Slices are matched with slices, shreds with shreds, cubes with cubes, chunks with chunks and so on.


This is not only for the sake of appearance but also because ingredients of the same size and shape require about the same amount of time in cooking.  This complexity of interrelated element of colors, flavors and shapes in Chinese cooking is reinforced by yet another feature: TEXTURE.  A dish may have just one, or several textures, such as tenderness, crispiness, crunchiness, smoothness and softness.  The textures to be avoided are: sogginess, stringiness and hardness.  The selection of different textures in one single dish is an integral part of blending of flavors and colors.  The desired texture or textures in any dish can only be achieved by using the right cooking methods.  In all different methods of cooking, the correct degree of heat and duration of cooking time are of vital importance.



Looking at the map of China, it is not difficult to understand why there should be such a rich variety of different styles throughout the land.  There is no official classification of various regional cuisines in China, but it is generally agreed that SICHUAN in west, SHANDONG in North, CANTON in the south and JIANGSU in the east represents the four major regional cooking styles of China.  In addition, four more provinces ZHEJIANG, FUKIEN, ANHUI in the east and HUNAN in the west are usually included in the roll of honour while one talks of the “Big Eight” distinguished schools of cuisine in China.


Now Peking cuisine is quite a different matter – it is not a separate regional school, but rather the combination of all China’s regional style of cooking.  Being the capital of China for many centuries Peking (or Beijing as it is now called) occupies a unique position in the development of Chinese culinary art.  Peking cuisine has been defined by the eminent Chinese gourmet Kenneth Lo as “The crystallization of many inventions and performance of the generations of important chefs of different dynasties which have ruled in Peking for nearly a millennium, and the grass root dishes of the locality which people of Shandong and Hubei have been in the habit of preparing together with all the culinary contributions which have flowed from the far flung regions and provinces of China and which over the years have established their reputation in the old capital”.  Peking cooking is in short, the top table of Chinese culinary art.  Finally, the central province HUBEI in the middle reaches Yangtze River has a distinct style of cooking, known as “The Province of Thousand Lakes” as well as “Land of Fish and Rice”.  One of Hubei’s specialties is its fish cookery.



The Northern School:          

Archaeological evidence shows that in about 5000 BC, the inhabitants of North China had begun to farm, settle down and make painted pottery, eating and cooking vessels.  Some of the most conspicuous traces of early Chinese culture have been found at sites that lie along the valley of the Yellow River, which is why this area is sometimes described as the “Cradle of Chinese Civilization”.


Two ancient capitals of LUOYANG and KEIFENG are both situated just south of the Yellow River in HUNAN province (“HU” is the Chinese word for “river” and “NAN” means “south”).  The noblemen and the imperial families live in such luxury that their chefs invented and perfected many of the Chinese classic dishes.  These recipes were passed down through the centuries, and were moved to the capital, Peking and beyond.  The same recipes are still in use all over China even to this day – with very little changes.


Besides the cooking of TIANZING is Hubei, in which province Peking is also situated, the Northern School embraces the distinguished cooking style of SHANDONG and SHANXI, as well as Chinese Moslem cooking of inner Mongolia and XINJIANG (details of Chinese Moslem food will be discussed under separate heading).



The Western School: 

The red basin of SICHUAN or SZECHWAN is one of the richest lands of China.  Owing to its geographical position it was practically inaccessible from the rest of China until recently therefore it developed a very distinct style of cooking.  Its richly flavored and piquant food has influenced its neighboring province of HUNAN and GUIZHOU, although they both have a style of their own.


The province of Sichuan is the most popular in China, with an estimated 1 billion inhabitants or about 10% of the nation’s total population.  High mountains, fending off the cold air from the world, encircle the basin, so Sichuan has hot summers and mild winters.  It is virtually frost free with abundant rainfall in winters and spring.  Plant growth continues the whole year round.  One of China’s important rice bowls, the Sichuan Basin also yields a wealth of subtropical products, including silk, fruit and tea, all which have earned Sichuan the name “Land of Abundance”.  The cuisine of Sichuan has a wide fan following both at home and abroad.  Its richly flavored and hot food is particularly popular in the Indian Subcontinent.  But not all the dishes from here are hot and spicy; many people outside China believe that all you need to cook Sichuan food is to use a lot of ginger, garlic, pepper and chillie.  This is entirely untrue.  The Sichuan prides itself into distinct creating 100 distinct flavors for 100 individual dishes.


Hot chilies are used not to paralyze the tongue but to stimulate the palate.  One of the characteristics of Sichuan cuisine is that each dish usually contains a number of different flavors such as sweet, sour, bitter and hot, salty, aromatic and fragrant.  When the palate is stimulated by mildly hot chilies, it becomes more sensitive and capable of taking in several different flavors simultaneously.



The Eastern School: 

The Yangtze, China’s longest river (about 500km in length), which traverses the width of China from west to east flows through China’s leading agricultural regions – Sichuan and Hunan (on the upper reaches), Hubei and Jiangzi (on the middle reaches), Jiangsu and Zhejiang (on the lower), which contains some of the most fertile land in China.


Both wheat and rice are grown here, as well as other crops, which include – barley, corn, sweet potatoes, peanuts and soya beans.  Fisheries abound in the multitude of lakes and other tributaries and deep-sea fishing has long been established in the coastal province and Jiangsu and Zhejiang.  The areas that cover the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze are traditionally referred to as ‘Land of Fish and Rice’, and is collectively known as Jiangnan (“JIANG” means “great river” referring to the Yangtze and “NAN” referring to the south), and it boasts a number of distinctive cooking styles.


The Yangtze River delta has its own cooking style known as HUAIYANG with the culinary center in Shanghai, that is China’s largest city, which lies on the Yangtze estuary.  South East China has always been regarded as the most culturally developed and economically prosperous region.  Both Nanjing in Jiangsu and Hangzhou in Zhejiang have been China’s capital of several dynasties; other culinary centers are to be located in YANGZHOU (Yangchow), SUZHOU and ZHENJIANG.  Yangchow fried rice; chow mein (open fried noodles), wantons, spring rolls, dumplings and many other Cantonese dimsum dishes have all originated from here.


South of Zhejiang is the province FUJIAN (FUKIEN) which is sometimes grouped in the Eastern School, but its cooking style is more influenced by its southern neighbor Canton, so very often Fukien cuisine is included with Cantonese in the Southern School.



The Southern School:

The Pearl River delta, with Canton as a provincial capital of GUANGDONG (KWANGTUNG), is undoubtedly the home of the most famous of all Chinese cooking styles.  Unfortunately the reputation of Cantonese cuisine has been badly damaged by a so-called ‘chop suey’ food outside China.  Authentic Cantonese food has no rival, and has greater variety of food than any other school, because Canton was the first Chinese port open for trade, therefore foreign influence are particularly stronger in its cooking.


Fisheries play a major role in the economy, Guangdong contributes about one fourth of China’s fish catch (over 20% of the fish caught here are fresh water fish).  Rice is dominant food grain; the other crops are tea, tobacco, peanut, sugarcane, and sub tropical fruits such as bananas, pineapples, oranges, tangerines and lychees.


HAINAN Island is the only truly tropical area of China and produces coconuts, coffee, natural rubber and figs.  The Southern School consists of three distinct styles of cooking:  CANTON, CHAOCHOW (Swatow), and DONGJIANG (also known as HAKKA), which means ‘family of guest’, which refers to the immigrants from North China who settled in the South during the Song Dynasty after the invasion of Mongols in the 13th century.  So it was the Hakka’s who introduced noodles, wantons and dumplings etc. into the Cantonese diet.


There was a mass immigration overseas after the 17th. century, both by the Cantonese and the Hakka.  When Swatow was opened to foreign trade in 1858, it became a major port for Chinese immigration to South East Asia, America and Europe.  That is why, the first Chinese restaurant to open abroad introduced only Cantonese cooking to the outside world.  There are two other schools, though not regional in character, nevertheless should be included here among China’s various styles of Schools of Cooking, namely the Moslem and Vegetarian School.



The Moslem School: 

The Chinese Moslem known as “HUI”, though Chinese speaking are distinguished from the Chinese by their affiliation with the Sunni branch of Islam.  One theory is that they are descendants of the Moslems who settled in China in the 13th. century and adopted the Chinese language and culture.


There are nearly 5 million Hui widely distributed throughout almost every province in China, but their traditional areas of settlement is in the North-West with heavy concentration in Hunan, Shanki, Hubei and Shangdong.  They form the Chinese Moslem School, together with two other national minorities: the UYGOR group in XINJIANG (4 million, virtually all Moslems); and about 1.5 million MONGOLS who are traditionally nomadic, and therefore, like the Moslem do not eat pork.  Their daily diet consists of beef, mutton, milk and butter, items an average Chinese has no taste for.



The Vegetarian School: 

Chinese vegetarians are not allowed anything remotely associated with animals; apart from egg and milk.  They obtain their proteins mainly from soya beans and its byproducts such as bean curd (tofu) and nuts and fungi.


Chinese vegetarian has a long history; its origin can be traced to as far back as around 500 BC, when the TAOIST SCHOOL of THOUGHT developed the hygienic and nutritional science of fruit and vegetables.  Some centuries later, when Buddhism, which abhors the killing of any living creature and the eating of flesh in any form, was introduced into China from India, this philosophy was readily grafted into TAOIST school of Cooking and a new form of vegetarianism was born. 


Apart from the extensive use of fresh and dehydrated vegetables, the vegetarian chefs have developed a new art by creating food that has become known as imitation meats.These imitation pork, chicken, fish and prawn and so on bare an amazing resemblance to their fleshy counterpart in form and texture, though not quite in flavor.






The Chinese batterie de cuisine consists of very few basic implements.  To start with, only four of the most rudimentary implements are essential to cook Chinese food, i.e. cleaver, chopping block, wok and stirrer.


