has been an age-old concern: The discerning customer in shops and market-places
has applied ‘quality techniques’, prodding and turning fruits and vegetables
testing for firmness, freshness and fitness for the purpose of consumption. If
the product was not adequate the purchase would not take place. In the hustle
and bustle of cattle markets farmers argued and bartered over the fitness of
animals for breeding, dairy farming or consumption, providing evidence for
their case by inspection against criteria learned from their forefathers. Those
shoppers and farmers passed on their knowledge to their children, and similarly
it was passed on to their children’s children. Eager market traders would get
short shrift from her if clothes had weak stitching, zips got stuck when
zipping, fruits were marked and bruised or vegetables appeared old and
unpalatable. The issue of quality of goods and services is not new. Throughout
history society has demanded that providers of goods and services should meet
their obligations. As long ago as 1700 BC King Hammurabi of Babylon introduced
the concept of product quality and liability into the building industry of the
time by declaring: …if a building falls into pieces and the owner is killed
then the builder shall be put to death. If the owner’s children are killed then
the builders’ children shall be put to death.
in the Middle Ages – The maintenance of quality was one of
the key functions of the craft guilds of the Middle Ages with only those
workers who could achieve acceptable quality standards being admitted to membership.
Until the advent of mass production, building quality into a product was the
job of a craftsman, what is referred to as ‘operator quality control’. Skilled
craftsmen produced high quality products and had pride in their work. Tradesmen
gained a reputation for quality products through skilled craftsmanship that was
maintained over time by enforcing lengthy apprenticeship of newcomers to
masters-of the-trade. Tradesmen worked in small tightly knit and controlled
firms. Monopolistic guilds were organized to ensure achievement of a high level
skill and quality throughout its membership and the trade.
During the Industrial Revolution – The Industrial
Revolution revolutionized the manufacturing of products. Mass production set in
large factories employing armies of people gave rise to new management ways.
There were workers, supervisors and foremen, and managers. Establishment of
factories and this new organizational structure led to the withering of many
small business trades,and the removal of apprentices and masters from
positions.Frederick Taylor’s scientific management brought in efficient
operations to increase output through mass production by breaking down jobs
into parts with each part carried out by individual specialized workers.
Practical use of Taylor’s “scientific management,” built around specialization
and the division of labour, reached a high point with the advent of the mass
production line with the workers performing repetitious tasks on a mammoth
between the World Wars – The effort of the First World War
demanded yet more mass production. Quality became a pressing issue with forces
requiring reliable products to arrive on time. With this came the recognition
that quality had been central to the allies‘ success in the war. This led to
the formation of associations and institutes, and to the publication of
formalized ideas in Quality. In Britain, for example, the Technical Inspection
Association was formed in 1919, becoming incorporated as the Institution of
Engineering Inspection in 1922. In 1931, W. A. Shewhart of the famous AT&T
Bell Laboratories, published Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured
Product. This gave the Taylorian discipline a much sounder ‘scientific
footing’. It converted statistical methods into a manufacturing discipline. A
precise and measurable definition of manufacturing control was worked out.
Stringent techniques for monitoring and evaluating day-to-day production and
improving quality were dictated. In 1932 Shewhart visited the University of London
to lecture and to discuss his and others’ research ideas. This visit attracted
significant interest which led to the formation of the Industrial and
Agricultural Section of the Royal Statistical Society and the publication by
the British Standards Institute (BSI) of the first standard on quality control
American Approach to Quality – The failure of
American corporations to listen to Deming and Juran has often been commented
on. In retrospect it appears to be one of the century’s most profound errors.
At the time, however, it was understandable. In terms of quality, American
products were as good as European ones and far better than those produced in
Japan. The American preoccupation was on lowering prices and the vehicle for
achieving this was generally recognized to be lowering labor costs. The
innovation strategy favored by the United States in the post-war years was the
only strategy in a period of low-cost resources, expanding markets and low
international competition. At that time, quantity was more important than
quality, and management was more concerned with increasing sales than with
reducing costs. Western industry believed this would last for ever and ignored
the quality-based teachings of experts such as W. E. Deming and Joseph Juran, who,
consequently, decided to turn their attention to the East. In a 1993 Harvard
Business Review article, Juran also made much of the fact that his Japanese
audiences in the early 1950s were the chief executives of major corporations,
whereas his North American listeners were primarily engineers and quality
inspectors. Juran’s message was not, he admitted, new or revolutionary. Making
things to a specific design and then inspecting them for defects was something
the Egyptians had mastered 5000 years previously when building the pyramids.
The American engineers weren’t ready for history lessons. Deming was similarly
well received in Japan. In 1951, the first award ceremony for the now
prestigious Deming Prize was held. Japan’s Approach to Quality – Japan, having
been burned to the ground during the war, encouraged a climate of change from
the start. Japanese managers took seriously the warnings about forthcoming
changes in the customer’s perception of quality and about the future demands
for faster development of customer-oriented products and services. So they
successfully combined the strategy of innovation with that of continuous
quality improvement; this brought a reduction in costs, faster development
times, prompt deliveries, customer satisfaction, and enormous competitive
advantage internationally. The Western approach was always based on the belief
that innovation alone was enough for survival and growth. This has already been
proved wrong on many occasions. The British Approach to Quality – Meanwhile the
British approach was slow and backward compared to the establishment of quality
as an important managerial issue in North America, and the tidal wave sweeping
over Japan. Belatedly, in 1961, the National Council for Quality Reliability
was set up as part of the British Productivity Council. The Council became
defunct when the British Ministry of Technology withdrew financial support.
Quality in Britain then found its home in the British Quality Association.
WHAT IS QUALITY?
Oxford American Dictionary defines quality as “a degree or level of
excellence.” According to Garvin – Quality is an unusually slippery concept,
easy to visualize and yet exasperatingly difficult to define. The word
‘quality’ normally conveys notions of nebulous factors that are not readily
measured or tied down. Quality conveys a positive connotation to whatever it is
FEW OTHER MEANINGS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WORD QUALITY ARE: (MAKE THIS LINE DARK
). · A good product · Sturdy · Durable · Made of best materials · Easy to
operate · Nice in appearance and touch · Produced with care These when
translated into a broader sense mean· Description of consumer wishes ·
Observance of terms of delivery · Has good documentation · Is available at a
reasonable price · A product meeting laid down specifications. E.g. when we buy
a T.V., we look at the following parameters- Brand, Sales talk / Sales
Brochure, Picture and Sound Quality, Size / Dimensions, Appearances, Weight,
Terms of payment, Maintenance cost, Terms of delivery, Installation, Servicing
THEREFORE CAN BE DESCRIBED AS: “MEETING THE STATED AND IMPLIED NEEDS OF THE
CUSTOMER” – K.pleski ET (1993) proposes that it would help in the understanding
of quality if we differentiate between customer perceived quality, which they
term ‘true quality’ and business process quality, which they term ‘internal
quality’. This differentiation would then point up the internally focused
nature of many quality management programmed offerings and show the need for
paying more attention to ‘true quality’, and hence a more outward looking role.
Success in quality management is seen as deriving from linking up both aspects
of quality. Further, there may be a danger of excessive internal focus in
calling everyone a customer. Here the problem in regarding employees as
internal customers is again that the ‘real’ customer, that is the one who pays
for the service, can be overlooked.
business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality has a pragmatic
interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it’s also
defined as being suitable for its intended purpose (fitness for purpose) while
satisfying customer expectations. Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and
somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different
people. Consumers may focus on the specification quality of a product/service,
or how it compares to competitors in the marketplace. Producers might measure
the conformance quality, or degree to which the product/service was produced
correctly. Support personnel may measure quality in the degree that a product
is reliable, maintainable, or sustainable.
are many aspects of quality in a business context, though primary is the idea
the business produces something, whether it be a physical good or a particular
service. These goods and/or services and how they are produced involve many
types of processes, procedures, equipment, personnel, and investments, which
all fall under the quality umbrella. Key aspects of quality and how it’s diffused
throughout the business are rooted in the concept of quality management:
planning – Quality planning is implemented as a means of
“developing the products, systems, and processes needed to meet or exceed
customer expectations.” This includes defining who the customers are,
determining their needs, and developing the tools (systems, processes, etc.)
needed to meet those needs.
assurance – Quality assurance is implemented as a means of
providing enough confidence that business requirements and goals (as outlined
in quality planning) for a product and/or service will be fulfilled. This error
prevention is done through systematic measurement, comparison with a standard,
and monitoring of processes.
control – Quality control (QC) is implemented as a means of
fulfilling quality requirements, reviewing all factors involved in production.
The business confirms that the good or service produced meets organizational
goals, often using tools such as operational auditing and inspection. QC is
focused on process output.
improvement – Quality improvement is implemented as a
means of providing mechanisms for the evaluation and improvement of processes,
etc. in the light of their efficiency, effectiveness, and flexibility. This may
be done with noticeably significant changes or incrementally via continual
quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers.
This includes external factors as appearance (size, shape, colour, gloss, and
consistency), texture, and flavour; factors such as federal grade standards
(e.g. of eggs) and internal (chemical, physical, microbial).
quality is an important food manufacturing requirement, because food consumers
are susceptible to any form of contamination that may occur during the
manufacturing process. Many consumers also rely on manufacturing and processing
standards, particularly to know what ingredients are present, due to dietary,
nutritional requirements (kosher, halal, vegetarian), or medical conditions
(e.g., diabetes, or allergies).
quality also deals with product traceability, (e.g., of ingredient, and
packaging suppliers), should a recall of the product be required. It also deals
with labeling issues to ensure there is correct ingredient and nutritional
of quality – historical background
concept of a quality as we think of it now first emerged from the Industrial
Revolution. Previously goods had been made from start to finish by the same
person or team of people, with handcrafting and tweaking the product to meet
‘quality criteria’. Mass production brought huge teams of people together to
work on specific stages of production where one person would not necessarily
complete a product from start to finish. In the late 19th century pioneers such
as Frederick Winslow Taylor and Henry Ford recognized the limitations of the
methods being used in mass production at the time and the subsequent varying
quality of output. Birland established Quality Departments to oversee the
quality of production and rectifying of errors, and Ford emphasized
standardization of design and component standards to ensure a standard product
was produced. Management of quality was the responsibility of the Quality
department and was implemented by Inspection of product output to ‘catch’
of statistical control came later as a result of World War production methods,
which were advanced by the work done of W. Edwards Deming, a statistician,
after whom the Deming Prize for quality is named. Joseph M. Juran focused more
on managing for quality. The first edition of Juran’s Quality Control Handbook
was published in 1951. He also developed the “Juran’s trilogy”, an
approach to cross-functional management that is composed of three managerial
processes: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. These
functions all play a vital role when evaluating quality.
as a profession and the managerial process associated with the quality
function, was introduced during the second half of the 20th century and has
evolved since then. Over this period, few other disciplines have seen as many
changes as the quality profession.
quality profession grew from simple control to engineering, to systems
engineering. Quality control activities were predominant in the 1940s, 1950s,
and 1960s. The 1970s were an era of quality engineering and the 1990s saw
quality systems as an emerging field. Like medicine, accounting, and
engineering, quality has achieved status as a recognized profession
QMS process is an element of an organizational QMS. The ISO 9001:2000 standard
requires organizations seeking compliance or certification to define the
processes which form the QMS and the sequence and interaction of these
processes. Butterworth-Heinemannand other publishers have offered several books
which provide step-by-step guides to those seeking the quality certifications
of their products
of such processes include:
service/ process measurements to comply with specific requirements e.g.
statistical process control and measurement systems analysis,
labeling and control of non-conforming products to prevent its inadvertent use,
delivery or processing, purchasing and related processes such as supplier
selection and monitoring ISO9001 requires that the performance of these
processes be measured, analyzed and continually improved, and the results of
this form an input into the management review process.
INGREDIENTS QUANTITY Plain flour (Maida) 250gm Puree ghee 50gm Sugar 400gm Water 100ml Milk 50gm Ghee/oil for fry ghever
Method of Preparation: – ❖ Combine the sugar and water in a pan and simmer till it reaches a 1 string consistency. ❖ Remove from the heat and keep warm. Combine the flour and melted ghee in a bowl. ❖ Add water in a thin stream, whisking continuously but at no point should the ghee and water separate. ❖ The batter should be of a coating consistency. Keep the batter in a cool place away from the heat. ❖ Place the ghevar mould in a kadhai and pour melted ghee in it till it reaches 3/4 of the height of the mould. ❖ Heat the ghee on a medium flame and put in one spoonful of the batter into the mould in a thin stream. The batter should settle in the mould. ❖ When the froth subsides, pour in another spoonful in the centre in a thin stream. ❖ Increase the flame and allow it to cook in the centre by pouring ladlefuls of hot ghee in the centre of the mould 2 or 3 times. ❖ When the centre is firm and cooked then Deep in sugar syrup and serve at room temp. Note :- Alternatively, you can use a large mould to get fewer ghevar in which case the cooking time will increase. Rabid or mava also use on top the ghevar.
paper is intended to emphasize on improving oral and written communication
skills through experiential training and comprehensive understanding of the
Communication: Definition, Importance of
effective communication, Process of Communication, Objectives of Communication,
Characteristics of Communication and the C s of Good Communication.
Unit-2: Better Listening: Listening for Pronunciation
Practice, Listening for Personal Communication, Active Listening: Communicating
in Public Situations, Listening for Communication: Language Functions.
for Better Communication: Speaking about Myself, Speaking
Accurately, Practice in Public
Communication, Social Communication: Performing Language
Functions, Speaking across the Curriculum.
Confidence in Reading: Countering Defects, Reading
Silently for Understanding and Speed, Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of
Reading, Reading — Study Reading: Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum,
Extensive Reading: Encouraging Lifelong Learning.
Effective Writing: Better Writing Using
Personal Experiences, Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and
Grammar, Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions, Effective
Writing across the Curriculum, Promoting Creative Writing.
A. (2005). Effective Business Communication, PHI, New Delhi.
M. (2011). Guide to Managerial Communication: Effective Writing & Speaking,
PHI, New Delhi.
Communication is a process through
which ideas or opinions are exchanged or transferred, progress of a person is
dependent upon his/ her communication skills. It is considered as an art for
achieving success at work place as it is clearly associated with the ability to
communicate effectively. Both at the workplace and with outsiders. It takes a
variety of forms, i.e., from 2 people having face to face conversation or hand
signals in the form of messages to the global telecommunication network. The
process of communication facilities interaction among people without which we
would be unable to share our knowledge or experiences with anyone else.
“Communication is the process by
which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so
that an understanding response results”.
By Peter Little
“Communication is an exchange of
facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.
By W.H. New man and C.F. summer
Importance of effective communication:
Communication is required not only
in social life but also in personal and professional life. Good communication
helps an individual advance socially by making useful contacts. It also builds
self-confidence and enables him to help and lead others. In a business,
reputation, trust and credibility need to be built up in order to get clients
trust and confidence. Having sense of professionalism will help bring a
long-term relationship with employees and clientele.
Business communication is required
for the following purposes-
1) In order to make sure that
business deal is attend to promptly.
2) Communicating with external and
internal contacts of an organisation.
3) Organise the business whether
it is a sale, a promotion, inquiry, a problem, etc.
4) Dealing with people for their
needs and otherwise. As a matter of fact, communication is pre-requisite to
have a balance within the internal as well as external factors in a business
whether it is dealing with people or other casts.