In western kitchen, equivalent equipments are always valuable.  Cutting knives and board, pots and frying pans, fish slicer and cooking spoons, so on and so forth.  But the Chinese cooking utensils are ancient designs, they are made of basic and inexpensive material, and they have been in continuous use for several thousand years, therefore they do serve a special function that they are more sophisticated and much more expensive western counterparts prove to be rather inadequate.


As for the rest of cooking utensils such sieves, spatula, strainer, casserole and steamer etc., again you will find the western version to be less effective.



Let me state straight away that I disagree with calling the Chinese kitchen knife a Cleaver.  As you know the term “cleaver” applies to ‘heavy duty chopper’ that serves only one function, and in my mind not all that efficient unless you buy one that weighs a ton and probably will cost you an arm and a leg – sorry about the pun!!!.  While as the Chinese cleaver (I will call it by that name for the time being), since it is the generally accepted term in English, is an all purpose cook’s knife that is used for slicing, shredding, peeling, pounding, crushing, chopping and even for transporting cut food from the chopping board or to a plate directly to the wok.


At the first sight, a Chinese cleaver may appear to be hefty, gleaming ominously sharp.  But in reality it is quite light, steady and not at all dangerous to use, provided you handle it correctly and with care.  Once you have learned to regard it as a kitchen tool mainly used for cutting and not just a chopper, then you will be surprised how easy and simple it is to use compared to an ordinary kitchen knife.  Cleavers are available in a variety of materials and weight.  They all have a blade of about 8 – 9 inches (20 – 23 cms) long and 3 – 4 inches (8 – 10 cms) wide.  The heaviest, weighing almost 2 lb.  (1 kg) called CHOPPER, is really meant for the professionals and is excellent for chopping bones such as drumsticks, pork spare ribs.  The smaller and much lighter SLICER with a thinner and sharper blade is convenient for slicing meat and vegetables.  But most Chinese cooks prefer a medium weight, dual purpose cleaver known as THE CIVIL AND MILITARY KNIFE (wen-wu dao in Chinese).  You use the lighter, front half of the blade for slicing, shredding and scoring etc, and the heavier, rear half of the blade for chopping and so on.


The Chinese cook uses the back of the blade as a pounder and tenderizer and the flat side of the blade for crushing and transporting: the end of the handle acts as a pestle for grinding spices etc.  The blades of a cleaver should be made of tempered carbon steel with wooden handle.  Stainless steel cleavers with metal handle may look good, but require more frequent sharpening also the handle gets slippery; therefore they are less satisfactory for both safety and steadiness.


Always keep your cleaver blade sharp and clean.  To prevent it rusting and getting it stained, wipe it dry with cloth or kitchen paper after use. Sharpen it frequently on a fine fine-grained whet stone.  Try getting a whet stone (also known as oilstone, which is man made composition of silicon carbide) that has two different grades of surface.  Use a rough grain surface only if the blade has become blunt and the finer grained surface for a sharp finish to the edge.  Lubricate the stone with vegetables oil or water and then put a damp cloth beneath it for stability.  Hone the cleaver evenly on both sides to keep the blade straight and sharp.  After cleaning the blade and wiping it fry, hang the cleaver by the handle to keep the blade becoming dulled on other metals in the drawer.



The traditional Chinese chopping block is a cross section tree trunk.  Made of hardwood, they range from about 12 inches (30 cms.) in diameter and 2 inches (5 cms.) thick, to giant ones up to 20 inches (50 cms.) by 6 – 8 inches (15 – 20 cms.).  The ideal size should be about 16 inches (40 cms.) in diameter and at least 3 – 4 in (7 – 10 cms.) thick to be of real use.


To prevent it from splitting, season a new block with a liberal dose of vegetable oil on both sides.  Let the wood absorb as much oil as it will take, and sponge the block with salt and water and dry it thoroughly.  Never soak the block in water nor wash it with any detergent – after each use, just scrape it clean with the blade of your cleaver, then wipe the surface with a sponge or cloth wrung out in plain hot water.  Always stand the block on its side when not in use.


In a professional kitchen, the health regulations specify that you must never cut your raw ingredients and cooked food on the same surface.  In other words, you should use a different block or board for the two types of food for hygienic reasons.  One answer to this is to get plastic chopping board made of white acrylic which will not split, smell or warp, and is easy to clean but it has no aesthetic appeal whatever, personally I would recommend a large board of hard wood, at least 2” thick (5 cms.) that will take a heaviest blow with a cleaver.  If you use one side for chopping only, then the other side should remain smooth for pastry making.



The Chinese cooking utensils known as ‘WOK’ is the ‘POT’ or ‘PAN’ the correct translation should be GOU. But wok it is and wok it shall remain. The wok was designed with a rounded bottom to fit snugly over a traditional Chinese braizer or oven, which burned wood, charcoal or coal. It conducts and retains heat evenly and because of its shape, the food always returns to the center of the wok where the heat is most intense that is why it is ideally suited for quick stir-frying.


Of course the wok is far more versatile than just a frying pan, it is also ideal for deep frying; its conical shape requires far less oil than a flat-bottomed deep-fryer, and has more depth (which means more heat) and more frying surface (which means that more food can be cooked more quickly at one go). Furthermore, since the wok has a large capacity on the upper end and as the oil level rises when the raw ingredients are added to it, there is little chance for the oil to overflow and cause the pan to catch fire as often is the case with the conventional deep fryer.


Besides being a frying pan (deep or shallow), a wok is also used for braising, steaming, boiling, and even smoking – in other words the whole spectrum of Chinese cooking method can be executed in one single use utensil. Basically there are only two different types of wok – the DOUBLE HANDLED WOK with two handles on two opposite sides, and the frying pan type SINGLE HANDLED WOK. Both types are usually made of light weight iron or carbonized steel, and the diameter ranges from about 12 – 18 inches (32 – 46cms.).


The single handled wok may appear to be unsteady and slightly tipped to one side, but in fact it is quite safe and much easier to handle particularly for quick stir-frying, since it offers you plenty of leverage of tilting and tossing. The disadvantages of using a double handled wok is that you need strong wrist and oven gloves to lift it, as the metal handles get very hot even if they are reinforced with heat resistant plastic or wood.


A dome shaped lid would be another useful item for certain braising and steaming dishes. Wok lids are usually made of light metal such as aluminum, with a wooden or plastic knob on top as a handle. The dome shape allows the cooking of a whole chicken or duck in a wok and the natural curve will guide the condensation inside the lid, sliding down along the edge, rather than dropping down directly onto the food that is being cooked.



Some wok sets often consist of a pair of stirrers in the shape of a ladle and a spatula, made of iron and stainless steel, both have a long handle with wooden tip. Of the two, the ladle or scooper is more versatile. It is an indispensable utensil in the professional kitchen, since it is used for adding ingredients and seasonings to the wok, besides being a stirrer and scooper during cooking as well as transferring food from the wok to serving dish or bowl. It is also a measure for the cook, as the standard ladle will hold 6 fl oz. (180 ml or 2/3 cup) liquid, slightly smaller than the rice bowl.


The spatula or shovel has a rounded end to match the contours of the wok, therefore it can be very useful for scraping and lifting fried food from the bottom of the wok such as when cooking a whole fish etc. Sometimes it is used in conjunction with the ladle for stir-frying, rather like when you are mixing and tossing a salad with a pair of spoon and fork.


One common factor regarding the wooden tip attached to the end of the handles, it often becomes loose and falls off in your hand during cooking; so make sure it is nailed or glued firmly in place. You may have to do this yourself, since very seldom will you find this to be done by a manufacturer.





A new wok is either coated with machine oil or a film of wax to keep it from rusting. This coating has to be removed and a anew coat of seasoning must be applied to the surface after the cleaning and be maintained throughout its life in order to keep the wok from rusting as well as preventing food being stuck to the bottom.


If the new wok is covered with only grease, then just wash in warm soapy water with a stiff brush until clean; but if the wok is coated with was, you will have to remove it by burning it over hot stove first and then clean it in warm, soapy water with a stiff brush and rinse well.


After that, place the clean and smooth wok over a moderate heat to dry, wipe the surface with a pad of kitchen paper soaked in cooking oil until clean. The wok is now seasoned and ready for use.


After each use, wash the wok under hot or cold water, never use any detergents as that will remove seasoning and cause food to stick to the surface the next time you cook. Should any food get stuck in the wok, scrape it off with a stiff brush or nylon scourer without soap. Rinse and dry the wok thoroughly over low heat; rub some more oil over the surface if it is not to be used again soon, otherwise the wok might go rust.


After you have cooked with a new wok some 8 – 10 times, and if you never have to clean it with detergent or metal abrasives then your wok will acquire a beautiful, glossy finish like a well-seasoned omelet pan. This is the ‘PATINA’ much treasured by Chinese chefs as the wok flavor.






Cutting Techniques  –

The cutting of various ingredients into different sizes, thickness and shapes is an important element in Chinese cuisine. As mentioned earlier, the Chinese always cut their food into small neat pieces before cooking, partly because of fuel conservation; small pieces of food can be cooked quickly before the sticks of firewood burn out! And partly because, small pieces of food are easier to be served and eaten with chopsticks, since knives and carvers have never been used on Chinese tables. The fact that small pieces of food only require a short cooking time, thus retain much of the natural flavors and nutritious value is an added bonus in Chinese cooking, which must be regarded as an incidental discovery.


So the Chinese started cutting their food into small pieces before cooking for practical reasons, but as their cuisine developed into a fine art, naturally too the cutting too became more and more sophisticated. We must have found out the close relationship between cooking and cutting, so instead of cutting everything into small bits and pieces indiscriminately, we gradually worked out the following basic rules that govern cutting of food.


  1. The size and shape of the cut ingredient must first of all be suitable for the particular method of cooking. For instance, the ingredients for quick stir-frying should be cut into small, thin slices or shreds, never large thick chunks.


  1. Learn and understand the character of the ingredients, their textures and the color changes – an important factor that helps you to choose the appropriate cutting and cooking method. Tender ingredients can be cut thicken than tougher ones that require more cooking time and most meats change color when cooked (chicken and pork become paler, while beef and lamb tend to become darker after they are cooked)


  1. The ingredients must be cut into pieces of uniform shape, size and thickness – this is not only to create aesthetic harmony but because each piece must be cooked evenly, larger pieces will be undercooked and smaller ones overcooked.



  1. Whenever possible, different ingredients for the same dish should be cut into pieces of the same shape a and size, slices are matched with slices, shreds with shreds, cubes with cubes, chunks with chunks and so on.


There are certain shapes, which are standard in Chinese cooking. Slice, Strip, Shred, Chunk, Piece, Dice, Cube, Grain and Mince. The actual shape is decided by the character of the ingredient and the cooking method required.


SLICE: Are thin, flat pieces of the ingredient. Cut them by first cutting the ingredient into sections as required by the dimension of the slice, and then slice the sections according to the desired thickness. The required size is often decided by the cooking method.


STRIP, SHRED: Strips and shreds are similar – one is thicker, other is thinner. First cut the ingredient into slices, then pile them one on top of each other like a pack of playing cards and cut them into strips or shreds as desired.


CHUNK, PIECE: There are many kinds of chunks and pieces: diamond, hexagonal, rectangular or wedge shaped. Cut them by first cutting the ingredient into broad strips or sections, and then into smaller pieces as required.


DICE, CUBE: Diced cubes and small cubes are pieces cut from strips.


GRAIN, MINCE: Grains are finely chopped ingredient, and are cut from shreds. Mince is even finer and is cut by much chopping and pressings with the flat of the blade.


In addition to these, there are FLOWER – CUTTING and SCORING for thick pieces such as kidney, squid and fish in order to allow more heat and sauce penetration.




A Chinese dish is usually made up of more than one ingredient because when a single item is served on its own, it lacks contrast, therefore there is no harmony. Some cooks like to mix contrasting flavours and unrelated textures; others prefer the matching of similar tastes and colors. Some wish the flavor of each ingredient to be preserved, others believe in the infusion of flavours.


To start with, you first choose the ‘main’ ingredient, then decide which type or types of ‘supplementary’ ingredients will go best with it, bearing in mind the difference of color, flavor and texture and so on. For instance, if the main ingredient is chicken breast, which is white in color and tender in texture, then one would choose as a supplementary ingredient something crisp like celery, which is also pale in color, or one would perhaps choose something more colorful like green or red peppers, with crisp or something soft like mushrooms.


By combining different supplementary ingredients with the main one, and by the addition of various seasonings, it is possible to produce almost an endless variety of dishes without resort to unusual and exotic items. That is why a Chinese cook abroad can always produce a Chinese meal, even using only local ingredients. For the ‘ Chineseness’ of the food depends entirely on how it is prepared and cooked, not what ingredient is used.


As mentioned earlier, the cutting of variety ingredients into different sizes, thickness and shapes is an important element in Chinese cuisine.  The Chinese practice of cutting their food into small, neat pieces before cooking, partly because of fuel conservation and partly because small pieces of food are easier to be served and eaten with chopsticks, small pieces of food are easier to be served and eaten with chopsticks, since knives and carvers have not been used on Chinese tables since ancient times.  Of course small pieces of food require only a short cooking time, thus retain much of the natural flavors and nutritional value.


The size and shape of the cut ingredient must, first of all, be suitable for the particular method of cooking.  For instance, ingredients for quick stir-frying should be cut into small, thin slices or shreds, never large, thick chunks.  Learn and understand the character of the ingredients, their texture and their color changes – an important factor that helps you to choose the appropriate cutting and cooking method.  Tender ingredients can be cut thicker than tougher ones that require more cooking time, and most meats change color when cooked.  Chicken and pork become paler while beef and lamb tend to go darker after being cooked.


After cooking, the next step in the preparation of food (usually applies to ingredients such as meats, poultry and fish, not to vegetables) before actual cooking is marinating.  The basic method is to marinate the white meats and fish in salt, egg white and cornflour, in order to preserve the natural delicate texture of the food when cooked in hot oil.  For red meats the basic marinade usually consists of salt, sugar, soya sauce, rice wine and cornflour, the purpose of this marinating is to tenderize and enhance the flavors of the meat.


When it comes to the actual cooking, the two most important factors are degree of heat and duration of cooking.  These two factors are so closely related to each other that it is very difficult to give a precise cooking time in most recipes, since much depends on the size and condition of the ingredients, and above all, on the type of the stove and cooking utensils used.


All in all, there are well over 50 different distinct methods of cooking in Chinese Cooking.  They fall roughly into the following categories:


WATER COOKING :            Boiling, poaching and simmering.

OIL COOKING       :             Deep-frying, Shallow frying, stir-frying and    braising.

FIRE COOKING    : Roasting, baking and barbecuing.

STEAM COOKING :            Steaming.




The Chinese divide the temperature of heat into ‘Military’ (high or fierce and medium) and ‘civil’ (low or gentle and weak).  And proper control of temperature and cooking time is key to success or failure. 


High or fierce heat is usually used for quick cooking for and tender foods.  Different kinds of frying, steaming, instant boiling etc., call for a high heat.


Medium or moderate heat can be used for quick braising, steaming and boiling.


Low or gentle heat is used for slow cooking allowing the flavours to penetrate through all the ingredients such as in roasting and simmering.


Weak heat is used for long cooking, turning hard ingredients soft.  It is used for simmering, braising and stewing.


Here are 25 commonly used methods in Chinese cooking.  One dish may require one, two or three methods; each will produce a different effect.


  • CHAUN Quick or rapid boiling.  This simple cooking method is often used for making soups.  Bring the water or stock, boil over high heat, add the ingredients and seasonings, and serve as soon as the soup re-boils.  No thickening agent added and the vegetables will be crisp and fresh.


  • SHAU Instant boiling or rinsing.  Thinly sliced ingredients are dipped into boiling water for a second or two, occasionally drinking it as if rinsing, then serve with a sauce.  This cooking method keeps the ingredients fresh and tender.


  • AO           Stewing or braising.  Flavour a little hot oil with spring onions and ginger-root, and then stir-fry the ingredients for a short time.  Now add the stock or water and seasonings.  Simmer over a low heat.  The food should be soft and tender.


  • HUI Braising or Assembling. A method of cooking a dish that consists of several different ingredients. Stir-fry the ingredients first, add stock or water and seasonings, boil over high heat for a short while, then thicken the gravy before serving.  Alternately, prepare the gravy first then add the partly cooked ingredients (deep fried or steamed) cook over low heat, thicken the gravy and serve.


  • BAN: Mixing salads. This method does not actually involve cooking, but simply calls for cutting the raw or cooking ingredients and dressing it with seasonings.


  • QIAND: Hot salads. Here the raw ingredients are parboiled or blanched first, then dressed with seasonings.



The difference between cold salad and hot salad dressing is as follows –

Cold Salad Dressing  –    Soya sauce, vinegar and sesame seed oil.

Hot Salad Dressing – Ginger shreds, sichuan peppercorn, salt, sugar and sesame seed oil.


  • YAN: Pickling. Pickle the food with salt and sugar or with salt and wine. Dishes prepared this way have a subtle fragrance and are crisp.


  • JIAN: Shallow frying. A flat-bottomed pan is used, a little oil and medium or low heat.  Seasonings are added when food is half done.  The pan should be turned from time to time during cooking so that the heat is evenly distributed.


  • TA: Pan-frying. The ingredients are coated with batter, fried in a small amount of oil on both sides over a low heat until done.  The ingredients may be deep-fried first, and then finished off by pan-frying.  Seasonings and sauce are added towards the end of cooking.


  • TIE-PAN: Sticking frying. This is basically a form of shallow frying, but only one side is fried, the food is not turned over, so that one side is golden brown and the other side is soft and tender.


  • ZHA: Deep frying. Food is fried in a large quantity of oil over a high or medium heat.  There are different variations of deep-frying.
  1. Neat deep-frying:    The raw ingredients are not coated with batter or flour.
  2. Dry deep-frying: Raw ingredients are coated with dry flour or breadcrumbs.
  3. Soft deep-frying: Raw ingredients are coated with batter, first and then deep-fried for crispiness.


  • LIU: Sauté. This is a special technique, which involves two stages of cooking.  First deep-fry, quick or rapid boil steam, or boil the ingredients until done, then mix with seasonings to make a sauce.  Next either.


  1. Dark brown sauté: Pour the sauce over the cooked foods and serve.
  2. Slippery sauté: Stir-fry the raw ingredients and pour the sauce over half way through cooking, stirring constantly until done.
  3. Soft sauté: Steam or boil the ingredients and then, while they are still hot, add a thin and delicate sauce.


  • CHAO: Stir frying. Stir-fry the ingredients in a little hot oil over a very high heat.  This method is widely used and has many variations:
  1. Pure stir-frying:     The raw ingredients are not marinated nor coated with a batter, they are just stir-fried in hot oil and seasonings are added towards the end of cooking.  Most vegetables are cooked in this way.
  2. Braising stir-frying:    The main and supplementary ingredients are cooked in this way, separately at first and then brought together with the addition of seasoning and stock or a thickening agent (usually of cornflour mixed with water), and braised very quickly over high heat.
  3. Twice cooked stir-frying:   One ingredient has been previously cooked and is here cut into smaller pieces and stir fried with other ingredients and seasonings.