Process of Communication:
Communication is effective when a
concise and clear message is delivered well, received Successfully and
understand fully. The process of communication has the following distinct
Idea, Sender, Message, Encoding
Message, Noise, Understanding Idea, Decoding Message, Receiver, Medium and
1). Idea: – Idea is the
simplification and abstraction of reality filtered through the individuals
Mind. Every message weather oral or written begins with an idea. Every business
has its own Convention for processing and communicating information.
2). Sender: – Person sending the
information is called sender. He is also known as encoder. The Process of
communication begins when an idea occurs in his mind. The sender wants to send
That idea to another person/organization to achieve some objective. The sender
must have a Clear picture in his mind about what he wants to communicate.
3). Message: – The idea, emotion
or opinion transmitted by the sender is called message. Message is an idea
transformed into words. The message can be expressed in different ways
Depending on the subjects, purpose, audience, personal style and cultural
background of the Sender.
4). Encoding: – The method by
which a message is expressed is called encoding. Message arises In the mind in
the form of an idea. That idea is transmitted by the sender to the receiver in
the Form of words, symbols, picture etc. If not encoded, it may not be possible
for the receiver to Understand it.
5). Medium and Channel: – The
method and means by which a message is transmitted by a Sender to the receiver.
For instance, letters are a medium and postal or courier service a channel. If
message is communicated by telephone, then oral message is a medium and
telephone a Channel.
6). Receiver: – The receiver is a
person/organization that receives the message. He is the Destination of the
message. In the absence, the process of communication is incomplete. He not
Only receives the message but also understands what is implied in it. He may be
a listener, Reader or viewer of the message.
7). Decoding: – Decoding is the
mental process by which the receiver draws meaning from the Word, symbols or
picture of the message. Receiver decodes the message send by sender, that’s Why
he is also known as decoder.
Feedback: – Feedback is the receiver’s response to the message. Feedback is the
final ink in the communication process. Feedback tells the source/sender, how
the receiver has interpreted the message. The effective communication is always
sensitive to feedback.
Objectives of Communication:
basic objective of human communication is trying to elicit a reaction from the
person we are trying to communicate with. From a business or commercial angle,
if we observe any small or large business around us we will be able to notice
that the amount of success the business has achieved mainly relies on its power
of communication. Communication defines the level of success that the company
are a few of the main objectives of business communication.
Information: The core objective of a business is to convey information
and making individuals more up to date, E.g.- all the advertisement campaigns
that we notice around us are an attempt to inform and convey the information
across to others, and in case of companies, this information is generally
regarding the product or services at offer. However, the method of
communication may be verbal, written, visual or any other. All companies thrive
on information pertinent to their business activity. They must have excellent
knowledge regarding the market, their competitors, the government policies, the
type of credit they can gain from; the existing economic situation etc.
Pertinent information is the main aspect for successful business. However, in
the recent times, because of the arrival of the World Wide Web, there has been
a swift outburst in the quantity of information that is accessible to a company
and it is turning out to be gradually more difficult for a company to come
across information that is genuine, comprehensive, up-to-date and new.
Furthermore, it has become very important for any company to get hold of that
information. Moreover, this demand for correct information has initiated a new
faction of people called the infomederies, who do not handle any type of goods
but provide information. A company not only acquires information but
furthermore provides information as well, for e.g.- The company has to provide
factual information about profitability, quality of products, facilities
provided to the workers or services rendered towards the community.
Motivation: Communication in business is moreover essential to boost the
workers’ motivation. Thus if the communication is carried out correctly and is
successful in encouraging the workers and workers are sufficiently encouraged,
the work gets completed easily, proficiently and the workers will carry out
their functions by themselves without supervision. Communication should be
utilised to construct a proper working atmosphere. In order to create a strong
competitive atmosphere between the workers and furthermore can be acknowledged
and rewarded for their accomplishments. Employees who work at a lower level in
the chain of command of the organisation should be motivated to give ideas and
inputs on the methods to improve the functioning of an organisation, this type
of communication brings about a feeling of involvement and connection and
creates more loyalty towards the company.
Raising Morale: Another extremely significant objective of business
communication (internal) is maintaining a sense of high morale amongst the
workers, so that they perform their tasks with dynamism and resilience as a
team. create a great impact on the success of a company. However as morale is a
psychological aspect, the condition of high morale is not a lasting feature. An
organisation could have a sense of high morale between the workers for
following phase. Therefore, to keep the sense of high morale amongst the
employees, an organisation has to constantly put in their efforts in that
course. It can be managed by maintaining an open door policy, keeping tabs on
the gossip and not permitting destructive rumours to spread among employees.
Order and instructions: An order is an oral or written rule influencing
the start, end or adjusting an activity. This form of communication is internal
and is executed within a company. Order may be in written or verbal form.
Written orders are given when the type of job is extremely vital or the person
who would carry out the task is far off. Care must be taken at the time of
handing out written orders; a copy of the order should always be maintained so
that it is easy during the follow up. Oral orders come into play at the time of
urgency in the work and when the person is in close proximity. However, it is
extremely vital to follow up in both the cases.
Education and training: These days, communication can be additionally
used in business to enhance the scope of knowledge. The goal of education is
attained by business communication on three levels (a) Management (b) employees
(c) general public
Education for future managers: At this juncture, junior personnel in the
organisation are taught to deal with vital assignments comprising of
responsibility, so that they can achieve something more than their superiors in
the long run.
Education for newbie’s: When new personnel join an organisation, they are
introduced by enlightening them in relation to the culture of the company, code
of discipline, work ethos etc. This is generally carried out by way of a
training method to accustom the new recruits with the working style of the
Educating the public: This is carried out by advertising, informative seminars,
newspapers, journals to notify the public regarding the product, the working
style of the company and different schemes presented by the company.
Characteristics of Communication: 7 C s
of Good Communication:
1. Complete: The
communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the
audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s
mind set and convey the message accordingly.
2. Concise: Conciseness
means wordiness, i.e., communicating what you want to convey in least possible
words without forging the other C’s of communication. Conciseness is a
necessity for effective communication.
Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”. Effective
communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e., the audience’s
view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to
envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems.
4. Clear: Clarity implies
emplacing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to
achieve too much at once.
5. Correct: Correctness in
communication implies that there is no grammatical error in communication.
6. Courteous: Courtesy in
message implies the message should show the sender’s expression as well as
should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely
polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic.
7. Concrete: Concrete
communication implies being particular and clear rather fuzzy and general.
Concreteness strengthens the confidence.
1.6 Barriers of Communication
Communication plays a major role
in developing a relationship. It can also affect the relationship among family
members or management in any institute. More specifically, communication
influences the effectiveness of instruction, performance evaluation, and the
handling of discipline problems. Communication should be straightforward. What
can make it complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers. Some barriers
of communication are the following.
1. Physiological Barrier
Physiological barriers to
communication are related with the limitations of the human body and the human
mind (memory, attention, and perception). Physiological barriers may result
from individuals’ personal discomfort, caused by ill-health, poor eye sight, or
2. Poor Listening Skills
Listening to others is considered
a difficult task. A typical speaker says about 125 words per minute. The
typical listener can receive 400–600 words per minute. Thus, about three-fourth
of listening time is free time. The free time often sidetracks the listener.
The solution is to be an active rather than passive listener. A listener’s
premature frown, shaking of the head, or bored look can easily convince the
other person/speaker that there is no reason to elaborate or try again to
communicate his/her excellent idea.
3. Information Overload
Nurses are surrounded with a pool
of information. It is essential to control the flow of the information, else
the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked. As a
result, communication may get distorted.
At times, we just do not listen
but only hear. For example, your boss is immersed in his/her very important
paper work surrounded by so many files on the table and you are explaining
him/her about an urgent office problem. In this situation, due to the
inattention, the boss will not listen to you (he/she will only hear you);
hence, he/she may not get what you are saying and it may lead to disappointment.
The emotional state of a person at
a particular point of time affects his/her communication with others as it has
an impact on the body language (nonverbal communication). If the receiver feels
that the sender is angry (emotional state), he/she can easily infer that the
information being obtained will be very terrible.
6. Physical and Environmental
Physical distractions are the
physical things that get in the way of communication. Examples of such things
include the telephone, an uncomfortable meeting place, and noise. These
physical distractions are common in the hospital setting. If the telephone
rings, the usual human tendency will be to answer it even if the caller is interrupting a
very important or even delicate conversation. Distractions such as background
noise, poor lighting, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room, or an environment
that is too hot or cold can affect people’s morale and concentration, which in
turn interfere with effective communication.
7. Psychological Barrier
Psychological factors such as
misperception, filtering, distrust, unhappy emotions, and people’s state of
mind can jeopardize the process of communication. We all tend to feel happier
and more receptive to information when the sun shines. Similarly, if someone
has personal problems such as worries and stress about a chronic illness, it
may impinge his/her communication with others.
8. Social Barriers
Social barriers to communication
include the social psychological phenomenon of conformity, a process in which
the norms, values, and behaviors of an individual begin to follow those of the
wider group. Social factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, and
marital status may act as a barrier to communication in certain situations.
9. Cultural Barriers
Culture shapes the way we think
and behave. It can be seen as both shaping and being shaped by our established
patterns of communication. Cultural barrier to communication often arises when individuals
in one social group have developed different norms, values, or behaviors to
individuals associated with another group. Cultural difference leads to
difference in interest, knowledge, value, and tradition. Therefore, people of
different cultures will experience these culture factors as a barrier to
communicate with each other.
14. Barriers Related with the
Question from Unit -1
What is the main objective of business communication?
‘7 C s’ of good communication.
What are the barriers to communication? How to overcome these
Explain the process of communication with a neat
Unit-2: Better Listening:
Good listening skills make workers
more productive. The ability to listen carefully will allow a person to:
in better way and find and what is expected from him.
build rapport with
co-workers, bosses, and clients;
work better in a
resolve problems with
customers, co-workers, and bosses;
meanings in what others say.
2.1 Listening for Pronunciation
Make sentence to
differentiate the meaning of following homophones.
Great – a person who has achieved
distinction and honor in some field- “he is one of the greats of
Grate – reduce to small shreds
or pulverize by rubbing against a rough or sharp perforated
surface-“grate carrots and onions”
Excess (Additional, more than)
The store has an excess of stock which it must sell off
Accept– to receive or take
something- My friend was happy to accept the gift.
Except– not including something – The
restaurant is open every day of the week except Sunday
Affect – to cause a change – Her
decision to skip class could affect her grade
Effect – a change that is
produced by a cause – The snow had little effect on the school schedule.
To (Preposition) – used to
indicate the place, person, or thing that something moves toward – I am going
to the mall after we finish eating lunch.
Too (Adverb) – more than what
is wanted, accepted, needed, possible, etc.
– The pink bag is too heavy for me to lift by myself, but the blue one
Two (Noun) – the number 2 -I
would like two copies please.
Career (profession) Mr. Balhara
was very successful in his hotel career.
Carrier (person/company which
carries goods, support for luggage in bicycles) The goods train is the biggest
carrier of goods.
Birth (coming to life) Sheela
gave birth to a girl child..
Berth (a shelf like sleeping
space in train) Please reserve a first class berth for me in the Taj Express.
Dye (a coloring that changes
the color of material) Take colour well during the dyeing process.
Die (to cease to live and
become dead) he died of tuberculosis
Beat (to hit something hard) he beat the table with his hand’
Beet (a type of plant) Beetroot
cultivated as a source of food for human
Fair (Lovely, just) This shop
charges fair prices.
Fare (Money charged for bus,
train etc., journey) Taxi driver had only one fare that day.
Weather (Climate) We went out
shopping in the fine weather.
Whether (if) Tell me whether he
would send the parcel or not.
2.2 Listening for Personal
2.3 Active Listening:
Levels and Types of Listening
Listening: It involves an attempt to distinguish
one second from all others. Stopping work to determine whether the phone is
ringing is an example of this listening. We learn how to discriminate among
sounds at an early stage.
2. Comprehensive Listening:
It involves an attempt to understand a speaker’s message in totality and to
interpret the meaning precisely. This kind of listening is generally practiced
in classrooms, where we must remember what has been taught and rely upon it for
3. Critical Listening: When
a person want’s to sift through what he has heard and come to a decision he
must listen critically. This involves judging the clarity, accuracy and
reliability of the information evidence and also being alert to emotional
appeals. Examples: Professionals like doctors and judges do this listening.
4. Active Listening: It is
also called empathized listening or supportive listening. Empathy means putting
yourself into other person’s shoes and trying to understand his perspective.
When we listen actively, we encourage the speaker to express himself
completely. It involves responding to the emotional content apart from only the
verbal message. An active listener is alert to all clues and carefully deserves
the non-verbal behaviour of the speaker to get a complete picture. Eg.
Guidelines for effective listening
1. Use attentive body language:
The posture and position of body influence both the ability to listen and how
you are perceived as a listener. An attentive listener should show confidence
in his/her body language.
2. Concentration: Effective
listening requires focusing on what is being sad. While listening, we should
not get distracted by noise or any kind of disturbances. We should be
concentrated to what the speaker is speaking.
3. Listen more, speak less: For
effective listening, it is very important to listen carefully rather than
interrupting the speaker again and again. One should listen more and carefully
rather than speaking more and immediately deriving conclusions.
4. Have an open mind: It means
listen without judging the other person or criticizing the things that he/ she
tells you. It is always better to be opened minded to other persons view and
ideas through which we may get to know a lot. Apart from this, we cannot just
stop listening to someone just because we dislike his/ her appearance, thought
5. Don’t jump to conclusion: Wait
until you hear what the speaker has to say, before jumping or deriving
conclusions. A good listener should not be bias and should not judge or decide
something without having all the facts and reach to unwanted conclusions.
6. Show Understanding: A good
listener deliberately listens to the speaker and understands his/ her feelings.
He concentrates totally on the facts and evaluates the facts. A good listener
should be projective (i.e. one who tries to understand the views of the
speaker) and empathic (i.e. tries to understand the speakers perspective).
7. Short Note on: Listening,
Computerization and Note Taking Good note taking involves effective listening
that includes concentrating on selecting, summarizing, evaluating what is being
said by the speaker. Listening requires you not only to hear what is being said
but to understand as well. Note taking is the practice of recording information
captured from another source. By taking notes, the writer records the essence
of the information, freeing their mind from having to recall everything. Note
taking is the practice of writing pieces of information, in an informal and
unstructured manner. It generally involves writing down most of what you hear
or read without processing the information. Note taking is taken as a passive
approach to study and learning.
2.4 Communicating in Public Situations:
2.5 Listening for Communication:
Most people spend at least half of
their communication time listening. This most used communication skill is not
only crucial in interpersonal communication but it is also must in organisation
communication and helps in determining success in education and careers.
Business written Kevin Murphy says “the better you listen, the luckier you get
so take time to listen”. Recent studies show that personnel at all levels spend
about 32.7% of their time, listening. Whereas, speaking takes up 25.8% of their
time and writing 22.6% however, senior professionals spend even more time
listening. Poor listening can cause innumerable mistakes. Listening helps
employees to update their facts, skills, attitudes and also improve their
Defective mechanical devices
Uncomfortable seating arrangements
People – Related Barriers
unsure of the speaker’s ability
Question of Unit-2
What is listening? What are the different types of listening?
What are the barriers of
listening? How to overcome them?
Different types of Listening barriers.
Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication:
The purpose of any speech can be
categorised into broad headings: 1. General 2. Specific
There are three general speech
1. To Inform: The main concern of
the speaker here is to make the audience understood and remember the
2. To Persuade: The major
objective of a persuasive speech to induce the audience to think, feel and act
in a manner intended by the speaker.
3. To Entertain: Through such
speeches, the speaker wants the audience to have an enjoyable time.
Specific purpose describes the
exact nature of response you want from the audience.
It has three requirements: 1.
Central Idea 2. Clear and Concise message 3. It should be worded in term of the
Steps in Organising and Delivering
1. Organising Speech: Jot down 3
or 4 main points that you want your audience to remember.
2. Summarise each idea in a single
clear sentence: Sentences should be built around facts and supported by
3. Write you speech: Use short and
clear words. Don’t pronounce it with professional or technical jargons.
4. Use sense of humour: Cracking a
sensible joke or the adding a punchy one liners as per the environment.
However, excess jokes can make the speaker sound unprofessional.
5. Write main points of 3X5 Cue
Cards/ Note Cards
6. Rehearse Your Speech: Time the
delivery of speech while rehearsal to match the allotted time.
7. Look at the audience: Make an
eye contact with the audience to make them realise that you are there for them.
8. Deliver your speech to the
audience speak slowly and loudly (volume) when required. Stand upright in a
relaxed manner with your feet slightly apart and hands by your side. Visual may
be used where possible as it demonstrates certain points more effectively.
3.1 Speaking about Myself:
3.2 Speaking Accurately:
A. Pronunciation, Stress and
Accent How do you understand a new word of a new language?
We have to break the word to be
able to correctly pronounce it. A part of a word or a word which contains a
single vowel sound is known as a syllable. It is a single unit of speech that
builds up the structure of every word. It gives a word its pronunciation. Each
word contains at least one or more syllable as a word can be formed without a
Following are the examples of
words with single syllable: 1. Man 2. Cup 3. Hat Single vowel sound can be made
of more than one vowel letters. E.g. 1. Moon 2. Cake 3. Bought As all of these
words contain only one vowel sound, therefore, they are single syllable words.
Examples of words with two
syllables: 1. Garden : gar den 2. Hotel : ho tel 3. Consist : con sist 4. Focus
: fo cus
Examples of words with the three
syllables: 1. September : sep tem ber 2. Department : de part ment 3. Telephone
: te le phone 4. Camera : ca me ra 5. Saturday : sa tur day
Examples of words with four
syllables: 1. Information : in for may tion 2. Practically : prac ti ca lly 3.
Photography : pho to gra phy 4. Competition : com pe ti tion
Similarly, there can be words with
even more syllables. Word Stress: When a word has more than one syllable, not
all syllables are pronounces with the same degree of force.
– The smallest unit at the level of sounds of one particular language is called
phoneme. e.g. the /t/ from /p/ in /tin/ and /pin/. The phoneme of spoken
language differs from the letters of a written language. The phonemes of
English and their number vary from dialect to dialect, and also depend on the
interpretation of the individual researcher.
The number of consonant phonemes
is generally put at 24 (or slightly more). The number of vowels is subject to
greater variation; there are 20 vowel phonemes in Received Pronunciation, 14–16
in General American and 20– 21 in Australian English. Out of this 12 are pure
vowels or Monophthongs and 8 are vowel glides or Diphthongs.
Stress – Stress is the intensity
or prominence given to a syllable. It way we defied as emphasis on a syllable
or word in the form of prominent, relative loudness͛. In traditional approach,
each English word consisting of more than one syllable can be ascribed to any
one of these three degrees – primary or loud, secondary or medium and unstressed.
When prominence is given to syllable in sentences, it is called
3.3 Practice in Public Speaking:
Great speakers are not born, they are trained” – Dale Carnegie
Public Speaking is the art of communicating live to a
large audience. It is generally a formal face-to face interaction of an
individual to a group of people. It can be as simple as providing information,
story-telling or a motivational speech.
Public speaking has several
components such as leadership development, business, motivating speech, mass
communication, persuading, etc. It is generally done in a structured and
deliberate manner with the intention to inform, influence or entertain the
There are 5 elements in
Who is saying?
Using what medium
With what Effects?
most basic form of communication is non-verbal. Long before human beings used
words to communicate, our ancestors communicate with each other by using body
languages such as gritting of teeth for anger, smile and touch to show
affection. Thus, one can easily say that nonverbal communication is the
communication without words.
human beings evolved over a period of time, the use of this form of
communication has not diminished but has widen in scope. The two-effective
means of communication are Firstly, nonverbal communication is the form of sign
language such as traffic lights, blowing of siren, telephone ring, traffic
maps, etc. ‘Secondly’ Communication through body language, which include
kinesics, para language, proxemics.
of: Kinesics: – is the interpretation of body language such as facial
expressions and gestures (body movement).
Para language: – refers to the non- verbal elements of
communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion.
Proxemics: – is a subcategory of the study of non-verbal
communication along with haptics(touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalic
Performing Language Functions:
across the Curriculum:
Questions from Unit-3
Essential qualities of a good speaker
Importance of Non-Verbal communication in hospitality industry.
What is Audience Analysis? Explain its Importance?
What are the characteristics of an effective public speaker?
Reading silently improves students’
understanding because it helps them concentrate on what they are reading,
rather than the pronunciation of individual words. When we read silently, we
can form mental pictures of the topic being discussed. Also, we do not need to
read one word at a time. When you encourage your students to read silently, you
are helping them develop the strategies they need for reading fast, and with
better comprehension. This is called reading efficiency, and it will help your
students to read any text with maximum attention to meaning.
Silent reading also helps develop the skills of
reading for a purpose, as the focus is on understanding the content without the
additional burden of having to pay attention to pronunciation.
Research has shown that people read in sense
groups, which means, roughly, that we read a number of words together so that
they make sense to us. For example, this is how I read the first sentence of
this paragraph: Reading silently/improves students’ understanding/because it
helps them/ concentrate on/what they are reading,/rather than the pronunciation
of individual words. Within these groups of words, our eyes stop at the content
words (reading, silently, improves, students’, because, helps, concentrate,
etc.) — that is, nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc., the words that carry
independent meaning — and skip over the function words (it, them, on, the, of,
etc.) — that is, grammatical words such as articles and other determiners.
4.3 Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of
The Essential Components of Reading
Reading is an extremely complex cognitive
process. Our intellect is in fact
engaged in number of tasks when we are reading, despite of the belief that
reading is one singular act. There are five attributes to the process of
reading: phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and
fluency. These five features work together to form the reading skill. In order
to turn out to be a triumph in reading skills, individuals must develop
expertise in all these five areas.
“Phonics instruction helps early elementary
students develop proficiency in decoding, spelling, and understanding words” –
National Reading Panel
Phonics is the relationship or a connection
between sounds, letter symbols or word families, short vowels, long vowels, and
letter combinations and the sounds they represent. Without phonics, words are
just a group of scribbles and lines on a page.
There are many ways that phonics can be skilled
because there is a multiple way to apply this aspect when reading. Every single
approach permits the reader to use phonics to read and discover new words in a
4.4 Reading — Study Reading:
to improve your Reading Skills
the modern age of information, reading truly is a fundamental survival skill.
Here are ten tips that anyone can use to improve their reading skills:
You don’t have to be a great reader to get the point.
people read fast and remember everything. Others read slowly and take a couple
of times to get all the information. It doesn’t matter, really, so long as when
you read, you get the information you’re seeking.
Know WHY you’re reading.
you reading for entertainment or to learn something? Decide why you’re reading
before you start and you’ll greatly improve your comprehension and your
You don’t need to read everything.
every magazine, letter, and email you receive contains information you need. In
fact, most of it is simply junk. Throw it away, hit the delete key! Just doing
this will double the amount of time you have available to read.
You don’t need to read all of what you DO read.
you read every article of every magazine, every chapter of every book? If so,
you’re probably spending a lot of time reading stuff you don’t need. Be choosy:
select the chapters and articles that are important. Ignore the rest.
Scan before you read.
at the table of contents, index, topic headers, photo captions, etc. These will
help you determine if, a) you have a real interest in this reading, and b) what
information you’re likely to get from it.
Prioritize your reading.
can’t read everything all at once (and wouldn’t want to). If it’s important,
read it now. If it’s not, let it wait.
Optimize your reading environment.
read faster and comprehend more if you read in an environment that’s
comfortable for you.
Once you start, don’t stop!
each item straight through. If you finish and have questions, go back and
re-read the pertinent sections. If you don’t have questions, you got what you
needed and are ready to move on.
you’re reading with a purpose, so focus on that purpose and the material. If
you lose interest or keep losing your place, take a break or read something
else. You can keep track of where you are by following along with your hand.
This simple technique helps you focus and increase your concentration.
more you read, the better reader you’ll become (and smarter, too)! So, feed
your mind: read!
List out the four main reading
techniques and explain.
List out the tips to improve your Reading Skills.
Different attributes of effective reading.
Does reading skill helps in an organization? Explain in detail.
Unit-5: Effective Writing:
Written communication has great
significance in today‟s business world. It is an innovative activity of the
mind. Effective written communication is essential for pre- paring worthy
promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But
writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves
careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences
formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more
valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes
delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.
Advantages of Written Communication
communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for
running of an organization.
is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record
maintenance is required.
assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral
communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the
grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to
communication is more precise and explicit.
written communication develops and enhances an organization‟s image.
provides ready records and references.
defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records.
Disadvantages of Written
communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of
stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.
if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they
need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.
communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding
and sending of message takes time.
written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and
vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on
much paper work and e-mails burden are involved.
Better Writing Using Personal Experiences:
Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and Grammar:
writing tips mentioned below.
it simple. Let’s start with a few basics. Simplify your
message. Rather than zig-zagging through every angle in the book, find a hook
that will catch the reader’s attention and tell that story.
the fat. We live in an age of information overload. Focus
on the meat of the topic, and find ways to trim the fat. Your audience will
the 5 Ws (and the H). The ‘who, what, when, where, why
and how’ approach to writing might have been the first thing I learned in
journalism school, but it’s still one of my favorite methods to confirm I’m
telling the whole story.
feel, do Before I put pen to paper, I contemplate what I
want the reader to think, what I want them to feel and what I want them to do.
If your writing passes the ‘Think, Feel, Do’ test, you’ve got yourself a
your draft. Do you remember the outlines your fifth-grade
teacher made your write before you started your essay? A simple outline will
allow you to connect the dots of your story with a limited amount of time
real, everyday words. There’s a reason most newspapers
write at an eighth-grade reading level. It helps to ensure the message will be
interpreted the same way it was intended.
your grammar. Grammatical errors will instantly erode your
credibility. Pay close attention to those graded term papers to identify any
bad habits you need to correct before you graduate. Eliminate passive voice,
avoid commonly misspelled words and keep an AP Stylebook handy.
are you? Putting yourself in the shoes of your audience
is a fairly well-known writing tip, but in public relations, you have to take
that one step further. We channel a variety of brand voices, C-suite executives
and other important figures. Channelling the proper voice in your writing is a
skill that can be improved through practice and intention.
your focus. Identify an environment that will allow you to
write efficiently. Find inspiration through music, a comfortable seat, a quiet
corner or a second cup of coffee.
Proof. Proof. Proofing extends beyond spell check. Take the
time to double-check your facts. Are your links working? Did you reserve five
or 55 microphones from the event vendor? Peer reviews and stepping away for a
bit often help catch those hidden blemishes.
Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions
Writing is writing which has a logical flow of ideas and is cohesive. This
means it holds together well because there are links between sentences and
paragraphs. Writing which is cohesive works as a unified whole and is easy to
follow because it uses language effectively to maintain a focus and to keep the
reader ‘on track’.
Effective Writing across the Curriculum
Promoting Creative Writing
Question from Unit-5
Discuss about the advantages and disadvantages of ‘written communication’.
Explain the use and effect of written communication in hotel industry.
Write the importance of written communication its advantages and disadvantages.
List out five tips towards effective writing.
Question draft from all above Notes
Communication in public speaking
Draw a neat diagram of the process of communication
The three basic dressings are:
vinaigrettes, mayonnaise-based, and dairy-based
Vinaigrettes are made with oil and vinegar. Temporary
emulsion, needs to be shaken or stirred while using. Procedure is: Combine vinegar
with seasonings, Whip in the oil a little at a time, by hand or machine and
Serve immediately or chill for later.
is a permanent
emulsion with eggs, oil, and vinegar or acid. Good mayonnaise
is creamy, pale ivory, not too acidic, should hold its own shape and Mustard is often added to
give a little tartness.
Dairy-based can be made with cream or
acidic, fresh dairy products. Should be used up immediately or
soon, as they have a short shelf life, adjust seasoning and thickness before using, Excellent for
fruit salads, jellied salads, chilled fish
CLASSICAL SALAD DRESSINGS:
1 part vinegar: 2 parts oil + salt, pepper, french mustard.
2 parts vinegar: 1 part oil + salt, pepper, caster sugar, english mustard.
Equal parts of oil and vinegar + salt. Pepper, english mustard and additional
Mayonnaise sauce thinned down with vinegar or lemon juice.
1 part vinegar: 2 parts olive oil + salt, pepper, english/french mustard.
Vinaigrette + chopped chervil, chives, tarragon, capers and parsley.
Mayonnaise dressing + chopped gherkins, capers, chervil, taragon, parsley and
strips of hard boiled egg white.
CREAM: Fresh cream + fresh lemon juice and salt
ISLAND : Mayonnaise dressing + a little chili sauce and chopped red pimento,
chives and green peppers
DRESSING: Substitute the vinegar with lemon juice adds oil according to taste
plus salt, pepper and preferred mustard component.
Herba Salata, the
Latin equivalent of salted greens,
is where the term salad is derived from. This suggests that the earliest salads
were mixtures of pickled greens, seasoned with salt. This culinary variation
evolved by the time of Imperial Rome into mixtures of greens served with a
fresh herb garnish and an oil-vinegar dressing. The 17th and 18th
Century brought more additions to the humble culinary creation called the
salad. Lettuces of various types were used as a base with some type of meat,
poultry and mixed vegetables placed on the top. It was in the early 20th
century that Escoffier carried the art of salad making to new heights. The
possibilities for salad combinations are limited only by the imagination of the
chef. They may include leaf greens, raw and cooked vegetables, fruit, meat,
legumes and rice and pasta-based salads, to mention just a few.
Perhaps even more than with most other foods, the appearance
and arrangement of a salad are essential to its quality. The colorful variety
of salad ingredients gives the creative chef an opportunity to create miniature
works of art on the salad plate.
the salad off the rim of the plate: Think of the rim as the frame of a picture.
Keep the salad within the frame. Select the right plate for the portion size,
not too large or not too small.
for a good balance of color: Pale iceberg lettuce is pretty plain and colorless
but can be livened up by mixing in some darker greens and perhaps a few shreds
of carrot, red cabbage or other colored vegetables such as peppers. On the
other hand don’t overdo it and go overboard. Three colors are usually more than
enough. Shades of green give a good effect and too many colors will look messy.
makes a salad attractive: Ingredients mounded onto a plate are more interesting
than that lying flat. Lettuce cups as a base adds height. Often, just a little
height is enough.
the ingredients neatly: Ragged or sloppy cutting makes the whole salad look
unattractive and haphazard.
every ingredient identifiable: The pieces should be large enough for the
customer to identify each ingredient. Don’t pulverize everything. Bite size
pieces are the rule. Seasoning ingredients like onion could be chopped fine.
it simple: A simple, natural arrangement is pleasant to view. An elaborate
design, a contrived arrangement, or a cluttered plate will defeat the purpose.