  • BAO : Rapid stir-frying.  Another form of stir-frying, the ingredient or ingredients have been deep-fried or rapid boiled first, they are then quickly stir-fried over very high heat for a short period of time.  Variations in this method include rapid stir-frying in oil, rapid stir-frying in bean sauce and rapid stir-frying with spring onions.


  • PENG: Quick braising. This is one of the important cooking techniques and is always used with deep-frying.  The ingredients are cut into small pieces and deep fried first, then taken out of the oil and a sauce is added.  While the sauce is hot stir-fry over high heat and remove the wok from heat and combine stirring a few more time before serving.


  • DUN: Slow cooking. There are two kinds of slow cooking in water.  Slow cooking in water is a from of stewing, slow cooking out of water involves a double boiling technique.  When the pot that contains the food is immersed in a large pot of boiling water.


  • MEN : Slow braising.  The food must be fried first (light browned) then all the ingredients (seasonings etc) are in a tightly covered pot and simmered over a very low heat slowly like a casserole.


  • LU: Soya stewing. A soya gravy is made first, the ingredients are stewed in this gravy over a low heat.



  • JIANG: A soya braising. The difference between soya stewing and soya braising is that the ingredients are marinated first in the sauce in which it is cooked, with additional stock and water.  The sauce is reduced or thickened and is served with the dish.


  • SHAO: Red cooking. In this widely used method of cooking the meat is cut into small chunks, then fried, deep fried, par boiled or steamed until half done.  Seasonings (Soya sauce, wine, ginger and sugar etc.) stock or water are then added to it, the whole thing is brought to a boil and simmered until done.


  • PA: Braising in sauce. In this method, a little oil is first flavored with spring onions and/or ginger-root, the ingredients are then placed in the wok / pot and simmered until done.


  • ZHU: Boiling. Boil the ingredients directly in water over low heat.


  • ZHENG: Steaming. Another widely used method in China not only for cooking but also for treating raw ingredients before cooking by other methods, or to keep food war after they have been cooked.


  • KAO : Roasting.  The ingredients area first marinated or treated then either cooked in an oven or over an open fire like barbequing.


  • SHUN: Smoking. Cooking with heat and smoke from burning materials such as sawdust, tea leaves, cypress branches, bamboo leaves or granulated sugar.



Learn these methods carefully and practice with different ingredients for each method, bear in mind that certain food may or may not be suitable for a particular cooking method.


Most important point to remember is cooking time.  Even a slight variation in time or temperature will lead to different results.  So you should use your own eyes, nose and ears while cooking.  Once you have learnt to control the temperature and cooking time, you should be able to judge the precise moment when a dish a done.




A dish is made up of one or more ingredients.  The ingredients usually divided between the ‘main’ ingredient and the ‘supplementary’ ingredient or ingredients. The main ingredient is the major ingredient used for the dish, and the supplementary ingredients serve as contrast to it as well blend the flavours for the dish.


In selecting the ingredients for a dish or a course of dishes attention should be paid to –


  1. Quantity: The main ingredients – color, aroma, flavor or shape should be maintained.  If there is no marked distinction between the main and supplementary ingredients, then equal proportions should be used.


  1. Flavour: The main ingredients flavor should dominate the dish; the supplementary ingredients should be lighter in flavor.  If the main ingredient itself is light in flavor, then heavily seasoned supplementary ingredients will complement the main one.


  1. Texture: The texture of the various ingredients can be similar, or in contrast , which offers a more interesting result.  Attention should be paid to the temperature of heat and duration of cooking time for each individual item, so that the ingredient retains its proper texture.


  1. Shape: Affects the appearance of the dish and the cooking itself.  Usually the shape of the main ingredient is the most prominent.  And in selecting dishes for a complete meal, there should be a variety of shapes – slices, cubes, shreds etc., in order to avoid monotony.


  1. Color: Color will affect the presentation of the dish – and the flavor.  One color may be chosen for the dish and all the ingredients will then match.  Alternatively, different colors will often add to the variety in presentation value.



There are 5 basic flavors in Chinese Cuisine:


  1. Salty – flavoring agents – salt, soy sauce, soyabean paste etc.
  2. Sweet – sugar, honey, jam etc.
  3. Sour – vinegar, plum sauce, tomato sauce etc.
  4. Hot – chilli, chilli sauce, pepper, ginger, mustard etc
  5. Bitter – almond, orange peel, herbs etc.



In addition, certain regional cuisines include 2 extra flavors.


  1. Aromatic – flavoring agents – wine, garlic, spring onions, sichwan, pepper, sesame seeds, sesame seed oil, spices etc.


  1. Delicious – This is a literary translation from the Chinese character XIAN, made up by joining a fish with a goat, produces the delicious flavor. Flavoring agents: Mono-sodium glutamate, oyster sauce, shrimp sauce, chicken and meat stock etc.


Out of these basic flavors. A Chinese cook can create several combination flavors:

Sweet and sour:          Salt, sugar, vinegar etc.

Sweet and salty:      Salt, sugar, soy sauce etc.

Hot and sour:                Chilli, chilli bean paste, vinegar etc.

Salty and hot:  Soy sauce, chilli sauce etc.

Aromatic and hot:         Chilli oil, curry powder, mustard etc.

Aromatic and salty:  Salt, sichwan pepper


The most famous and popular sweet and sour sauce has many regional variations, but there are only 2 basic styles:




The Cantonese usually make their sweet and sour sauce in large quantity, which is used for different dishes, be it pork, chicken, fish or prawn.



Vinegar                                   800      ml

Sugar                                       400      gms

Salt                                          3          tbsp

Tomato puree              200      gms

Water                          1500    ml





Dissolve the sugar in vinegar over medium heat, then add the rest of the ingredients, blend until smooth.




The Peking style is used throughout the rest of China with only very slight variations according to regional taste – for instance, in Eastern China (Shanghai and Soudrow) more sugar would be used, while in Western China (Sichwan), more vinegar would be used.  Also the sauce is always made just for an individual dish, therefore adjustments could be made to suit a particular ingredient.



Oil                                                       2-3       tablespoons

Vinegar                                               2-3               “

Sugar                                                   3-3.5           “

Dark Soy sauce                                   1-2              “

Cornflour mixed with water   1                 “

Stock / Water                          2-3              “

Finely chopped spring onions, ginger-root and garlic (1/2 tsp each)




First heat the oil, then flavor the oil with spring onions, ginger and garlic, and stir until aromatic.  Add stock or water, soy sauce, sugar and vinegar, blend and bring to the boil.  Finally thicken the sauce with cornflour and water paste.





Marinate the raw ingredients with basic seasonings (salt, sugar, soy sauce, vinegar, wine, cornflour etc.) creates a basic flavor for, or defuses certain strong flavors in the ingredient.


Seasonings added to the ingredients during cooking enhance the flavor of food. 


After cooking, supplementary seasoning added to the dish in the form of garnishes (sesame oil, spring onions, coriander etc.)  further enhance the appearance and flavor of the dish.  Also in certain cooking methods such as deep-frying, instant boiling, steaming or blanching etc., seasonings cannot be added during cooking, therefore seasonings in the form of dips or garnishes can make up for the flavor deficiency.


Balance:  You should know what is the correct flavor of the dishes, if it calls for several different spices or seasonings, make the leading flavor stand out.


The nature of the ingredients:  Fresh foods should not be seasoned too

highly, or their original delicacy will be lost.  Food that has a strong flavor should be highly seasoned in order to reduce or eliminate the strong flavor.


The seasons:  People’s tastes change with the seasons.  Generally they like light food during the hot season and heavier food in the colder and milder seasons.





Batters are used to coat ingredients before cooking. They help the food retain freshness, flavor and moisture. They will give the cooked food a crisp outside and a tender soft inside.  Batters help retain the natural nutrients in food that would otherwise be lost in the cooking process. Finally, batters help the food retain shape where they might have been broken up or shrunken during cooking.


The primary ingredients in batters include egg, cornflour wheat flour, baking powder and breads crumbs.


  1. Egg-white batter: made of egg white, cornflour and salt.
  2. Egg and flour batter: made of whole egg, cornflour or wheat flour and salt.
  3. Water and cornflour batter: made of conflour and water.
  4. Baking powder batter: Made of baking powder, flour and water.
  5. Egg batter and flour dredge: The food is first coated with a thin layer of dry cornflour, and then dipped in a batter before cooking.      
  6. Egg batter and breadcrumbs dredge: the food is first covered with batter and then rolled in breadcrumbs before deep-frying.





A thin paste made of corn flour and water, when added to food shortly before it is done, will thicken the gravy or sauce. It serves to:


  1. Bring the seasonings and the ingredients together to heighten the flavours.
  2. Make the surface of the cooked dish smooth and soft, and make the colors bright – in another word, it improves the appearance of the dish.
  3. Create a transparent coating around the food, keeping the heat

            So that the dish doesn’t get cold too quickly.

  1. In some soup dishes, heavier ingredients tend to sink to the bottom, the thickening agents make the ingredients remain more evenly distributed in the soup.


There are two types of paste:  thick and thin.


Thick paste is further divided into 2 types: a thick coating paste when sticks to the ingredients, leaving no liquid in the dish, and a fluid paste which thickens the gravy in a dish.


Thin paste also falls into two categories:  glazing paste, which is added to the gravy left in the wok after the food is removed, this is then heated and poured over the food as a sauce and a creamy sauce, which thickens the gravy only slightly when poured into the dish.




Serving Chinese food often puzzles most people in the West, particularly   because the order of different course served at Chinese meal bears no resemblance to the western convention of soup-fish-poultry-meat-cheese-desert sequence.