In many food service operations, salads are the items that
are given the least attention and consideration, both in planning and
preparation. Chefs often erroneously perceive it as a simple task that needs
little or no training. This attitude results in salads of a poor quality.
Certain factors need to be considered while planning a salad. These include:
Simple: These salad comprise one primary ingredients for body and one or
two ingredient used for garnish for e.g. tomato salad garnish with coriander
leaves. These salad also tossed with dressing and mostly fresh ingredients used
for e.g. beetroot salad with vinaigrette dressing
These salads comprise of more than one ingredients and based
on skill and chef imagination. E.g. are Nicoise Salad, Waldorf salad, Russian
Salad, Caesar Salad Coleslaw salad etc. Compound
salad are made up of four parts:
normally one/combination of the above greens. It gives definition to the
placement of the salad on the plate. A green lettuce leaf is used as an under
liner for the salad. Shredded greens can also be utilized and this will give
height and dimension to the plate. The base also absorbs excess dressing
preventing it from running around the plate during the presentation and the
meal. However, the base is not always necessary. A cole slaw made up of leafy
vegetable (cabbage) need not have a base at all. Beetroot salad whose color
might run can do without the base.
This is the main ingredient in the salad and will generally give the name to
the salad. The body must be the main ingredient and will be placed on top of
the base. The body could be made up of just on ingredient or in some cases,
DRESSING: is used to enhance and add to the taste and
flavor of the body. It makes the salad more palate pleasing. The dressing may
be tossed with the body of the salad, or served as an accompaniment poured over
the salad at the table. The dressing is made up of four parts:
THE OIL: This could include plain refined, odorless oil or a more exotic one such as Avocado oil, Olive
oil, Sesame seed oil, Walnut oil, Peanut oil, Corn oil, Almond oil &
Soybean oil. One could also have flavored
oil such as chili oil, herb oil or garlic oil.
THE ACIDIC MEDIUM: Is normally vinegar,
red or white. However, Lemon/Lime juice, Yogurt (curds), Red and White Wine can
also be used. The popular vinegars include Cider Vinegar, Malt Vinegar, Wine
Vinegar, Wine Vinegar, Chili Vinegar and Rice Vinegar.
THE SEASONING: Would include varieties
THE FLAVOR ENHANCERS: These will include
Spice Powders, Herbs, Garlic, Proprietary Sauces, Fruit Juices & Cream.
the garnish will embellish the salad. However, it is not necessary to always
have a garnish. Sometimes, if the vegetables are neatly cut and have retained
their colors, the salad will look good on its own. Like the base, the garnish
Parts/Composition of Salad is same: Base, Body Dressing and
Other Types of Salad
Salads can be served at the following positions in the meal:
Today, the salad is considered to be a popular item. It is
the favorite of weight watchers and those on a diet. It is also a versatile
dish and can be served as:
A simple salad is a variety of one or more greens. A mild
dressing such as a light Vinaigrette is used so the delicate taste of the
greens is not masked. Various types of greens are now available locally and
OTHER LEAFY VEGETABLES
Leaf salads are usually served as an accompaniment to the
main course and rarely as any other course.
BASIC PROCEDURE FOR LEAF SALADS:
the greens thoroughly in several changes of water.
the greens well. Poor draining will result in watered down dressing.
the greens. Place them in a colander in the refrigerator.
tear into bite size pieces.
the greens well. Toss gently till uniformly mixed.
the salads. Use cold plates please! Not those just out of the dishwasher.
dressing just before serving along with garnish. Dressed greens wilt rapidly.
Hors d’oeuvre is a French expression and its true definition
is a preparation served outside of the menu proper, at the beginning of the meal
before the main course. It comes from the French term outside (hors) and goes back to the early times when at banquets,
the appetizer (hors d’oeuvre) was served in a separate room (ante chamber/room)
while the guests assembled and waited for the arrival of the host and the chief
guest. Hors d’oeuvre or appetizer as it is called in English can be described
as a small tidbit, which should be light, delicate attractive and tasty. The
term hors d’oeuvre should never be spelt with the final s, since there is plural
form for the term in French. An hors d’oeuvre can be either in the solid form
(appetizer) or in the liquid form (aperitif) which may be an alcoholic or
Hors d’oeuvre may be classified in various ways:
Hot and Cold hors d’oeuvre
Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian hors
Classical and Contemporary hors
d’oeuvre Singulaire and Compound hors d’oeuvre
However, a more comprehensive classification would include:
hors d’oeuvre: Pate, Terrines, Sausages (salami and mortadella), Ham
hors d’oeuvre: Oysters, Caviar, Roll mops, Snails, Prawn cocktail
Pickled Shrimp Cocktail: Marinated and
brined Mexican shrimp served with a chipotle cocktail sauce
Crab Stuffed Deviled Eggs: Hardboiled
eggs filled with classic style egg mousse, lump crab meat and crispy shallots
Phyllo Caprese Cups: Crisp phyllo
cups filled with cherry tomatoes, fresh mozzerella and basil pesto
Egg Salad Stuffed Potatoes: Egg
salad with fresh dill, mustard, scallions and garlic aioli served in a roasted
red bliss potato cups
Watermelon and Brie Wedges: Watermelon
slices topped with brie, arugula leaves and balsamic reduction
Antipasto Bites: Baked salami
cups filled with fresh mozzarella, roasted red bell peppers, grilled artichoke
hearts and fresh basil.
Boursin Cheese Cake Bites: Boursin and
cream cheese fondue baked with a panko and parmesan crust. Topped with a tomato
jam and micro greens
Ham & Cheese Palmiers: Puff pastry
wrapped black forest ham, gruyere cheese and mustard. Baked until golden brown
Fresh Fruit Skewers: Melon
balled cantaloupe, honeydew and
watermelon served with a mango-mascarpone dipping sauce
Cold Hors d’oeuvre is of two categories:
ready to serve variety, available in the market off the shelves, like
smoked salmon, pate, sausages.
which require culinary preparation and that, when made properly have the
advantage of being freshly prepared from fresh ingredients with maximum
flavor and appeal. This is where fine cuisine can make a contribution to
Hors d’oeuvre varies are often served at lunch and consist
of many items served in a container called raviers. Various items can qualify
to be called a part of hors d’oeuvre varies such as olives, pickled onions,
cornichons (pickled gherkins), sliced salami, ham and even items like smoked
salmon and gulls/plovers eggs
Hot hors d’oeuvre could generally be served at a cocktail
party or before a dinner but seldom at lunch. Although there are some hot hors
d’oeuvre that are classical, there are many others that are strictly prototype
and serve as a basis for many different preparations. As a matter of fact,
every branch of cookery that is reduced to a smaller portion is or could be
used in the preparation of hot hors d’oeuvre. Paillettes, allumettes, beignets,
frittes, bouchees, croustades, rissoles, ramequins and even the classsic quiche
can all be served as hot hors d’oeuvre when reduced in size.
Zakuski, or hors d’oeuvre a
la russe or canapés a la russe became very popular. These cold hors d’oeuvre
are considered to be classical and made up of certain specified ingredients.
Chefs in Russia were patronized by the Czars and reached the pinnacle of their
profession. It consists of a base of
Blinis; the famous Russian pancake made out of buckwheat flour. This was topped
with a topping that would be meat, fish, vegetable or combination of these. A
characteristic of the topping is that it would most often be flavored with a
smoked fish or meat. The surface would be decorated elaborately; and here is
where the chef had the chance to demonstrate his imagination and his skill.
Intricate garnishes of exquisite designs would decorate the zakuski.
This would then be finished off with a glaze of aspic. The zakuski is a dinner hors
d’oeuvre and are larger in size than the canapé. They are presented to the
guest individually, without an accompaniment or sauce.
Canapés– 1 to 2 bites; open faced (composed hors d’
These are tiny open-faced snacks, which are cut into a
variety of shapes – round, rectangular, oval, triangle or other shapes. The
size and thickness will depend upon the nature of the ingredients used.
A canapé will have three parts:
The base – which would
normally be bread – toasted or plain, white or brown? However, a variety of
other base ingredients could also be used – puff pastry, flaky pastry, short
crust, pizza dough, choux pastry, are examples of the variety that can be used.
Sometimes, a spread would be applied to the base to prevent it from soaking up
the moisture of the topping.
The topping – almost anything
could be used to top the base. However, it should be suitable and must
complement the base. It should be fairy dry and must hold shape. A slice of
cheese, hardboiled egg, ham, salami, mushrooms or chicken coated with a thick
cream sauce, marinated mushrooms and prawns could all be used as topping. The
list is limitless and can only be contained by the imagination.
The garnish – this is done more
to increase the visual appeal and the appearance than for any functional value.
A slice of olive, a sprig of parsley, a dice of capsicum or even a green pea
can all be used to increase the presentation of the platter of canapés.
Canapés are usually served as snacks at
cocktail parties and are never featured on the regular menu. Some classical
canapés are served as the savoury course. Here are some popular canapés:
Rigoletto: Butter a canapé with cayenne butter.
Sprinkle with a mixture of finely chopped whites and yolks of egg, ham, tongue,
fine herbs and truffles.
Canapés a la
danoise: Butter rye bread with horseradish
butter, arrange slices of smoked salmon and filets of marinated herrings on
cancalaise: Butter a canapé with tuna fish
butter, top with a poached mussel and decorate with a sprig of parsley.
Butter a slice of bread with lobster butter, top with a mound of chopped egg
and mayonnaise and decorate with lobster coral.
Canapés a la
nicoise: Butter the bread with anchovy butter.
Pile stuffed olives on top and fill the gaps with anchovy butter.
poulette: Butter round canapés with anchovy
butter, sprinkle sieved boiled egg yolks and top with a shrimp.
vile: cover a canapé with tarragon butter,
top with a slice of ham and decorate with tarragon leaves.
Assignment: make a list of innovative canapés breaking them
into the base, the topping and the garnish.
Difference between Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves
The definitions of
hor d’oeurves and appetizers are often interchangeable, however, there is a
Hors d’Oeurves are the small, savory bites, typically finger foods, served before
a meal usually in a buffet style or passed on trays by waiters.
appear as the first course that is served at the
table. They are usually served with
beverages, either alcoholic or otherwise.
General Rules for Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves
If you are serving a dinner
after the appetizers or hor d’oeurves, two to three different types are usually
If preparing food for a
cocktail party only, meaning that there will not be a dinner to follow, you
should typically prepare five to seven different appetizers. Some of these foods should be more
substantial and filling if a meal is not served afterward.
As a general rule, figure two
pieces per person for each of the appetizers or hor d’oeurves that you will be
If you are preparing food for a
cocktail party, make sure that your appetizers or hor d’oeurves are finger
foods only. You do not want to serve food that needs to be eaten with utensils,
as that will become difficult for your standing guests to eat. If your guest has to put their plate down to
cut the food, that would also not be considered appropriate or polite.
If you are serving appetizers
and hor d’oeurves before a meal, you may only want to offer one or two
options. However, if the appetizers or
hor d’oeurves are the only food option, then you may want to offer your guests
a variety of choices.
It is important to remember
that the appetizers of hor d’oeurves should not clash with the main meal to
follow. For example, if you are serving
pickled beets or deviled eggs as an appetizer, beets or eggs should not be
served in the main meal.
Presentation of Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves
Location is a vital part of the
presentation of appetizers and hor d’oeurves.
Arrange your platters and bowls throughout the room, otherwise your guests
will be crowded around the buffet table.
This will discourage conversation and encourage an uncomfortable
In addition, you should make
sure that you have enough napkins on hand for your guests. Appetizers and hor d’oeurves tend to get quite
messy, especially if they are “finger food.”
Hor d’Oeurves Prepartion
Complete all mise en place
Store at proper temperatures
Adhere to a production schedule
Hor d’Oeurves Presentation
Eye appealing and creative
Harmonizing flavors and colors
Unit-3:Butchery of Meat:
Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton,
Poultry,Quality characteristics, Retail cuts, Traditional methods of
preserving meat, Cold Cuts and Cured Foods, Fish Mongery –
Classification, cuts, Commissary – SPS of different vegetables, Grades, Care,
03 BUTCHERY OF MEAT
Meat can be defined as the
flesh of an animal used as food . It can also be defined as the whole or part
of the carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs. Meat as
high energy type of food is considered to be the food of
choice due largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent
protein and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides
excellent nutrients. Famous across the world as a
popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many cuisines. Liver is
considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but is also a power
house for toxin storage. Livers
from mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be
baked, boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst.
Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older
cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however,
most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for
breeding. Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.
Introduction to meat cookery
be defined as the flesh of an animal used as food (Hedrick et al, 1994). It can also be defined as the whole or part of the
carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs (Williams, 2007).
Meat as high energy type of food is considered to be the food of choice due
largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent protein
and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides excellent
nutrients (Chang and Huang, 1991). Famous across the
world as a popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many
cuisines. Liver is considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but
is also a power house for toxin storage (Mandora, 2010). Livers from
mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be baked,
boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most
commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst (Myhre, 2003).
Quality characteristics of various butchered meats and
their various retail cuts (With menu examples of each)
Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for breeding.Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.
Pork is the most widely consumed and versatile
protein in the world; it’s easy to cook, adaptable to just about any recipe and
very tender and juicy. Learn the best basic cooking tips for those familiar
primal pork cuts like pork chops and pork loin, to how to master new-to-you
pork cuts like pork belly or a pork rib roast. Whether you’re cooking for one
or a holiday dinner for twelve, there are pork cuts for every occasion.
British Pork Cuts
American cuts of pork
Mutton, Goat, Lamb and kid.
Pork is a high-protein
food and contains varying amounts of fat.
of cooked, ground pork provides the following nutrients.
Lamb — a young
sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in
Mutton — the meat of a female (ewe) or castrated male (wether) sheep
having more than two permanent incisors in wear.
referred to as variety meats, is the name for internal organs and entrails of a
butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible
organs, which varies by culture and region, but includes most internal organs
excluding muscle and bone. Most common types of offal from the various species.
Veal offal is more
commonly served in restaurants than other types.
Pork offal is stronger in
flavour; the liver is most commonly used in pâté.
Used for sausage
Used to make cracklings
Used for blood sausage
and black pudding
Lamb offal is milder in
Used for sausage
Heart, Liver, Gizzard
These three are often
referred to as giblets as a whole.
Poultry also includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such
as the young of pigeons (known as squabs) but does not include similar wild
birds hunted for sport or food and known as game. The word “poultry”
comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word
pullus, which means small animal.
Types of Poultry
Chicken, duck, turkey, Goose and Squad birds come under the poultry
Composition of Meat
Meat muscle, which is what we eat, is made of fibres, bound together
with connective tissue, that are mainly linked to other groups of muscles or
directly to the animal’s bone structure. Muscle contains 60% to 70% moisture,
10% to 20% protein, 2% to 22% fat, and 1% ash, depending on type and species.
On larger bones (such as the shanks of larger animals), it is easy
to see the muscle groups in bundles (if cut on the cross-section) surrounded by
collagen fibres and a much heavier connective tissue (elastin) that forms a
thin covering (called silverskin) separating muscle groups or a tendon at the
ends of the muscle group. The tendon is attached to the bone at or near a bone
The muscle fibres are known as myofibrils, which are composed of
thick and thin filaments arranged in a repeating pattern alongside the other
myofibrils (Figure 3). One unit of a bundle is called a sarcomere, or little muscle.