The Chinese cooking tradition makes for a greater harmony of living, an aspect of Chinese cuisine which has often been over looked: there is a great feeling of togetherness in the way the Chinese eat. They gather around a table and partake all the dishes, which are placed on the table in a communal style. Nobody is served just an individual portion in the western way. The chopsticks are used not only as eating implements but also to help others to a choice piece – especially from a particular dish this is usually an expression of respect and affection.


Due to the multi-course nature of the Chinese meal, eating and dinning have always been very much a family or communal event and Chinese food is best eaten this way, for only then can you enjoy a variety of dishes.  An informal Chinese dinner served at home is essentially a buffer-style affair, with more hot dishes than cold served on the table at the same time, to be shared by everyone. Only at formal dinner parties or banquets dishes are served singly, or in groups course by course, and the order in which different course or dishes are served depends more on the method of cooking, and the way the ingredients are prepared before cooking, rather than on the actual food itself.



A typical dinner menu for 10-12 people would consist of 8-10 dishes served in the following order:


First course:     3-4 cold starters or an assorted hors d’oeuvre dish.


Second course:            2-3 or 4 quick stir – fried dishes,  or deep fried or quick braised dishes    (which should always be ‘dry’ rather than full of gravy); the exact number  and variety of dishes are flexible  here, it all depends on the scale of the   occasion, or what was served before and to follow.


Main course:    1,2,or 3 (or even 4) ‘big’ dishes; these can be steamed, long- braised (red cooked) or roasted, but usually consisted of a whole chicken, duck, fish and joint of meat. Again the number and variety of dishes are dependents on the occasion.


Rice course:     Noodles and dumplings are often served instead of, or as well as rice at the end of a big meal.


Dessert:           Only served at formal banquets in China, soup is often served for lesser grand occasions. As a compromise, fresh fruit and Chinese Tea can always be served at the end of a big Chinese meal instead of pudding.


When it comes to planning the menu , just remember that, as a rule, allow one dish per person, but 2 dishes should be enough for 3-4 people, 3 dishes for 6-8 and so on. But  also remember the Chinese never serve an individual dish to each person, you all share the same dishes on the table . The only exception is for a light  snack when a dish of chow mein or a bowl of noodles or soup is given his or her own portion.


A Chinese meal is served absolutely ready-to-eat there is no last minute carving on the table, nor dishing out separate items such as meat, vegetables, gravy or sauce and with all their attendant condiments; there is no long prelude when you wait for everybody to be served before you start.  At a Chinese meal, as soon as the first dish or course of dishes is placed on the table, the host will raise his glass and say ‘gan bei’ (Cheers) or Bon Appetite.





Chinese people generally look younger than their age, and very few have a weight problem.  This must be because Chinese food when done properly, often using simple and easy methods of preparation and cooking, retains its natural flavors as well as the nutritional value.


A nutritious substance is also known as nutrient, and all edible items consists of a number of nutrients, these include energy producing calories (proteins, fats and carbohydrates), dietary fiber, the essential fatty acids, the essential minerals including trace elements.


The human body needs food and drink as nourishment to sustain its growth and maintenance, but good health requires a well-balanced diet based on a variety of different food and drink, since the nutritional value in different foods vary enormously.  From the earliest days of their civilization, the Chinese have always been highly aware of, (one could even say, almost obsessed with the idea of) the close relationship between food and health.


The Chinese consider the human body and mind as a whole, they do not make so strong a distinction between the mental, the spiritual and the physical as do people of the western this school of thought clearly related to the ancient philosophy of yin-yang.


‘A healthy mind within a healthy body’.  Whereas the Confucianists were more concerned with the physical aspects of the food – appearance, flavor and texture, the Taoists, who were  primarily responsible for the development of hygienic and nutritional science of food, were concerned the ‘spiritual’ or life-giving attributes of various food: nourishment of body and happiness of life.


The main distinctive features in Chinese Cuisine is the emphasis on the harmonious blending of colors, aromas, flavors and textures both in one single dish and a course of dishes for a meal.  Consciously or unconsciously, a Chinese cook from a housewife to the professional chef all work to the yin-yang principles i.e. harmonious balance and contrast in conspicuous juxtapositions of different colors, aromas, flavors and texture by varying the ingredients, cutting-techniques, seasonings and cooking methods and so on.


Perhaps one of the best examples for the yin-yang principle in Chinese cuisine is in the way we blend different seasoning.  Complimentary pairs:  sugar (yin) and vinegar (yang), salt (yin) and sichwan pepper (yang), spring onion (yin) and root ginger (yang), soy sauce (yin) and rice wine (yang) and so on.


There is no set rules for the exciting yin-yang combinations, is all done by subtle intuition and the ‘feel’ of the process an experienced good knows by instinct that what does and does not go together just as a true gourmet will judge the success or failure of a dish purely on its visual appeal, if it doesn’t look right, then it won’t taste right.


The Chinese attitude to eating is further characterized by the ideas and beliefs that most foods are also medicines – the even riding idea is that the kind of food one eats is intimately relevant to one’s health.  Many foods are classified into those that possess the yin quality and those of the yang quality.  When the yin-yang forces in the body are not balanced, illness results, therefore, proper amounts to foods of one kind or the other may then be administered (i.e. cooked and clean) to counterbalance the disorder.


With health food and cooking for health in mind, a Chinese cook concentrates on three points:


  1. The selection of the raw materials: This requires a deep understanding of the various ingredients to be used – what is their nutritional value, and whether there is sufficient balance in variety, are they fresh and in their prime conditions?  Above all they must be fresh in the case of seafood and vegetables.


  1. The cooking methods employed: A significant quantity of vitamins is destroyed through prolonged cooking, therefore the various cooking methods can drastically alter the nutritional value in any given food.  The Chinese quick stir-frying, braising, steaming and rapid- boiling etc. are all cooking methods particularly favorable for nutritional preservations.


  1. How to make dishes delicious: A good Chinese cook prides him/her self on being able to make a dish highly palatable without resorting to too much flavoring agents or seasoning.  At the back of the Chinese mind, there is a strong conviction that any food that is fresh should retain its natural flavor therefore is bound to be delicious to the palate and be nutritious as well.


To return to my earlier remarks about the Chinese regarding the human body and mind as a whole, I would like to quote a paragraph from the preface to ‘The Correct Guide to Food and Drink’ by Hu Sihui, the 14th century Imperial Dietitian (literally ‘Food Doctor Official).


What determines human life is the mind which is the master body if the body is at ease and in harmony with the environment the mind will be able to deal with all changes in life.  Thus it is important to keep the body in good repair and maintenance, essence of which is to keep the golden mean, that is not too deficient in nutrition and not to indulge in excesses.  Use of 5 flavors (salty, sweet, sour, bitter, and piquant)  to the 5 vital organs.  If these are at peace, the vital fluid to us will flow smoothly, then our mind will find its equilibrium and the whole person will find himself in a supreme state of well being.


With these thoughts and references in mind, we can now start the actual preparation and cooking of Chinese food.  The dishes selected are not only healthy and easy to digest, but also extremely delicious.


Ghevar Recipe

Plain flour (Maida) 250gm
Puree ghee 50gm
Sugar 400gm
Water 100ml
Milk 50gm
Ghee/oil for fry ghever

Method of Preparation: –
❖ Combine the sugar and water in a pan and simmer till it reaches a 1 string consistency.
❖ Remove from the heat and keep warm. Combine the flour and melted ghee in a bowl.
❖ Add water in a thin stream, whisking continuously but at no point should the ghee and water separate.
❖ The batter should be of a coating consistency. Keep the batter in a cool place away from the heat.
❖ Place the ghevar mould in a kadhai and pour melted ghee in it till it reaches 3/4 of the height of the mould.
❖ Heat the ghee on a medium flame and put in one spoonful of the batter into the mould in a thin stream. The batter should settle in the mould.
❖ When the froth subsides, pour in another spoonful in the centre in a thin
❖ Increase the flame and allow it to cook in the centre by pouring ladlefuls of hot ghee in the centre of the mould 2 or 3 times.
❖ When the centre is firm and cooked then Deep in sugar syrup and serve at room temp.
Note :- Alternatively, you can use a large mould to get fewer ghevar in which case the cooking time will increase. Rabid or mava also use on top the ghevar.

COMMUNICATION Notes for 1st Sem

BBA (CA)- 105     Communication

This paper is intended to emphasize on improving oral and written communication skills through experiential training and comprehensive understanding of the students.

Unit-1: Business Communication: Definition, Importance of effective communication, Process of Communication, Objectives of Communication, Characteristics of Communication and the C s of Good Communication.

Unit-2: Better Listening: Listening for Pronunciation Practice, Listening for Personal Communication, Active Listening: Communicating in Public Situations, Listening for Communication: Language Functions.

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication: Speaking about Myself, Speaking Accurately, Practice in Public Speaking, Non-Verbal Communication, Social Communication: Performing Language Functions, Speaking across the Curriculum.

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading: Countering Defects, Reading Silently for Understanding and Speed, Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of Reading, Reading — Study Reading: Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum, Extensive Reading: Encouraging Lifelong Learning.

Unit-5: Effective Writing: Better Writing Using Personal Experiences, Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and Grammar, Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions, Effective Writing across the Curriculum, Promoting Creative Writing.


  1. Kaul, A. (2005). Effective Business Communication, PHI, New Delhi.
  2. Munter M. (2011). Guide to Managerial Communication: Effective Writing & Speaking, PHI, New Delhi.

Table of Contents

BBA (CA)- 105       Communication. 1

Unit-1: Business Communication: 1

Unit-2: Better Listening: 9

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication: 13

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading: 16

Unit-5: Effective Writing: 18

Unit-1: Business Communication:

1.1 Definition:

Communication is a process through which ideas or opinions are exchanged or transferred, progress of a person is dependent upon his/ her communication skills. It is considered as an art for achieving success at work place as it is clearly associated with the ability to communicate effectively. Both at the workplace and with outsiders. It takes a variety of forms, i.e., from 2 people having face to face conversation or hand signals in the form of messages to the global telecommunication network. The process of communication facilities interaction among people without which we would be unable to share our knowledge or experiences with anyone else.

“Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so that an understanding response results”.

 By Peter Little

“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.

By W.H. New man and C.F. summer Jr.

1.2 Importance of effective communication:

Communication is required not only in social life but also in personal and professional life. Good communication helps an individual advance socially by making useful contacts. It also builds self-confidence and enables him to help and lead others. In a business, reputation, trust and credibility need to be built up in order to get clients trust and confidence. Having sense of professionalism will help bring a long-term relationship with employees and clientele.

Business communication is required for the following purposes-

1) In order to make sure that business deal is attend to promptly.

2) Communicating with external and internal contacts of an organisation.

3) Organise the business whether it is a sale, a promotion, inquiry, a problem, etc.

4) Dealing with people for their needs and otherwise. As a matter of fact, communication is pre-requisite to have a balance within the internal as well as external factors in a business whether it is dealing with people or other casts.

1.3 Process of Communication:

Communication is effective when a concise and clear message is delivered well, received Successfully and understand fully. The process of communication has the following distinct Components:

Idea, Sender, Message, Encoding Message, Noise, Understanding Idea, Decoding Message, Receiver, Medium and Channel, Feedback.

1). Idea: – Idea is the simplification and abstraction of reality filtered through the individuals Mind. Every message weather oral or written begins with an idea. Every business has its own Convention for processing and communicating information.

2). Sender: – Person sending the information is called sender. He is also known as encoder. The Process of communication begins when an idea occurs in his mind. The sender wants to send That idea to another person/organization to achieve some objective. The sender must have a Clear picture in his mind about what he wants to communicate.

3). Message: – The idea, emotion or opinion transmitted by the sender is called message. Message is an idea transformed into words. The message can be expressed in different ways Depending on the subjects, purpose, audience, personal style and cultural background of the Sender.

4). Encoding: – The method by which a message is expressed is called encoding. Message arises In the mind in the form of an idea. That idea is transmitted by the sender to the receiver in the Form of words, symbols, picture etc. If not encoded, it may not be possible for the receiver to Understand it.

5). Medium and Channel: – The method and means by which a message is transmitted by a Sender to the receiver. For instance, letters are a medium and postal or courier service a channel. If message is communicated by telephone, then oral message is a medium and telephone a Channel.

6). Receiver: – The receiver is a person/organization that receives the message. He is the Destination of the message. In the absence, the process of communication is incomplete. He not Only receives the message but also understands what is implied in it. He may be a listener, Reader or viewer of the message.

7). Decoding: – Decoding is the mental process by which the receiver draws meaning from the Word, symbols or picture of the message. Receiver decodes the message send by sender, that’s Why he is also known as decoder.

8). Feedback: – Feedback is the receiver’s response to the message. Feedback is the final ink in the communication process. Feedback tells the source/sender, how the receiver has interpreted the message. The effective communication is always sensitive to feedback.

1.4 Objectives of Communication:

The basic objective of human communication is trying to elicit a reaction from the person we are trying to communicate with. From a business or commercial angle, if we observe any small or large business around us we will be able to notice that the amount of success the business has achieved mainly relies on its power of communication. Communication defines the level of success that the company has attained.

Following are a few of the main objectives of business communication.

1. Information: The core objective of a business is to convey information and making individuals more up to date, E.g.- all the advertisement campaigns that we notice around us are an attempt to inform and convey the information across to others, and in case of companies, this information is generally regarding the product or services at offer. However, the method of communication may be verbal, written, visual or any other. All companies thrive on information pertinent to their business activity. They must have excellent knowledge regarding the market, their competitors, the government policies, the type of credit they can gain from; the existing economic situation etc. Pertinent information is the main aspect for successful business. However, in the recent times, because of the arrival of the World Wide Web, there has been a swift outburst in the quantity of information that is accessible to a company and it is turning out to be gradually more difficult for a company to come across information that is genuine, comprehensive, up-to-date and new. Furthermore, it has become very important for any company to get hold of that information. Moreover, this demand for correct information has initiated a new faction of people called the infomederies, who do not handle any type of goods but provide information. A company not only acquires information but furthermore provides information as well, for e.g.- The company has to provide factual information about profitability, quality of products, facilities provided to the workers or services rendered towards the community.

2. Motivation: Communication in business is moreover essential to boost the workers’ motivation. Thus if the communication is carried out correctly and is successful in encouraging the workers and workers are sufficiently encouraged, the work gets completed easily, proficiently and the workers will carry out their functions by themselves without supervision. Communication should be utilised to construct a proper working atmosphere. In order to create a strong competitive atmosphere between the workers and furthermore can be acknowledged and rewarded for their accomplishments. Employees who work at a lower level in the chain of command of the organisation should be motivated to give ideas and inputs on the methods to improve the functioning of an organisation, this type of communication brings about a feeling of involvement and connection and creates more loyalty towards the company.

3. Raising Morale: Another extremely significant objective of business communication (internal) is maintaining a sense of high morale amongst the workers, so that they perform their tasks with dynamism and resilience as a team. create a great impact on the success of a company. However as morale is a psychological aspect, the condition of high morale is not a lasting feature. An organisation could have a sense of high morale between the workers for following phase. Therefore, to keep the sense of high morale amongst the employees, an organisation has to constantly put in their efforts in that course. It can be managed by maintaining an open door policy, keeping tabs on the gossip and not permitting destructive rumours to spread among employees.

4. Order and instructions: An order is an oral or written rule influencing the start, end or adjusting an activity. This form of communication is internal and is executed within a company. Order may be in written or verbal form. Written orders are given when the type of job is extremely vital or the person who would carry out the task is far off. Care must be taken at the time of handing out written orders; a copy of the order should always be maintained so that it is easy during the follow up. Oral orders come into play at the time of urgency in the work and when the person is in close proximity. However, it is extremely vital to follow up in both the cases.

5. Education and training: These days, communication can be additionally used in business to enhance the scope of knowledge. The goal of education is attained by business communication on three levels (a) Management (b) employees (c) general public

a. Education for future managers: At this juncture, junior personnel in the organisation are taught to deal with vital assignments comprising of responsibility, so that they can achieve something more than their superiors in the long run.

b. Education for newbie’s: When new personnel join an organisation, they are introduced by enlightening them in relation to the culture of the company, code of discipline, work ethos etc. This is generally carried out by way of a training method to accustom the new recruits with the working style of the organisation.

c. Educating the public: This is carried out by advertising, informative seminars, newspapers, journals to notify the public regarding the product, the working style of the company and different schemes presented by the company.

1.5 Characteristics of Communication:  7 C s of Good Communication:

1. Complete: The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly.

2. Concise: Conciseness means wordiness, i.e., communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forging the other C’s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication.

3. Consideration: Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e., the audience’s view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems.

4. Clear: Clarity implies emplacing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once.

5. Correct: Correctness in communication implies that there is no grammatical error in communication.

6. Courteous: Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic.

7. Concrete: Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence.

1.6 Barriers of Communication

Communication plays a major role in developing a relationship. It can also affect the relationship among family members or management in any institute. More specifically, communication influences the effectiveness of instruction, performance evaluation, and the handling of discipline problems. Communication should be straightforward. What can make it complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers. Some barriers of communication are the following.

1. Physiological Barrier

Physiological barriers to communication are related with the limitations of the human body and the human mind (memory, attention, and perception). Physiological barriers may result from individuals’ personal discomfort, caused by ill-health, poor eye sight, or hearing difficulties.

2. Poor Listening Skills

Listening to others is considered a difficult task. A typical speaker says about 125 words per minute. The typical listener can receive 400–600 words per minute. Thus, about three-fourth of listening time is free time. The free time often sidetracks the listener. The solution is to be an active rather than passive listener. A listener’s premature frown, shaking of the head, or bored look can easily convince the other person/speaker that there is no reason to elaborate or try again to communicate his/her excellent idea.

3. Information Overload

Nurses are surrounded with a pool of information. It is essential to control the flow of the information, else the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked. As a result, communication may get distorted.

4. Inattention

At times, we just do not listen but only hear. For example, your boss is immersed in his/her very important paper work surrounded by so many files on the table and you are explaining him/her about an urgent office problem. In this situation, due to the inattention, the boss will not listen to you (he/she will only hear you); hence, he/she may not get what you are saying and it may lead to disappointment.

5. Emotions

The emotional state of a person at a particular point of time affects his/her communication with others as it has an impact on the body language (nonverbal communication). If the receiver feels that the sender is angry (emotional state), he/she can easily infer that the information being obtained will be very terrible.

6. Physical and Environmental Distractions

Physical distractions are the physical things that get in the way of communication. Examples of such things include the telephone, an uncomfortable meeting place, and noise. These physical distractions are common in the hospital setting. If the telephone rings, the usual human tendency will be to  answer it even if the caller is interrupting a very important or even delicate conversation. Distractions such as background noise, poor lighting, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room, or an environment that is too hot or cold can affect people’s morale and concentration, which in turn interfere with effective communication.

7. Psychological Barrier

Psychological factors such as misperception, filtering, distrust, unhappy emotions, and people’s state of mind can jeopardize the process of communication. We all tend to feel happier and more receptive to information when the sun shines. Similarly, if someone has personal problems such as worries and stress about a chronic illness, it may impinge his/her communication with others.

8. Social Barriers

Social barriers to communication include the social psychological phenomenon of conformity, a process in which the norms, values, and behaviors of an individual begin to follow those of the wider group. Social factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, and marital status may act as a barrier to communication in certain situations.

9.  Cultural Barriers

Culture shapes the way we think and behave. It can be seen as both shaping and being shaped by our established patterns of communication. Cultural barrier to communication often arises when individuals in one social group have developed different norms, values, or behaviors to individuals associated with another group. Cultural difference leads to difference in interest, knowledge, value, and tradition. Therefore, people of different cultures will experience these culture factors as a barrier to communicate with each other.

14. Barriers Related with the Message

            Unclear Messages


Question from Unit -1

What is the main objective of business communication?

 ‘7 C s’ of good communication.

What are the barriers to communication? How to overcome these barriers?       

Explain the process of communication with a neat diagram.                       

Unit-2: Better Listening:

Good listening skills make workers more productive. The ability to listen carefully will allow a person to:

  • understand assignments in better way and find and what is expected from him.
  • build rapport with co-workers, bosses, and clients;
  • show support;
  • work better in a team-based environment;
  • resolve problems with customers, co-workers, and bosses;
  • answer questions
  • find underlying meanings in what others say.

2.1 Listening for Pronunciation Practice:

Make sentence to differentiate the meaning of following homophones.

Great – a person who has achieved distinction and honor in some field- “he is one of the greats of Indian music”

Grate – reduce to small shreds or pulverize by rubbing against a rough or sharp perforated surface-“grate carrots and onions”

Access (Approach,  reach) This type of account offers you instant access to your money

Excess (Additional, more than) The store has an excess of stock which it must sell off

Accept– to receive or take something- My friend was happy to accept the gift.

 Except– not including something – The restaurant is open every day of the week except Sunday

Affect – to cause a change – Her decision to skip class could affect her grade

Effect – a change that is produced by a cause – The snow had little effect on the school schedule.

To (Preposition) – used to indicate the place, person, or thing that something moves toward – I am going to the mall after we finish eating lunch.

Too (Adverb) – more than what is wanted, accepted, needed, possible, etc.  – The pink bag is too heavy for me to lift by myself, but the blue one is lighter. 

Two (Noun) – the number 2 -I would like two copies please.

Career (profession) Mr. Balhara was very successful in his hotel career.

Carrier (person/company which carries goods, support for luggage in bicycles) The goods train is the biggest carrier of goods.

Birth (coming to life) Sheela gave birth to a girl child..

Berth (a shelf like sleeping space in train) Please reserve a first class berth for me in the Taj  Express.

Dye (a coloring that changes the color of material) Take colour well during the dyeing process.

Die (to cease to live and become dead) he died of tuberculosis

Beat (to hit something hard) he beat the table with his hand’

Beet (a type of plant) Beetroot plant widely cultivated as a source of food for human

Fair (Lovely, just) This shop charges fair prices.

Fare (Money charged for bus, train etc., journey) Taxi driver had only one fare that day.

Weather (Climate) We went out shopping in the fine weather.

Whether (if) Tell me whether he would send the parcel or not.

2.2 Listening for Personal Communication:

2.3 Active Listening:

Levels and Types of Listening

  1. Discriminative Listening: It involves an attempt to distinguish one second from all others. Stopping work to determine whether the phone is ringing is an example of this listening. We learn how to discriminate among sounds at an early stage.

2. Comprehensive Listening: It involves an attempt to understand a speaker’s message in totality and to interpret the meaning precisely. This kind of listening is generally practiced in classrooms, where we must remember what has been taught and rely upon it for future use.

3. Critical Listening: When a person want’s to sift through what he has heard and come to a decision he must listen critically. This involves judging the clarity, accuracy and reliability of the information evidence and also being alert to emotional appeals. Examples: Professionals like doctors and judges do this listening.

4. Active Listening: It is also called empathized listening or supportive listening. Empathy means putting yourself into other person’s shoes and trying to understand his perspective. When we listen actively, we encourage the speaker to express himself completely. It involves responding to the emotional content apart from only the verbal message. An active listener is alert to all clues and carefully deserves the non-verbal behaviour of the speaker to get a complete picture. Eg. Counsellors.

Guidelines for effective listening

1. Use attentive body language: The posture and position of body influence both the ability to listen and how you are perceived as a listener. An attentive listener should show confidence in his/her body language.

2. Concentration: Effective listening requires focusing on what is being sad. While listening, we should not get distracted by noise or any kind of disturbances. We should be concentrated to what the speaker is speaking.

3. Listen more, speak less: For effective listening, it is very important to listen carefully rather than interrupting the speaker again and again. One should listen more and carefully rather than speaking more and immediately deriving conclusions.

4. Have an open mind: It means listen without judging the other person or criticizing the things that he/ she tells you. It is always better to be opened minded to other persons view and ideas through which we may get to know a lot. Apart from this, we cannot just stop listening to someone just because we dislike his/ her appearance, thought etc.

5. Don’t jump to conclusion: Wait until you hear what the speaker has to say, before jumping or deriving conclusions. A good listener should not be bias and should not judge or decide something without having all the facts and reach to unwanted conclusions.

6. Show Understanding: A good listener deliberately listens to the speaker and understands his/ her feelings. He concentrates totally on the facts and evaluates the facts. A good listener should be projective (i.e. one who tries to understand the views of the speaker) and empathic (i.e. tries to understand the speakers perspective).

7. Short Note on: Listening, Computerization and Note Taking Good note taking involves effective listening that includes concentrating on selecting, summarizing, evaluating what is being said by the speaker. Listening requires you not only to hear what is being said but to understand as well. Note taking is the practice of recording information captured from another source. By taking notes, the writer records the essence of the information, freeing their mind from having to recall everything. Note taking is the practice of writing pieces of information, in an informal and unstructured manner. It generally involves writing down most of what you hear or read without processing the information. Note taking is taken as a passive approach to study and learning.

 2.4 Communicating in Public Situations:

2.5 Listening for Communication:

Most people spend at least half of their communication time listening. This most used communication skill is not only crucial in interpersonal communication but it is also must in organisation communication and helps in determining success in education and careers. Business written Kevin Murphy says “the better you listen, the luckier you get so take time to listen”. Recent studies show that personnel at all levels spend about 32.7% of their time, listening. Whereas, speaking takes up 25.8% of their time and writing 22.6% however, senior professionals spend even more time listening. Poor listening can cause innumerable mistakes. Listening helps employees to update their facts, skills, attitudes and also improve their spoken skills.

  • Language Functions:
    • Listening Barriers

Physical Barriers


Poor acoustics

 Defective mechanical devices

 Frequent interruptions

 Uncomfortable seating arrangements

 Uncomfortable environment

 Message overload

People – Related Barriers

Physiological Barriers

            Being unsure of the speaker’s ability

Personal anxiety


Psychological Barriers


Emotional blocks

Question of Unit-2

What is listening? What are the different types of listening?

 What are the barriers of listening? How to overcome them?                               

Different types of Listening barriers.

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication:

The purpose of any speech can be categorised into broad headings: 1. General 2. Specific

There are three general speech purposes:

1. To Inform: The main concern of the speaker here is to make the audience understood and remember the information presented.

2. To Persuade: The major objective of a persuasive speech to induce the audience to think, feel and act in a manner intended by the speaker.

3. To Entertain: Through such speeches, the speaker wants the audience to have an enjoyable time.

Specific purpose describes the exact nature of response you want from the audience.

It has three requirements: 1. Central Idea 2. Clear and Concise message 3. It should be worded in term of the audience desire.

Steps in Organising and Delivering the Speech

1. Organising Speech: Jot down 3 or 4 main points that you want your audience to remember.

2. Summarise each idea in a single clear sentence: Sentences should be built around facts and supported by examples.

3. Write you speech: Use short and clear words. Don’t pronounce it with professional or technical jargons.

4. Use sense of humour: Cracking a sensible joke or the adding a punchy one liners as per the environment. However, excess jokes can make the speaker sound unprofessional.

5. Write main points of 3X5 Cue Cards/ Note Cards

6. Rehearse Your Speech: Time the delivery of speech while rehearsal to match the allotted time.

7. Look at the audience: Make an eye contact with the audience to make them realise that you are there for them.

8. Deliver your speech to the audience speak slowly and loudly (volume) when required. Stand upright in a relaxed manner with your feet slightly apart and hands by your side. Visual may be used where possible as it demonstrates certain points more effectively.

3.1 Speaking about Myself:

3.2 Speaking Accurately:

A. Pronunciation, Stress and Accent How do you understand a new word of a new language?

We have to break the word to be able to correctly pronounce it. A part of a word or a word which contains a single vowel sound is known as a syllable. It is a single unit of speech that builds up the structure of every word. It gives a word its pronunciation. Each word contains at least one or more syllable as a word can be formed without a consonant sound

Following are the examples of words with single syllable: 1. Man 2. Cup 3. Hat Single vowel sound can be made of more than one vowel letters. E.g. 1. Moon 2. Cake 3. Bought As all of these words contain only one vowel sound, therefore, they are single syllable words.

Examples of words with two syllables: 1. Garden : gar den 2. Hotel : ho tel 3. Consist : con sist 4. Focus : fo cus

Examples of words with the three syllables: 1. September : sep tem ber 2. Department : de part ment 3. Telephone : te le phone 4. Camera : ca me ra 5. Saturday : sa tur day

Examples of words with four syllables: 1. Information : in for may tion 2. Practically : prac ti ca lly 3. Photography : pho to gra phy 4. Competition : com pe ti tion

Similarly, there can be words with even more syllables. Word Stress: When a word has more than one syllable, not all syllables are pronounces with the same degree of force.

Phoneme – The smallest unit at the level of sounds of one particular language is called phoneme. e.g. the /t/ from /p/ in /tin/ and /pin/. The phoneme of spoken language differs from the letters of a written language. The phonemes of English and their number vary from dialect to dialect, and also depend on the interpretation of the individual researcher.