The thick filaments are the contractile protein myosin. The thin filaments,
known as actin, contain two other proteins called troponin and tropomyosin that
help regulate muscle contraction.
Processing of Meat (Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton, Poultry)
After proper post-mortem inspection of carcasses and found fit for
human consumption, the carcasses are washed and sanitized with chlorine
labelled “inspected and passed”. They are then kept in the chillers at 0-4°C
for 24 hours. In chilling, the pH of the meat becomes acidic and comes below 6
where FMD virus is
After chilling, the meat is deboned in the deboning hall where all
the lymph glands and connective tissues are removed. The temperature of
deboning hall is maintained at 12°C – 15°C. After deboning the meat is packed
in the cartons as per the requirement of the consumers. The cartons are then
sealed with polyethylene and passed through the shrinkage machine. After
sealing, the meat is passed through the metal detector and put in the freezer.
Packaging and labelling
Proper cuts are packaged in cartons which has labels indicating the
product, date of manufacturing, shelf life, brand name, etc to provide the
consumer the information about the contents. Thereafter, the packed cartons are
passed through the metal detector before freezing the meat either in plate
Freezing of the Meat
The meat is frozen in the plate freezer / blast freezer at -40°C for
10 hours where deep bone temperature is brought down to -18°C. Thereafter, the
meat is kept in the cold storage.
The frozen meat is kept in cold storage maintained at -18°C to -20°C
till it is cleared for loading from the in-house laboratory.
Loading of Refrigerated Container
While loading the refrigerated container, the temperature in the
container has to be brought to –18°C so that there is no thawing of the frozen
meat cartons while they are loaded. The reefer container has to be clean and
disinfected before loading. After proper loading it is sealed taken to port either
by rail /road. The temperature has to be maintained at -18°C at all times.
Meat Receival & Inspection
• Check meat for physical contamination (dirt, hide, hair, etc).
• Check and record meat temperature with digital thermometer,
chilled cuts ≤ 5C chilled bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C, frozen ≤ -10C.
• Meat with unacceptable levels of visible contamination or outside
temperature parameters is returned to the supplier. Meat is transferred to
active refrigeration immediately after inspection.
• Frozen meat is stored in a freezer and maintained at ≤ -10C. Chilled
meat is stored in a chiller and maintained at: chilled cuts ≤ 5C, chilled
bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C.
Thaw Frozen Meat
• Air temperature during thawing shall not exceed 10 C and product ≤
• Work surfaces and equipment (saws, mincers and knives etc) are
cleaned and sanitised prior to contact with meat.
• Meat is processed to documented specifications.
• Meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during processing
PACKING & LABELING
• Only new food grade packaging materials (styrofoam trays, poly
wraps and bags,
and fibreboard outer cartons) are used for the packaging of meat
• Each package is labeled with the product type and species of
animal from which they are derived; the date of packaging; the identity of the
meat business at which they are packaged and the refrigeration requirements or
• Chilled meat product is stored in chillers that ensure that meat
temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during storage.
• Frozen meat product is stored in freezers that ensure that meat
temperature is maintained at ≤ 10C at all times during storage.
• Delivery vehicles are refrigerated and capable of maintaining
chilled meat at ≤ 5 C and frozen meat at ≤ 10C during delivery; are in good
repair and display a current registration label.
• Delivery vehicles are cleaned and sanitised prior to loading.
Technically anything edible which is obtained from sea or any other
water body (even fresh water) is termed as Sea food. There are many things such
as Fish, Shellfish, Seaweed, which are edible and are obtained from sea, but
here we will be discussing only about Fish and Shellfish. The difference
between fish and shellfish is that fish have internal skeleton (endoskeleton)
and shellfish have external skeleton (exoskeleton).
Fish and Shell Fish
As well as naming types of fish they could be grouped according to
their characteristics or habitat:
Flat Fish or demersal species living on the sea bed, for example: plaice,
Freshwater fish that spend all or some
of their life in rivers or lakes e.g. salmon, trout, eels, pike, perch, river cobbler/
basa, tilapia, catfish
Round fish (cylindrical in shape) some
are demersal living near sea beds e.g. cod, gurnard & some are
pelagic living towards the top of the sea, for example mackerel, sardines
Shellfish crustaceans like crab and
prawns, molluscs like mussels, clams, whelks, cephalopods like squid and octopus.
Types of Fish
Salt Water Fish, Flat Fish, Round
Fish, Fresh Water Fish, Anadromus, Lean Fish, Catadromus, Oily Fish, Shellfish
Composition of Fish
The flesh of fish is similar to any other meat in terms of
composition, only difference is in the ratio. Fish has high amount of protein,
water and in case of oily fish high fat contents, other than this there are
some vitamins and minerals also which is present in fish. When compared to any
meat, fish is very tender and is cooked fast even on low heat as it has less
connective tissue. The toughness of the meat is result of protein coagulation
due to heat, that’s why fish should be handled very carefully after cooking as
it tends to fall apart.
Selection of Fish
Check the eyes for clarity:
check the eyes. They should be crystal-clear, plump, wet, and shiny, with no
sunken features. Cloudy eyes = sad fish
Check the fins: The tail and
dorsal fins of the fish should be healthy-looking, wet, and intact. A fish
that’s been mishandled will have torn or ragged fins, Torn and ragged fins =
Torn and ragged fins probably
belong to a fish that was netted or held for too long.
Poke the flesh: If the fish
monger allows it, try touching the fish for further signs of health and freshness.
It should feel cold, wet, and slippery, but not sticky. When pressed, it should
spring back to its natural shape. Soft flesh = old fish. Fish that has lost its
firm shape is no longer fresh.
Check the gills: Check the gills for vitality and color. When first
caught, a fish’s gills appear bright red, and slowly darken over time.
Brown-red gills = old fish
Touch the scales: Scales are designed to protect the fish from a
harsh watery environment. When a fish is fresh, the scales will be shiny and
firm, a veritable armor against the elements. Less-fresh fish will often shed
scales as you run your hand over them, and they may appear dry and flaky.
Explain briefly cut of Veal
Briefly described the various
characteristics of poultry and their various retail cuts.
Cheese is one of the most used ingredients for breakfast
around the world. It is a milk based solid food. Cheese can be prepared from
cow, sheep, goat and other mammal milk. The basic procedure of preparing cheese
is by curdling milk and further acidification. Rennet or other rennet
substitutes are used for the curdling of milk.
Hundreds of types of cheese exist all over the world. The
types of cheese exist due to the usage of the milk from different mammals,
specific species of molds and bacteria and also varying the aging length. Other
processes are also used to prepare different types of cheese. Other factors
which determine the type of cheese is the diet of the animal the milk is taken
from. The diet can include herbs, spices and wood smoke.
Cheese cannot be categorized on a single categorization concept. Therefore,
there various systems used for the categorization of cheese. Some factors taken
into consideration while classifying cheese are the length of aging, the
methods of making it, the curd and the various processes relating to the curd,
the kind of milk, the fat content and the whether the texture of the cheese is
hard or soft.
The most common type of cheese is Fresh Cheese. To prepare
fresh cheese, milk is curdled and drained. There is little other processing
involved in preparing Fresh Cheese. Some examples of Fresh Cheese are chevre,
Cas and cottage cheese. Cheese is also classified according to its firmness.
The various classifications are soft, semisoft, semihard and hard. However,
this type of categorization is not exact. Cheddar is a type of hard or semi
Semi hard cheese is created with the cutting of the curd,
heating gently, piling and then stirred before pressed into forms. The most
common semi hard cheese are the cheddar cheese like Gloucester and Chesire.
Milder cheese, like the Colby and Monterey Jack are prepared by having curd
rinsed and then pressed. This washes away the acidity and calcium in the
cheese. This procedure is also used to create the Edam
Gruyere and Emmetal, swiss type of cheese are quite firm.
They have a texture of holes, which add to their sharp flavors and aroma.
Parmesan, Romano and Pecorino are the hardest cheese, also known as grating
cheese.Some cheese are prepared by allowing Penicillin Candida to grow on the
outside ot the soft cheese for a preset time. THe mold adds to the runny and
gooey textures of the cheese and also intensifies the flavors of these cheese.
The mold forms a white crust on the cheese.
Molds are of two types, blue and white. The white molds are
generally used while preparing cheese from goat’s milk. Blue mold cheese is
commonly called blue cheese. Stilton, Gorgonzola and Roquefort are some of
these types of cheese. They are prepared by injecting Penicillum roqueforti
molds into the cheese. This mold then grows within the cheese, as opposed to
Brie and Carmembert, where the mold is allowed to grow on the outside of the
cheese. Blue cheese can be of soft or firm texture and have assertive flavours.
Processed cheese is another type of cheese. Processed cheese is prepared by
adding emulsifying agents, milk, preservatives, more salt and food coloring to
traditional cheese. Velveeta and yellow American cheese are the most popular
types of processed cheese.
Washing Rind is also a major type pf cheese. These cheese
are bathed in saltwater brine while they age. This makes their surface
available for bacteria. These bacteria are responsible for the flavors and
odors of washing rind cheese. Other than these major types, there are hundred
if not thousands of types of cheese created in all parts of the world. Africa,
Asia, Europe, North and South America and Australia have various ways of
The plastic, spun-curd buffalo
milk cheese Mozzarella, originated from southern Italy.
Extra time in the vat is
allowed so that the curd can sink to the bottom and so that the lactic acids
can soften the curd to make it easier to knead.
Other names: Danish Blue
Country of origin: Denmark
Source of milk: Cows
Aging time: 8–12 weeks
Traditional, creamery, whey
cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a basin-shaped cheese, pure white and wet
but not sticky.
Good Ricotta should be firm,
not solid and consist of a mass of fine, moist, delicate grains, neither salted
There are three distinct
varieties of ricotta: ricotta salata moliterna (ewe’s milk whey), ricotta
piemontese (cow’s milk whey + 10% milk) and ricotta romana (a byproduct of
Romano cheese production).
Milk: cow milk
Bel Paese is from the Lombardy
region of Italy.
It is a modern, creamery, semi
soft cheese and has a light, milky aroma.
The name means “beautiful
land” and was inspired by the title of a book by Stoppani.
Bel Paese is very similar to
French St. Paulin. It can also be used instead of mozzarella.
Milk: cow milk
Brie is the best known French
cheese and has a nickname “The Queen of Cheeses”.
“Real” French Brie is
unstabilized and the flavor is complex when the surface turns slightly brown.
When the cheese is still pure-white, it is not matured.
Brie, one of the great dessert
cheeses, comes as either a 1 or 2 kilogram wheel and is packed in a wooden box.
In order to enjoy the taste fully, Brie must be served at room temperature.
Milk: cow milk
Fat content:45 %
Camembert de Normandie
A very famous French cheese,
Camembert dates back to the 18th century and is named for a Norman village in
which there is a statue of the creator of this particular variety (Marie
Originally, this cheese was dry
and yellow-brown, but after a few modifications it became softer and more
Camembert is crumbly and soft
and gets creamier over time (usually 2-3 weeks). A genuine Camembert has a
delicate salty taste.
Milk: cow milk
Recommended Wine:St. Emilion,
Fat content:45 %
Carre de l’Est
This cheese has a moist rind
that sticks to the fingers and feels elastic. It usually has a square shape
with either an orange-red, washed rind or a penicillin mould crust.
It has a smoky-bacon flavor and
the taste has a hint of mushrooms.
Feta is one of the most famous
cheeses in Greece. It is made in various sizes, often as a loaf-shape.
Feta was originally made with
either ewe’s milk or a mixture of ewe’s and goat’s milk, but today most feta is
made with pasteurized milk and tastes of little besides salt.
Feta can be soaked in fresh,
cold water or milk for a few minutes or longer, if necessary, to make it less
Milk: cow ewe and goat milk
It is Hungarian spiced, white
cheese made from the mixture of sheep’s and cow’s milk.
The cheese has its name
according to sheep’s milk called Liptoi. As Hungarians are great lovers of
spicy food, Liptauer is very popular in the country as the taste is a mixture
of onion, caraway seeds, capers, paprika and salt.
Milk: ewe milk
Fat content:50 %
Munster is a creamery,
washed-rind cheese made from cow’s milk. It has a round shape with sticky,
orange, washed skin.
The cheese is very smooth,
fairly soft and has a mildly piquant flavor that can become quite pungent with
regular washings. Munster is dark yellow with a strong flavor. It should be
served with dark bread and beer.
French Munster is one of the
few cheeses which ripen from the inside out. French Munster has nothing in
common with Domestic Munster which is a white, mild cheese.
There are two types of
Appenzell: common (made with skim milk and brine-cured for 12 months and
festive (full milk cured with brine as well as pepper and the sediment from the
white wine-making process).
The cheese originates in the
north-eastern Swiss canton of the Appenzell near the Liechtenstein border but,
today is also made in the canton of St Gallen (which is a siege of a special
authority protecting a genuity of Appenzell).
Milk: cow milk
The most widely purchased and
eaten cheese in the world. Cheddar cheeses were originally made in England,
however today they are manufactured in many countries all over the world.
Cheddar is always made from
cow’s milk and has a slightly crumbly texture if properly cured. If the cheese
is too young, the texture is smooth.
Unlike other well known
cheeses, Cheddar’s name is not protected so it has been used and abused by many
producers around the world.
Milk: cow milk
Fat content:48 %
One of the oldest English
cheeses, invented during the 12th century.
There are three types of
Cheshire: White, Red (colored with annatto) and Blue which is punctured during
the curing process, resulting in blue veins.
Cheshire is firm in texture and
a bit more crumbly than Cheddar. It is rich, mellow and slightly salty with an
Milk: cow milk
Fat content:48 %
These cheeses are made from
Chevres are excellent dessert
cheeses, often served as snacks or before dinner drinks. Goat cheese is often
served as an ingredient in many fine dishes.
Milk: goat milk
Fat content:45 %
The cheese has a shape of
cylinder with natural rind.
It is the first cheese in
Britain to be made in factory.
This cheese is very similar to
Cheddar, but has a softer, flakier curd and a butter taste.
A herb-flavored version is
called Sage Derby.
Milk: cow milk
Fat content:45 %
This is a pressed, semi-hard to
hard cheese, made from cow’s milk.
It comes in a shape of ball
covered with distinctive red wax.
Edam is produced from skimmed
or semi-skimmed milk.
It is usually consumed young,
when the texture is elastic and supple and the flavor is smooth, sweet and
Milk: cow milk
Recommended Wine: Pinot Noir
Fat content: 40 %
This cheese is produced in the
central cantons of Switzerland.
It is a traditional,
unpasteurized, hard cheese made from cow’s milk.
It’s hard, thin rind is covered
by paper with producer’s name on it.
The aroma is sweet with tones
of fresh-cut hay.
The flavor is very fruity, not
without a tone of acidity.
It is considered to be one of
the most difficult cheeses to be produced because of it’s complicated
hole-forming fermentation process.
Milk: cow milk
Recommended Wine: Vin de Savoie
Givry rully Mercurey
It is a traditional,
unpasteurized, semi-hard cheese which has been made in Gloucestershire since
the sixteenth century.
The cheese has a flavor of
cheese and onions. Not as firm as Cheddar, it has a mellow, nutty character
with an orange-zest tang.
Fat content: 48 %
Milk: cow milk
Named after the Dutch town of
Gouda, just outside Rotterdam.