The number of consonant phonemes is generally put at 24 (or slightly more). The number of vowels is subject to greater variation; there are 20 vowel phonemes in Received Pronunciation, 14–16 in General American and 20– 21 in Australian English. Out of this 12 are pure vowels or Monophthongs and 8 are vowel glides or Diphthongs.

Stress – Stress is the intensity or prominence given to a syllable. It way we defied as emphasis on a syllable or word in the form of prominent, relative loudness͛. In traditional approach, each English word consisting of more than one syllable can be ascribed to any one of these three degrees – primary or loud, secondary or medium and unstressed. When prominence is given to syllable in sentences, it is called sentence-stress.

3.3 Practice in Public Speaking:

Great speakers are not born, they are trained”     – Dale Carnegie

Public Speaking is the art of communicating live to a large audience. It is generally a formal face-to face interaction of an individual to a group of people. It can be as simple as providing information, story-telling or a motivational speech.

Public speaking has several components such as leadership development, business, motivating speech, mass communication, persuading, etc. It is generally done in a structured and deliberate manner with the intention to inform, influence or entertain the listener.

There are 5 elements in public speaking:

  • Who is saying?
  • What?
  • To Whom?
  • Using what medium
  • With what Effects?

3.4 Non-Verbal Communication:

The most basic form of communication is non-verbal. Long before human beings used words to communicate, our ancestors communicate with each other by using body languages such as gritting of teeth for anger, smile and touch to show affection. Thus, one can easily say that nonverbal communication is the communication without words.

As human beings evolved over a period of time, the use of this form of communication has not diminished but has widen in scope. The two-effective means of communication are Firstly, nonverbal communication is the form of sign language such as traffic lights, blowing of siren, telephone ring, traffic maps, etc. ‘Secondly’ Communication through body language, which include kinesics, para language, proxemics.

Meaning of: Kinesics: – is the interpretation of body language such as facial expressions and gestures (body movement).

Para language: – refers to the non- verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion.         

Proxemics: – is a subcategory of the study of non-verbal communication along with haptics(touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalic (para languages).

Social Communication:

Performing Language Functions:

 Speaking across the Curriculum:

Questions from Unit-3

Essential qualities of a good speaker

Importance of Non-Verbal communication in hospitality industry.

What is Audience Analysis? Explain its Importance?

What are the characteristics of an effective public speaker?                       

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading:

4.1 Countering Defects:

4.2Reading Silently for Understanding and Speed:

Reading silently improves students’ understanding because it helps them concentrate on what they are reading, rather than the pronunciation of individual words. When we read silently, we can form mental pictures of the topic being discussed. Also, we do not need to read one word at a time. When you encourage your students to read silently, you are helping them develop the strategies they need for reading fast, and with better comprehension. This is called reading efficiency, and it will help your students to read any text with maximum attention to meaning.

Silent reading also helps develop the skills of reading for a purpose, as the focus is on understanding the content without the additional burden of having to pay attention to pronunciation.

Research has shown that people read in sense groups, which means, roughly, that we read a number of words together so that they make sense to us. For example, this is how I read the first sentence of this paragraph: Reading silently/improves students’ understanding/because it helps them/ concentrate on/what they are reading,/rather than the pronunciation of individual words. Within these groups of words, our eyes stop at the content words (reading, silently, improves, students’, because, helps, concentrate, etc.) — that is, nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc., the words that carry independent meaning — and skip over the function words (it, them, on, the, of, etc.) — that is, grammatical words such as articles and other determiners.

4.3 Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of Reading

The Essential Components of Reading

Reading is an extremely complex cognitive process.  Our intellect is in fact engaged in number of tasks when we are reading, despite of the belief that reading is one singular act. There are five attributes to the process of reading: phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and fluency. These five features work together to form the reading skill. In order to turn out to be a triumph in reading skills, individuals must develop expertise in all these five areas. 


“Phonics instruction helps early elementary students develop proficiency in decoding, spelling, and understanding words” – National Reading Panel

Phonics is the relationship or a connection between sounds, letter symbols or word families, short vowels, long vowels, and letter combinations and the sounds they represent. Without phonics, words are just a group of scribbles and lines on a page.

There are many ways that phonics can be skilled because there is a multiple way to apply this aspect when reading. Every single approach permits the reader to use phonics to read and discover new words in a diverse way. 

4.4 Reading — Study Reading:

Tips to improve your Reading Skills

In the modern age of information, reading truly is a fundamental survival skill. Here are ten tips that anyone can use to improve their reading skills:

1. You don’t have to be a great reader to get the point.

Some people read fast and remember everything. Others read slowly and take a couple of times to get all the information. It doesn’t matter, really, so long as when you read, you get the information you’re seeking.

2. Know WHY you’re reading.

Are you reading for entertainment or to learn something? Decide why you’re reading before you start and you’ll greatly improve your comprehension and your enjoyment.

3. You don’t need to read everything.

Not every magazine, letter, and email you receive contains information you need. In fact, most of it is simply junk. Throw it away, hit the delete key! Just doing this will double the amount of time you have available to read.

4. You don’t need to read all of what you DO read.

Do you read every article of every magazine, every chapter of every book? If so, you’re probably spending a lot of time reading stuff you don’t need. Be choosy: select the chapters and articles that are important. Ignore the rest.

5. Scan before you read.

Look at the table of contents, index, topic headers, photo captions, etc. These will help you determine if, a) you have a real interest in this reading, and b) what information you’re likely to get from it.

6. Prioritize your reading.

You can’t read everything all at once (and wouldn’t want to). If it’s important, read it now. If it’s not, let it wait.

7. Optimize your reading environment.

You’ll read faster and comprehend more if you read in an environment that’s comfortable for you.

8. Once you start, don’t stop!

Read each item straight through. If you finish and have questions, go back and re-read the pertinent sections. If you don’t have questions, you got what you needed and are ready to move on.

9. Focus.

Remember, you’re reading with a purpose, so focus on that purpose and the material. If you lose interest or keep losing your place, take a break or read something else. You can keep track of where you are by following along with your hand. This simple technique helps you focus and increase your concentration.

10. Practice!

The more you read, the better reader you’ll become (and smarter, too)! So, feed your mind: read!

4.5 Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum:

4.6 Extensive Reading: Encouraging Lifelong Learning:

Question from Unit-4

 List out the four main reading techniques and explain.

List out the tips to improve your Reading Skills.                                         

Different attributes of effective reading.

Does reading skill helps in an organization? Explain in detail.

Unit-5: Effective Writing:

Written communication has great significance in today‟s business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for pre- paring worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.

Advantages of Written Communication

  • Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.
  • It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required.
  • It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.
  • Written communication is more precise and explicit.
  • Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization‟s image.
  • It provides ready records and references.
  • Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records.

Disadvantages of Written Communication

  • Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.
  • Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.
  • Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.
  • Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organization‟s reputation.
  • Too much paper work and e-mails burden are involved.

5.1 Better Writing Using Personal Experiences:

5.2 Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and Grammar:

Effective writing tips mentioned below.

Keep it simple. Let’s start with a few basics. Simplify your message. Rather than zig-zagging through every angle in the book, find a hook that will catch the reader’s attention and tell that story.

Trim the fat. We live in an age of information overload. Focus on the meat of the topic, and find ways to trim the fat. Your audience will appreciate it.

Answer the 5 Ws (and the H). The ‘who, what, when, where, why and how’ approach to writing might have been the first thing I learned in journalism school, but it’s still one of my favorite methods to confirm I’m telling the whole story.

Think, feel, do Before I put pen to paper, I contemplate what I want the reader to think, what I want them to feel and what I want them to do. If your writing passes the ‘Think, Feel, Do’ test, you’ve got yourself a keeper.

Design your draft. Do you remember the outlines your fifth-grade teacher made your write before you started your essay? A simple outline will allow you to connect the dots of your story with a limited amount of time investment required.

Use real, everyday words. There’s a reason most newspapers write at an eighth-grade reading level. It helps to ensure the message will be interpreted the same way it was intended.

Mind your grammar. Grammatical errors will instantly erode your credibility. Pay close attention to those graded term papers to identify any bad habits you need to correct before you graduate. Eliminate passive voice, avoid commonly misspelled words and keep an AP Stylebook handy.

Who are you? Putting yourself in the shoes of your audience is a fairly well-known writing tip, but in public relations, you have to take that one step further. We channel a variety of brand voices, C-suite executives and other important figures. Channelling the proper voice in your writing is a skill that can be improved through practice and intention.

Find your focus. Identify an environment that will allow you to write efficiently. Find inspiration through music, a comfortable seat, a quiet corner or a second cup of coffee.

Proof. Proof. Proof. Proofing extends beyond spell check. Take the time to double-check your facts. Are your links working? Did you reserve five or 55 microphones from the event vendor? Peer reviews and stepping away for a bit often help catch those hidden blemishes.

5.3 Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions

Effective Writing is writing which has a logical flow of ideas and is cohesive. This means it holds together well because there are links between sentences and paragraphs. Writing which is cohesive works as a unified whole and is easy to follow because it uses language effectively to maintain a focus and to keep the reader ‘on track’.

5.4 Effective Writing across the Curriculum

5.5 Promoting Creative Writing

Question from Unit-5

Discuss about the advantages and disadvantages of ‘written communication’.

Explain the use and effect of written communication in hotel industry.

Write the importance of written communication its advantages and disadvantages.

List out five tips towards effective writing.  

Short Question draft from all above Notes

Active Listening

Communication in public speaking

Creative Writing

Draw a neat diagram of the process of communication


Extensive Reading

Importance of reading skill

Importance of Written communication


Non-Verbal communication

Process of communication

Difference between ‘listening’ and ‘hearing’

Sate two tips to improve communication skills

Social Communication

Advantages of Written Communication.

301 Moved Permanently

301 Moved Permanently