Gouda is a traditional,
creamery, hard cheese. It is round with very smooth, yellow, waxed rind.
The flavor is sweet and fruity.
Milk: cow milk
Fat content:40 %
Gruyere is named after a Swiss
village. It is traditional, creamery, unpasteurized, semi-soft cheese.
Slightly grainy, the cheese has
a wonderful complexity of flavors – at first fruity, later becomes more earthy
Milk: cow milk
Jarlsberg is a traditional,
creamery Norwegian cheese.
The world’s most famous
“Baby Swiss”, Jarlsberg has the consistency texture and hole
formation of Swiss Emmental but its flavor is more nut-like and sweeter.
Jarlsberg can be used as a
table cheese, dessert cheese or sandwich cheese.
Milk: cow milk
Limburger is creamery,
washed-rind cheese. The smooth, sticky, washed rind is reddish-brown with
The yellow interior hints at
sweetness but the taste is spicy and aromatic, almost meaty.
Milk: cow milk
The bright, orange-red rind has
fine, powdery moulds. Raspy, moist-textured, Leicester is made in a similar
fashion to Cheddar and comes covered in a hard, dry rind.
Leicester has a rich, mild
flavor with a flaky texture and a deep orange color.
This cheese is excellent with
fruit and beer.
Milk: cow milk
The Monterey Jack was developed
by a Californian Scot, David Jacks in 1882 (some sources state 1916). Monterey
Jack’s consistency depends on its maturity; most softer varieties (common in
American supermarkets) is aged for one month, while grating Jack is aged for
upwards of 6 months.
Older Jacks are smeared with
oil and pepper to maintain softer rinds. Monterey Jack has a buttery, bland
taste and melts easily.
Milk: cow milk
Fat content:25 %
Creamery, semi-hard cheese made
from cow’s milk.
The aroma is mildly pungent
while the taste is buttery and fruity with a spicy tinge. It is generally made
with whole milk.
Tilsit is an excellent sandwich
cheese, good with robust wine or beer. It has a fat content of 20 per cent and
water content of 50 per cent.
Traditional, hard cheese made
from cow’s milk. It has a shape of cylinder with natural rind. Wensleydale can
be used as table cheese and is very tasty with apple pie.
The flavor suggests wild honey
balanced with a fresh acidity.
It matures in two to four
months and has a fat content of 45 per cent.
Milk: cow milk
This cheese originates from
Southern Italy. It’s a traditional, stretched curd cheese made from cow’s milk.
There are also smoked versions
of this cheese. Cavallo means “horse” in Italian and it is said that
this cheese was originally made from mare’s milk.
In Italian language the
expression “to end up like Caciocavallo” means to be hanged.
Kefalotyri was already well
known and respected by the time of Byzantine era. The name comes probably from
Greek word “kefalo” that means hat.
Kefalotyri is generally served
grated over cooked dishes. The color varies from white to yellow, depending on
the mixture of milk.
Kefalotyri is described as a
“male” or “first” cheese to indicate that it is made with
Milk: ewe milk
Fat content:55 %
Named after an area in Italy,
Parma Parmesan is one of the world’s most popular and widely-enjoyed cheeses.
Milk used for Parmesan is
heated and curdled in copper containers but not before most of the milk’s cream
has been separated and removed.
After two days, the cheeses are
removed and salted in brine for a month, then allowed to mature for up to two
years in very humid conditions.
Recommended Wine: Cabernet
Sauvignon Pinot Noir
Wheel-shaped cheese with sharp
edges made from cow’s milk.
This cheese is very similar to
Gruyere and has a strong fruity taste.
The natural rind is smooth,
dark brown and very hard.
Blue Vein Cheeses have a strong
tangy taste and pungent aroma with a smooth and creamy texture.
They are characterized by a
network of green-blue veins of mould throughout the body of the cheese.
Modern, creamery, blue cheese
made from cow’s milk. It is a half-moon-shaped cheese.
The moist, natural rind may
develop some gray, brown or white moulds.
Blue Castello has a Brie-like
texture, with the blue in fairly thick, horizontal lines. Enriched with cream.
The aroma is of mushrooms and
the taste is mildly spicy.
Fat content:70 %
It is a wheel shaped, creamery,
blue cheese made from cow’s milk.
Dolcelatte means “sweet
This cheese is very soft and
melts in the mouth like ice-cream.
Gorgonzola is a traditional,
creamery and co-operative, blue cheese.
The greenish-blue penicillin
mould imparts a sharp, spicy flavor and provides an excellent contrast to the
The cheese is usually wrapped
in foil to keep it moist. Its color ranges from white to straw-yellow.
The taste ranges from mild to
sharp, depending on age. Gorgonzola is also excellent in salads and dips.
Historically referred to as
“The King of Cheeses” Stilton is a blue-mould cheese with a rich and
mellow flavor and a piquant aftertaste.
Excellent for crumbling over
salads or as a dessert cheese, served with a Port Wine.
Fat content:55 %
It has a tingly pungent taste
and ranks among blue cheeses. Only the milk of specially bred sheep is used and
is ripened in limestone caverns.
This cheese has a distinct bouquet
and a flavor that combines the sweet burnt-caramel taste of sheep’s milk with
the sharp, metallic tang of the blue mould. Also frequently added in dressings
1 Small cheese
factories accept either morning milk (which is richer), evening milk, or both.
Because it is generally purchased from small dairies which don’t pasteurize,
this milk contains the bacteria necessary to produce lactic acid, one of the
agents that triggers curdling. The cheese makers let the milk sit until enough
lactic acid has formed to begin producing the particular type of cheese they’re
making. Depending on the type of cheese being produced, the cheese makers may
then heat the ripening milk. This process differs slightly at large cheese
factories, which purchase pasteurized milk and must consequently add a culture
of bacteria to produce lactic acid.
the curds from the whey
2 The next step
is to add animal or vegetable rennet to the milk, furthering its separation
into curds and whey. Once formed, the curds are cut both vertically and
horizontally with knives. In large factories, huge vats of curdled milk are cut
vertically using sharp, multi-bladed, wire knives reminiscent of oven racks.
The same machine then agitates the curds and slices them horizontally. If the
cutting is done manually, the curds are cut both ways using a large,
two-handled knife. Soft cheeses are cut into big chunks, while hard cheeses are
cut into tiny chunks. (For cheddar, for instance, the space between the knives
is about one-twentieth of an inch [half a centimeter].) After cutting, the
curds may be heated to hasten the separation
In a typical cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the
milk. Although smaller factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has
the bacteria present to produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger
factories purchase pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce
the lactic acid. Next, the curds must be separated from the whey. Animal or
vegetable rennet is added, and then the curds are agitated and cut using large
knives. As the whey separates, it is drained. The curds are then pressed into
molds, if necessary, to facilitate further moisture drainage, and aged for the
proper amount of time. Some cheeses are aged for a month, others for several
In a typical
cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the milk. Although smaller
factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has the bacteria present to
produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger factories purchase
pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce the lactic acid.
Next, the curds
must be separated from the whey. Animal or vegetable rennet is added, and then
the curds are agitated and cut using large knives. As the whey separates, it is
drained. The curds are then pressed into molds, if necessary, to facilitate
further moisture drainage, and aged for the proper amount of time. Some cheeses
are aged for a month, others for several years.
from the whey,
but they are more typically left alone. When separation is complete, the whey
3 Moisture must
then be removed from the curds, although the amount removed depends on the type
of cheese. For some types with high moisture contents, the whey-draining
process removes sufficient moisture. Other types require the curds to be cut,
heated, and/or filtered to get rid of excess moisture. To make cheddar cheese,
for example, cheese makers cheddar, or finely chop, the curd. To make hard, dry
cheeses such as parmesan, cheese makers first cheddar and then cook the curd.
Regardless, if the curds are to be aged, they are then put into molds. Here,
they are pressed to give the proper shape and size. Soft cheeses such as
cottage cheese are not aged.
4 At this stage
the cheese may be inoculated with a flavoring mold, bathed in brine, or wrapped
in cloth or hay before being deposited in a place of the proper temperature and
humidity to age. Some cheeses are aged for a month, some for up to several
years. Ageing sharpens the flavor of the cheese; for example, cheddar aged more
than two years is appropriately labeled extra sharp.
5 Some cheeses
may develop a rind naturally, as their surfaces dry. Other rinds may form from
the growth of bacteria that has been sprayed on the surface of the cheese.
Still other cheeses are washed, and this process encourages bacterial growth.
In place of or in addition to rinds, cheeses can be sealed in cloth or wax. For
local eating, this may be all the packaging that is necessary. However, large
quantities of cheese are packaged for sale in distant countries. Such cheeses
may be heavily salted for export (such as Roquefort) or sealed in impermeable
plastic or foil.
A sandwich may be many things – it can be
a delicious bit of nonsense that makes you ask for more! It can be prim and proper and just a bit
stodgy – or staunch and hearty – or it might just be an empty promise!!!! It is
difficult to actually pin point when the sandwich actually appeared as a form
of food presentation. We do know that the concept of wrapping bread around a
filling for portability is ancient. It parallels the invention of bread. The
sandwich involves bread in one way or the other. There is a universal chain of
food items worldwide which all have a connection of a filling enclosed in a starchy
casing. In China there is the Spring roll or the Egg roll; in Italy there is
the Calzone; in Mexico, the Burrito; in Spain, the Empanada and Greece has the
Field workers in France have long had the custom of eating
meat enclosed in two slices of bread. In southern France, it is customary to
provide those setting out on a long journey with slices of cooked meat,
sandwiched between two slices of bread. The Pain–Bagnat of Nice is a definite
example of a sandwich that has been around for centuries.
The term SANDWICH came into being about 200
years ago. There lived a notorious gambler in the court of George III His name
was John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792). The Earls gambling
affliction was such, that he would enter into 24 hours marathons at the gaming
tables. Any eating that had to be done had to be quick and not to detract from
the task at hand. The Earl’s butler, who knew his master’s intensity, would
place pieces of bread with cheese or meat for his sustenance. The rest is
…..Well, not just history…..But the history of the Sandwich. Today, it is
difficult to imagine a full-scale food service operation without the sandwich
being a part of it.
Various types of bread can be used to make sandwiches
Pullman loaf or the sandwich bread is the most popular. This may be white or
– including hard and soft rolls, burger rolls, hot dog rolls, croissants and
vienna rolls are all popular.
bread and baguettes for foot longs and submarine sandwiches
made of various flours such as rye,
whole wheat, maize, multigrain
bread like pita
bread like cinnamon bread, raisin bread, fruit and nut bread.
The main function of the spread is to
hold the filling and the bread together. It also forms a protective layer on
the bread and prevents it from getting soggy from the moisture in the filling.
Moreover, it adds to the taste of the sandwich and in case of children,
contributes to the nutritive value
Plain and compound butter like anchovy, herb, parsley butter
Mayonnaise and its derivatives
Low fat spreads like margarine
Cheese spreads and cheese paste
A combination of the above.
Could be a variety of limitless items. The filling gives the
sandwich its name.
Fillings could include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese,
and vegetables. Salami, cooked roast chicken, ox tongue, sliced cucumber and
tomato are all popular fillings.
The filling could be a single item, or a combination of
several. Ham and cheese, Cucumber and chutney, Bacon and tomato. It is
important that the combinations are complementary to each other.
To enhance the appearance and the presentation
of the sandwich, it is necessary to create eye appeal. The garnish is not
absolutely essential and can be avoided in an informal setting. The sandwich
may be a simple unadorned bit of bread with a filling or a masterpiece fit for
a king. Various garnishes will include a stuffed olive, a pickled onion,
capers, gherkins or parsley. The garnish should be delicate and dainty and not
cumbersome and ugly.
The sandwich is no doubt the favourite
lunch time food. For a typical customer, one who is in a rush, one who is
hungry, the sandwich is the ideal food. It is quickly made and served,
convenient to eat, easily adaptable to many variations. It can satisfy almost
any palate and nutritional requirement. Properly made, it can be a very
wholesome meal. Sandwich has long been the domain of the pantry department,
along with salads and other cold snacks. Preparing sandwiches to order is one
of the fundamental skills required in modern food production techniques.
1Conventional, Closed or Lunchbox
These consist of two slices of bread
with any filling such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs and vegetables. They may be
served whole or cut into neat triangles, with or without the crust removed.
White or whole meal bread can be used or any other similar bread. They are
served in bars, cafes, coffee-shops and snack counters. They are the ideal item
for the lunchbox that school children and office-goers carry. The filling is
usually heavy and hearty, as the objective is to provide a wholesome and
nutritious meal. Or, it could be light and fancy ….the perfect food for the
These are similar to the above but are
cut into smaller triangles or in fingers. They are served at afternoon tea,
usually with a very light filling. The crust is normally removed so that they
look prim and proper like the high society ladies who usually eat them!!!! They
will be suitably garnished for service.
The Buffet Sandwich
These are similar to the conventional
sandwich but are cut into fancy shapes like hearts, diamonds, and ovals, with
sandwich cutters. Obviously, there will be a lot of wastage and can only be
used when cost permits.
Continental or French Sandwiches
Consists of crusty French baguettes slit
horizontally, well buttered with a savory filling. It can be garnished with
lettuce, slices of cucumber and tomatoes. It can be served whole or cut into
pieces so that they can be lifted easily. If left whole, they are referred to
as foot longs. In America, they are called submarine sandwiches.
Double Decker / Triple Decker and Club Sandwiches
These are extremely popular these days.
If you top an ordinary sandwich with another filling and close that with a
third slice of bread you get a double –
decker (two fillings, three slices of bread). Similarly, a triple –
decker will have three fillings and four slices of bread. A club sandwich will
have multiple fillings and multiple slices, all piled up one over the other.
The fillings must be substantial and complement each other. There must be a
balance in the fillings. The bread in a club sandwich may be toasted or grilled
but in a double decker or a triple decker, plain bread may be used as well.
These sandwiches are cut diagonally into half for service so that they can be
Are technically not sandwiches, as a
sandwich needs two slices of bread? But for convenience, they are classified as
sandwiches. If the top slice of a sandwich is missing….what do you call it?
Half a sandwich a garnished piece of bread. Until a better name is found, we
can call it an open sandwich. Open sandwiches are slices of buttered bread on
top of which is arranged a variety of toppings. The bread is then trimmed and
garnished. They may even be cut into fancy shapes. The bread may be white or
brown, toasted or plain. They should not be confused with canapés, which have a
variety of different bases. Please remember that sandwiches are not made only
to please the eye and look pretty on the platter. They must please the eye….yes,
but they must also satisfy the palate.
Checker Board sandwich
These are a variety of fancy sandwiches
which look good when put on exhibition and display. They add a new dimension to
a cold buffet presentation.
These are hot snacks but are really a
hot sandwich. These include:
Book Maker (England)
Strammer Max (Germany)
Croque Monsieur/Madame (France)
General Rules for Sandwich Making
1. Soften the butter before spreading.
2. Smooth fillings like fish paste and
cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature.
3. Use a palette knife for easy
4. Ideally, the bread should be 12 to 18
hours old. This ensures easy slicing.
5. Butter both slices of the bread being
used for the sandwich. It helps to hold the sandwich together
6. Use sliced bread….it is neater and
7. If cutting the bread yourself,
arrange the bread slices in the order they have been cut.
8. Use sufficient filling. The label
should not be the only means of identification of the sandwich.
9. Wrap prepared sandwiches in cling
film or in a moist duster in separate batches for easy identification.
Sausage is any meat that has been comminuted and seasoned.
Comminuted means diced, ground, chopped, emulsified or otherwise reduced to
minute particles by mechanical means.
A simple definition of sausage would be ‘the coarse or finely comminuted
meatproduct prepared from one or
more kind of meat or meat by-products, containing various amounts of water,
usually seasoned and frequently cured.’ In simplest terms, sausage is
ground meat that has been salted for preservation and seasoned to taste.
Sausage is one of the oldest forms of charcuterie, and is made almost all over
the world in some form or the other. Many sausage recipes and concepts have
brought fame to cities and their people. Frankfurters from Frankfurt in
Germany, Weiner from Vienna in Austria and Bologna from the town of Bologna in
Italy are all very famous. There are over 1200 varieties world wide
Sausage consists of two parts:
Casings are of vital importance in sausage making. Their
primary function is that of a holder for the meat mixture. They also have a
major effect on the mouth feel (if edible) and appearance. The variety of
casings available is broad.
These include: natural,
collagen, fibrous cellulose and protein lined fibrous cellulose. Some casings are edible and are meant to
be eaten with the sausage. Other casings are non edible and are peeled away
These are made from the intestines of animals such as hogs,
pigs, wild boar, cattle and sheep. The intestine is a very long organ and is
ideal for a casing of the sausage. The intestines are flushed clean, especially
from the inside and soaked in a solution of KMNO4 for a period of 2 hours at 10°C.
Sinews, blood vessels and fat clinging to the insides of the casing must be
removed. Natural casings should not be over handled as they may puncture. They
should be refrigerated at all times. Natural casings are available in
Australia, New Zealand, and South America where cattle are reared on a very
large scale. Casings are a by-product of the meat industry that is what these
countries specialize in.
Use of natural casings is considered by many professional
sausage makers to have many advantages:
They are semi porous and permit deeper
Natural casings absorb flavors and
release fats better
Generally, they hold their shape better
and do not burst during cooking.
Natural casings are edible and need not
be peeled before eating.
They have a natural color and have a
Hogs casings are the most commonly used. Sheep casings are
the highest quality available. Beef casings are also popular. Almost all
casings are salted before they are packed. Natural casings need to be protected
from extreme variations in temperature. The ideal storage temperature is 40-45°F
These are edible and are not synthetic casings. They are
made from the hide of cattle. Collagen is obtained from the corium
layer that is situated just under the skin of the animal. The fat,
flesh and hair are removed from the hide and it is split into two layers by
special equipment. The hair side of the hide is used in the leather industry.
The flesh side (corium) is used to make collagen casings. The material is first
ground, and then swelled in an acidic medium. It is then sieved, filtered and
finally extruded into casings.
The advantages of collagen casings are that they can be
manufactured in the sizes that you require both diameter and length. Their
consistent diameter means that they are uniform and aid portion control. They
are also stronger and are preferred while using machines in the commercial
manufacture of sausages. They are ideal for smoking of sausages and require no
special pre preparation and storage. Moreover, they are clean and sanitary.
These are by – products of the food processing industry.
Cellulose and fiber is extracted from the husk, skin, peels, pips and seeds of
the fruit and vegetables during the processing stage. These are processed
further to make casings. These types of casings are also referred to as peel-able
cellulose. The fiber adds to the strength of the casing and enables
them to handle high temperatures.
PROTEIN LINED FIBROUS CELLULOSE CASINGS
A protein lining is often added to the inside of the above
type of casing. These casings are ideal for the dried sausages. The protein
lining causes the casing to shrink as the meat is cooked or dried so that it
retains the shape of the sausage. Used mainly for dry or semi-dry sausages,
they come in a red color (salami) or clear. They need to be soaked in water
before stuffing, as the protein tends to stiffen during storage. Sometimes, the
casing needs to be soaked in vinegar or even liquid smoke. This makes it easier
to peel off the casing when the finished product is sliced.
Besides these, there some other types of casings that are
also used in the sausage making industry. Plastic casings have recently become
popular. They are cheaper, stronger and uniform in size. However, they need to
be removed before the product is served. Caul fat, a membrane like lining of
the stomach, is also used as a casing to make the flat sausages, crepinette.
The membrane is networked like a spider web, with streaks of fat. Caul fat is
ideal to wrap items of uneven sizes like the loukanika (patty like
Greek sausage) and the crepinette.
The filling of the sausage is made up of two parts:
– The meat component
the non meat component
A variety of meats are used in the sausage making industry.
Each type provides a particular flavor, texture and color in the product.
Lean meats make up the largest proportion of the meat
component providing the dominant character of the product. The color, flavor,
texture and appearance of the product are determined by these meats. Pork is by
far the most common and popular meat used in sausage making. Beef is also becoming popular of late,
because of its excellent binding properties as well as its deep red color.
Veal, lamb and poultry are also being used in certain products of late.
adds to the taste, flavor and the texture of the forcemeat. Jowl fat is the most commonly used product
in charcuterie. It is obtained from the cheek of the animal. Normally, not more than 30% of the forcemeat
are the offal of the carcass and can be added into the forcemeat in the
production of sausage. Variety meats
used include heart, kidney, tripe, liver and tongue. These meats have a low
binding power and if a lot of them are added into the forcemeat, you would
require additional binders in the mixture.
NON MEAT COMPONENT:
Non meat ingredients are food item, which are added to the
filling before stuffing. They enhance the flavor and the color, slow or prevent
bacteria growth, act as a preservative and increase the volume and bulk of the
mixture. There are six types of these
additives: water, curing agents, curing accelerators, sensory enhancers,
stability enhancers, and extenders and binders.
WATER is usually added to the sausage mixture during the
blending stage. It improved the mixing and helps to extract the proteins from
the meat. It is used in all sausage mixtures.
CURING AGENTS are necessary to inhibit the growth of
bacteria (especially clostridium
botulinum – an anaerobic bacteria which can cause death) and improve the
shelf life. They also help to improve, fix and retain the color of the
forcemeat. The two common curing agents are sodium nitrate and nitrite. Nitrite
is used in cured, cooked or smoked products. Nitrate is used in dried sausages.
CURING ACCELERATORS such as ascorbic acid, sodium
erythorbate and citric acid are used in cured, cooked and fermented products.
As their name suggests, they speed up the curing process.
SENSORY ENHANCERS are a variety of items that are used to
enhance the flavor, smell, color, feel and mouthfeel.
is used in all sausage products for the enhancement of flavor and as an aid in
the extraction of protein from the meats.
nutritive and non-nutritive) are often added to the forcemeat. Non nutritive
sweeteners such as saccharin and sorbitol add sweetness and aid in peeling.
Nutritive sweeteners such as cane or beet sugar, dextrose and corn syrup are
sausage include spices, plant, vegetable and milk protein, yeast extract and
even mustard flour. These add flavor, taste, increase the volume and act as
binders. Colorings for sausage meat can be natural as well as artificial.
Artificial colors are used a lot in sausage production. Chefs do not recommend
these. Natural colors can be obtained from red peppers, saffron, turmeric and
caramel. These will add not only color but also flavor. The use of natural
colors is recommended wherever possible.
both natural and liquid smoke contributes to the taste and flavor of the
product. Use of too much liquid smoke will tend to make the product bitter.
Liquid smoke also tends to fade on storage.
are products, which bring out the flavor of the other ingredients, yet have no
flavor of their own. The one most commonly used in the kitchen is MSG, mono
sodium glutamate. This is a natural product but must be used sparingly. MSG and
nucleotides and other flavor enhancers are often used in mass production of sausage
but are not widely used or common.
Other sensory enhancers include bacterial cultures, enzymes,
phosphates and acidulants. They serve a variety of purposes including
flavoring, softening of the tissues, juice retention and are used only in the
mass commercial production of sausages and not in the hotel kitchens.
STABILITY ENHANCERS are used in sausage making to protect
the flavor of the product, to slow down mold growth and to extend and bind the
EXTENDERS AND BINDERS are usually either animal based,
fermentation based and cereal grain based. Gelatin, stock and non – fat dry
milk are the animal based ones used most often in the kitchen. Fermentation
based extenders and binders involve the introduction of specified types of
microorganisms into the forcemeat. As these grow, they create favorable changes
in the sausage. Cereal grain based ones include oats, wheat, barley, corn and
rye. These products are also used to extend the volume – this is often termed
as the filler. These items are far more popular in the commercial mass
production of sausage rather than in specialized kitchen preparations.
TYPES OF FILLINGS USED
There are primarily four types of fillings that are used in
the production of sausages.
minced forcemeat – This forcemeat contains tender and lean meat as well as fat
in the mixture. The ratio is normally 3 parts of meat to one part of fat. The
mixture is coarsely ground and the proportion gives optimum quality. Only good
grade of meat and fat is used, as the mixture is easily identifiable. Salami is
a good example of this type of a filling.
pulverized forcemeat – All types of sausage containing finely ground forcemeat
including frankfurters and cocktail sausages come under this group. 5 parts of
meat and 3 parts of fat are the normal ratio. Second grades of meat can be
utilized, as they are not identifiable, being ground into a fine mixture. Meats
from older carcasses can also be used.
forcemeats – are a mixture of the above two types. One part of coarse forcemeat
and two parts of cutter pulverized forcemeat are normally use. Pepperoni and
chippolatas are examples of sausages that use this type of forcemeat. Both good
and inferior quality of meat can be used. This makes it more commercially viable
forcemeat – In this type of a filling, the meat and fat are left in chunks.
Three parts of meat to 1 part of fat are used. This type of a filling is used
for the spicy South American sausages like the chorizo, which have predominant
Portuguese and Spanish influence. The meat and the fat are dried before they
are filled into the casing.
Once the forcemeat is prepared, it is ready for filling into
the casing. It may be done manually or, sausage filler may be used. Sausage
filler is a machine something like a mincing machine, which has a nozzle with
changeable diameters. The rolled up casing is fitted onto the nozzle and the
machine is started. The casing then un – rolls as it fills up. A stapling
machine cum stapler then separates the sausages into links and seals the ends.
Heat treatment is used in the sealing process.
Besides meat, which is the traditional filling, nowadays a
host of other ingredients are also used. Poultry seafood, vegetables, lentils
and soybean are being introduced.
There are five varieties of sausages that are available in
the commercial market.
The term Forcemeat or farce is used to describe the basic
mixture that needs to be prepared in order to produce charcuterie products.
The word farce comes from the Latin farcire. A farce or forcemeat is a ground seasoned mixture of meat,
game, poultry, fish or vegetables, prepared as a dish on its own or used to
stuff other numerous other items such as eggs, meat, fish and poultry, pastry
shells and perhaps even pasta. Such dishes are prepared in the Garde Manger.
Forcemeats are used in the preparation of a various cold
dishes such as pate, terrines, galantines, ballotines, quenelle, roulade,
mousse and mousseline.
Pate: from the old
French paste, meaning paste.
Terrine: from the
Latin Terra, meaning earth.
Galantine: from the old French galant, meaning gorgeous or showy Also from the old
French term galine, meaning chicken.
Ballotine: from the
Italian Balla, meaning ball.
Quenelle: from the
Alcascian French knodel, meaning dumpling
Roulade: from the
French rouler, meaning to roll
from the French, meaning froth.
Timbale: from the
COMPOSITION OF THE
Traditional forcemeat/farce is made up of four parts:
1. The Meat (Primary
2. The Binder
3. Seasoning, Flavoring and Garnish
4. The Additives
Consists of three elements:
– The Dominant Meat (basic meat) which could
include veal, game, poultry, rabbit, duck, or even fish. This will provide the
dominant flavor and will also name the dish. E.g. chicken liver in a Chicken Liver Pate. These ingredientsshould be fresh and of prime quality.
All bones, skin, sinews and gristle must be removed and the flesh cut up into
½” pieces for grinding. The dominant meat normally accounts for 40% of the meat component.
Pork which contributes to the bulk as well as the flavor. This
will be about 30% of the meat
component. Nowadays, when preparing forcemeat using other varieties of meat,
the lean pork can be substituted with another subsidiary meat. For example, in
a Lobster Mousse, the lean pork will be substituted with shrimp or some other
cheap white fish. The important thing to remember is that the subsidiary meat should complement the
fat which gives richness and smoothness to the product as well
as for its binding qualities. This too will be 30% of the meat component. Again, other fats such as butter and
cream can be substituted in order that the meat and fat complement each other.
In the Lobster mousse, cream would be better suited as a fat instead of pork
The Binding Agent:
To lighten the farce and to give it a finer texture, binding agents are
needed. These are typically used in the making of poultry, fish and vegetable
farce. Game, veal and pork do have their own binding qualities, with the
protein from the meat acting as binding agents. Binding could consist of egg
yolks and/or egg whites; fresh bread soaked in milk, cream or stock; thickened
béchamel sauce (panada); beurre manié (uncooked butter/flour mixture), blood or
even cooked rice.
Salt is an important part of the forcemeat. It helps to
bring out the natural flavors of the other elements. 20 gm of salt / kilo of
the mixture are a rough guideline to use. The salt must be evenly mixed to
ensure equal distribution. Seasoning should not be extravagant to cover up for
inferior quality ingredient. One mistake is to use excessive MSG for this
purpose. Flavorings such as herbs and spices give character to the product. The
garnish is related to the farce to which it is added. A central garnish – lamb
fillet in a lamb farce, strips of ham in a pork farce, or a piece of goose liver
I a game farce – provides a visual focal point when the farce is sliced.
Garnishes could also be dispersed or interspersed throughout the farce and
would include pistachio, crushed peppercorns, diced truffle, capers, gherkins,
stuffed olives, mushrooms and similar ingredients which will provide contrast
and relief in the mass of the forcemeat.
Many additives are included in the forcemeat. These include
Nitrates and Nitrites of Sodium and Potassium, MSG, Sodium Erythorbate, BHT and
BHA, Salt Petre.
These additives will enhance the color, increase shelf life,
contribute to the taste and flavor and prevent/delay the fat from going rancid.
BASIC GUIDELINES FOR
PREPARING A FARCE:
The meat being used to make the farce as well as the
equipment to grind it like the buffalo chopper or the food processor must
be absolutely chilled before use. Such chilling is essential as it facilitates
clean grinding of the farce, as opposed to tearing which inhibits the release
of the protein which in turn later binds the farce and gives it the correct
texture. A sharp cutting blade is also essential.
The process of grinding involves three stages:
First the ingredients are coarsely
ground through a medium holed plate
It is then passed through a small holed
If the farce is to be ground to a fine
textured paste it can be emulsified in a food processor a small amount of
crushed ice can be added during the emulsifying stage. This helps to maintain
the temperature of the farce during the grinding.
Finally, the farce is passed through a
sieve to remove any trace of sinew, gristle or skin that might have remained
during the grinding.
Remember, that the process may not require all the stages
mentioned. For a coarse farce, like that required for a salami sausage, only the
first two stages are required.
There are times when the food grinder is not available. In
that case, the meat can be placed in the freezer for 30 to 60 minutes,
rendering it partially frozen. This is done so that when it is placed in the
food processor, the interaction of the blade against the partially frozen meat
poultry or fish results in it being cut up, much the way it would if put
through a meat grinder.
Herb and Spice
Seasoning & Flavoring Blends:
Garde Manger chefs will develop their own blend of seasoning
mix for the different products they make. The degree of strength will vary from
a mild, light blend for fish and seafood roulade to a medium blend for pork and
veal terrine to a heavy blend for a game pate. Ideally, the herb and spice
blend should be of a dry nature and finely powdered so that it blends in well
with the farce. However, some chefs prefer to use the fresh variety, especially
of herbs. If the herbs are fresh, they need to be chopped very finely. Spice blends are a matter of personal choice.
is also called the country style forcemeat. It is the earliest style that was
used and is the precursor of all modern versions. It is generally made out of
pork. This is probably due to the historically low expense and small amount of
land required to raise pigs. Pork fat is also incorporated. The farce has a
dense, coarse texture, a characteristic which resulted from the lack of
sophisticated equipment in the early days when it was first developed. The
earliest forcemeats were chopped with two knives giving the coarse texture that
is associated with country style forcemeat today. Another character resulting
from the time it was developed is that of being highly seasoned. Due to the
virtual non – existence of refrigeration techniques or other preservation
methods, the heavy seasoning covered both the flavor of the tainted meat and
acted as a preservative for the forcemeat. The seasonings commonly used include
onion, garlic, black pepper, juniper berries, bay leaf and nutmeg. Country
style forcemeat is usually a combination of coarsely ground farce and a smooth
ground farce so that chunks of meat are visible in the mass of the mixture.
forcemeat is more refined, having a finer, less dense texture. As culinary
preparations and equipment improved, the capability of producing a more refined
style of forcemeat was possible. Here, any type of dominant meat can be used.
It is normally, veal, duck, rabbit plus pork. White poultry and fish are rarely
used here. Ideally pork fat especially jowl fat is used.
The finer lighter texture and more delicate seasoning of
this forcemeat are indicative of the refinement of many culinary preparations
as technological advances were made. It was no longer necessary to mask the
flavors of the meats. It was possible to simply enhance it. The common flavors
used are shallots, wine, brandy and all spice. Better grinding techniques meant
that the meats were binding better on their own and additional binding was not
some cases a panada can be used to achieve a lighter texture and color in the
is the name given to the forcemeat that is obtained from pre cooked meats. This
style is used extensively to make pates. In some cases the cooking will entail
only lightly searing and browning of the meats (hence the term gratin),
at other times, the meat may be completely cooked before grinding and pureeing.
The contemporary interpretation of gratin style is an expansion of the
definition of farce given by Escoffier. His definition refers to any forcemeat
based on liver, needed to be pre cooked before grinding. Most types of meat can
be used in gratin style forcemeats. However, as in the case of the straight
method, poultry and fish is normally not use. Often, the liver of veal and pork
are used. Pork back fat and jowl fat are also incorporated. The texture of this
type of forcemeat is very fine and should be properly ground till smooth. The density of this type of farce is slightly
lighter than a straight method due to the varying degree of binding power that
is lost because of the pre cooking. Panada is avoided it will soften the
already delicate texture. To compensate the loss of binding power, extra eggs
are added. A different flavor is achieved here as a result of the browning and
pre cooking. A nutty flavor develops. The result is very smooth, delicately
is the fourth type of farce. The most distinctive characteristic of this method
is the type of fat that is used in its preparation. The use of cream as the
source of fat, combined with the processing of the components to an ultra fine
consistency, results in an extremely light and smooth product. This product is
in sharp contrast to that produced using the harder types of fat. Mousseline
–style forcemeats are made using lean white or light meats and fish. Chicken,
rabbit, shellfish, sole and trimmed lean pork fillet is ideal to use. Although
a panada is not needed for additional binding for this type of forcemeat, one
is occasionally added to achieve a lighter consistency. Due to the delicate
nature of the meats and the cream, the seasoning to should be very delicate.
Care must be taken not to overpower the flavors of the components of the
forcemeat. Shallots, ground white pepper
and white wine can be used.
The term mousseline forcemeat is often improperly abbreviated as mousse in everyday use. This is a source
of much confusion. A mousse is a mixture of fully cooked and pureed basic
ingredients bound with gelatin and fat and lightened with an aerator like egg
Forcemeat is used extensively in making sausages like frankfurters,
bologna and knockwurst. It I a commercial mixture and hardly ever used in a
hotel kitchen. Its name is derived from the ratio of the components of the
forcemeat: 5 parts of meat, 4 parts of
fat and 3 parts of ice. 5/4/3 emulsion
forcemeat can be made with almost any kind of meat. Fish is not considered
suitable for this kind of forcemeat. Pork jowl fat is the common fat used; the
term emulsion automatically indicates the texture, which should be a perfectly
smooth paste. Processing of the components of the forcemeat with ice, results
in a very strong emulsion of the meat and the fat when it is cooked. The
resulting blend has a moderate density. A variety of binders can be used to
assist in the binding and water retention. Panadais not capable of providing
the type of binding required. Therefore, non-fat milk powder is preferred. Sodium caseinate and phosphates can
also be used. Since this is used commercially, the seasoning and flavoring will
vary from one manufacturer to the other.
Perfumed with freshly chopped herbs and aromatic spices, a
melange of succulent ingredients distinguishes pates and terrines, as some of
the most delectable of food preparations. They can be basic or fancy,
inexpensive or costly, they can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes –
small, large, oval, round, rectangular and even cylindrical. Terrines are
cooked, stored and even served in the same container which may be crafted iron,
enamel, porcelain and glass but which originally was pottery or earthen ware
from which the terrine got its name (terre meaning earth in French).
The term pate refers to forcemeat baked in a crust, usually
in a rectangular mould, something like a loaf tin. In French it is called pate
en croute. Simply defined, a pate is a paste of finely chopped or
pounded or pureed seasoned meat, which generally is liver. There are a few
classical dishes like the pate campagne from France that is
not baked and really should be referred to as terrines.
Among the wide variety of ingredients used in the making of
a pate are liver, a variety of meats, truffle and of course seasoning. Goose
and duck liver, bring a characteristic flavor to the pate. Chicken livers are
the most common these days but sheep and calf liver are often used as well.
Truffle will make the pate special. Pates can be prepared in advance, stored
and then used as and when required. The meats used in a pate are first
marinated and at times pre cooked. The livers must be handled carefully and the
gall bladder, veins and blood clots if any must be removed. Ideally, the livers
must be soaked in milk for 24 hours (refrigerated). They are then drained and
seasoned. Sometimes, a small quantity of bread crumbs is added to the farce to
lighten the mixture. Non fat dry milk (powder) could also be used. It adds a
creamy texture to the mixture. A meat glaze or aspic could also be substituted
as a binder and will contribute a rich gelatinous quality to the farce. For
that extra fragrance, a small quantity of wine or brandy could be added at the
last minute before combining and processing.
For the crust, dough must be prepared and the following
recipe has proved to be good
Flour 1 kg
Butter 150 gm
Margarine 200 gm
Baking powder 15 gm
Water 250 ml (approx.)
Vinegar 25 ml
Salt 2 tsp
Sift the flour and the baking powder.
Rub the shortening and the butter into the flour
Combine and add the remaining ingredients into the flour.
Mix until the dough is formed and knead till smooth.
Shape the dough into a flat rectangle. Refrigerate
Note: pate dough can also be made out of yeast and brioche
Assembling the pate:
Lightly oil the mould.
Roll the dough and line the mould leaving an overhang on the
Carefully press the dough into the corners of the mould.
Refrigerate the lined mould for at least an hour.
Fill the mould with the prepared farce ½ inch short of the
(The forcemeat should be placed in the mould in several
layers. Use a palette knife to press into place. This will reduce the risk of
air pockets in the finished product. There may be a central or dispersed
Fold the overhanging dough over the top of the mould and the
Carefully cut two small holes from the top and provide
chimneys for the excess steam to escape during the cooking.
Cooking the Pate:
The cooking takes place in two stages
Browning stage: Cover
the surface with foil and place the mould in a pre heated 475°F
oven for approximately 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and allow to rest for
15 minutes. The surface should show hints of brown.
Uncover the pate and lightly egg wash the top of the pate
Place in a pre heated 375°F oven until an
internal temperature of 170°F has been reached. Temperature can be
taken through the chimney. Make sure the thermometer reaches the center of the
Finishing the Pate:
The pate is not complete when removed from the oven. It must
now be filled with aspic. First, allow the pate to cool to room temperature.
This will allow for the fat and the juices to be re absorbed into the meat.
Through the chimneys, carefully pour in good quality aspic. The aspic will
slowly be absorbed into the meat and will fill the sides (where the meat has
shrunk), and any crevice and air pockets that might have formed. Allow the pate
to chill overnight before removal and slicing.
Terrines are the closet cousins of the pate. The terrine
vessel is an oblong earthern ware mould. As mentioned earlier, this was the
original vessel that was use and this is how terrine got its name. However, nowadays, enamel, cast iron, clay,
porcelain and china vessels are common. Since the terrine takes its name from
the vessel and not the mixture used, the variety of types is limitless. The
forcemeat used in a terrine is usually uncooked and is slightly coarser
compared to a pate. Various force Meats can be used and layered one over the
other. Care should be taken that the variety of forcemeats used complement each
other. The binding used in forcemeat for a terrine is normally eggs or gelatin.
Pre preparation of a
The forcemeat for the
terrine must first be prepared. This may be more than one type and can be
layered. The garnish which can be chopped herbs is also prepared. Line the mold
with strips of pork fat or bacon.
Fill the terrine half full and ensure that there are no air
pockets. If a central garnish is being used, place this in the middle and top
with the other half of the forcemeat. If several types of forcemeat are being
used, then layer them one over the other. Top with additional layers of pork
fat or streaky bacon. The fat/bacon keeps the terrine moist during the ensuing
cooking process. Small bunches of fresh herbs may also be placed on the top of
the terrine. Bayleaf, rosemary and thyme
are ideal for this purpose.
Cooking the Terrine:
Assemble a water bath to cook the terrine. A wire rack can
be placed at the bottom of the pan on which the mould can rest. Place in a
oven. The temperature of the water should be 190°f before
placing in the oven. The water should come up to ½ inch below the level of the
forcemeat in the mould.
The temperature of the water should be maintained at 170-175°F
throughout the cooking process. The terrine is done when the internal
temperature reaches 140°F. remove from the water bath and cool
at room temperature for 30 minutes.
A cooked terrine is pressed or weighted after it is cooked.
This involves placing a weight on the surface of the terrine. A metal plate
that fits into the top of the terrine is placed on top and a medium weight is
placed on the plate. This is then refrigerated overnight. It helps to compact
the terrine and thereby improve the texture and facilitates easy slicing of the
Storing Pates and
Refrigerate meat pates and terrines to ripen their flavor.
Covered and refrigerated, they will keep for a week. Terrines will actually
keep much longer if a layer of melted fat/butter is poured over the surface.
Avoid the freezing of meat pates and terrines. It alters the texture of the
meat and also the pastry. Well-chilled pates and terrines will slice the best.
However, they taste best closer to room temperature. After slicing, allow to
stand a while. This allows the subtleties of the flavor to emerge.
Serving Pates and
Pate in pastry is sliced and served as a starter along with
a plate salad.
Terrine can be served sliced or scooped out with a spoon.
Terrines and pates can both be featured on a cold buffet presentation.
Foie Gras, if literally
translated, means fat liver. But the
liver is no ordinary liver, nor is it just fat!!! Pate de Foie Gras is the
resulting product of an extremely complicated process involving the liver of
goose and its recipe dates back to the 17th Century.
The geese is placed in pens and given plenty to eat. The
feed consists of beetroot, artichokes, carrots, corn, cooked potatoes, maize,
oats and beans along with plenty of fresh water. This specially crafted diet
contains a high quantity of vitamins and at times the bird needs to be
forcefed. After 2 to 3 weeks, the goose liver swells slowly and when the farmer/breeder
thinks it is sufficiently ready, the bird is killed and the liver removed.
Once the goose livers have been selected, they are sent to
the manufacturers of foie gras and in some special cases, directly to chefs who
make their own foie gras. Generally, foie gras can be bought either fresh or
In the processing of foie gras, the bile is first removed
and the livers are then carefully sorted and graded. Some livers may be ideal
for steaming and others for baking. Those which are suitable for light steaming
would quickly become dry if they are cooked in the oven. The color, texture and
firmness are also important.
The network of nerves are removed from the livers which are
then put to soak in water and are then drained and seasoned. The livers are
stuffed with truffle and then steamed or baked in the oven. Livers of lesser
quality or the wrong color (the right color is shell pink) are pulverised into
a mousse and can be used as a meat spread for sandwiches. The livers can be
packed in tins or in earthen jars.
The delicate nature of Foie Gras necessitates particular
care in serving. It should be served cold and at the beginning of the meal with
a crisp white wine. Reisling, Champagne, White Burgundy or even Bordeaux of
good vintage is ideal. Red wine should definitely be avoided as it will detract
from the taste instead of sharpening it.
Foie gras can be garnished with aspic jelly and with nothing
else. Foie gras is best presented on the plate in the shape of shells, scooped
out of the jar/can/terrine with a teaspoon. It can also be served in slices.
Certain types of foie gras are surrounded by a layer of white fat. The
connoisseur will remove this, knowing that it has been used only to ensure its
perfection and to preserve it.
Foie gras has been around for ages and has been consumed for
centuries. It was made traditionally in the region of Alcase in the town of
Strasbourg in Eastern France. In fact, the correct name should read Pate de
Foie Gras de Strasbourg. Legally, all
foie gras from the region must contain a maximum 75% goose liver and a minimum
5% truffle, to be accorded the name. Like Champagne and other wines, an
appellation or controlling body governs the production, manufacture, sales,
pricing and marketing of the Foie Gras.
From 1762, the Marechal de Conrades who resided in
Strasbourg had a head chef Jean Pierre Clause whose ability in the culinary
arts was gratefully acknowledged by the guests of the Marechal. One day, in
order to please his master, he put before him Pate Marechal, a dish he had just
invented. Marechal thought it so magnificent that he ordered another one to be
made and sent it to Versailles to the Kings palace. The court liked it so much
that the Marechal was granted an estate.
Nowadays, it is chiefly the French cities of Strasbourg and
Toulouse which are renowned for their Foie gras
Truffle is known by several names such as Black Diamond and
Children of the Gods. The truffle is a fungus fruit that matures underground.
However, not all underground fungi are truffle. The real story of the growth of
truffle is a strange one. The truffle is the fruit of a widely spreading system
of colorless, microscopic branching threads that penetrate the soil for
distances that are measurable in yards. These threads known as hyphae,
touch the furtherest tips of the roots of trees and shrubs. The interaction of
roots and hyphae forms a compound structure part plant and part fungus.
However, this cannot further develop without vitamins and minerals. When the
hyphae have absorbed enough material from the soil and plant, they proceed to
develop fruit. The fruit which develops from a knot of hyphae is called a
truffle. Nowadays, specially trained dogs and hogs are used to detect truffle.
Truffles vary in color from a smooth white surface to a dark brown or black.
They are usually rounded, although some may resemble ginger. The interior of
the truffle has elaborate rolds or chambers. The flavor of the truffle can vary
considerably. Some have a touch of garlic in its flavor.
In France, the region of Perigord less than 50 miles from
the Bordeaux region is well known for its crop of truffle. In Italy, Piedmont
in the Umbria region produces almost the entire crop of Italian white truffle.
Geographically, truffle will occur near the wine growing regions. Surprisingly,
a good year for wine means a bad year for truffle and vice verca.
The composition of truffle is 72% water, 8-10% protein, 4%
fat, 13-15% carbohydrates and 2-5% mineral traces.
Contrary to popular belief, the white truffle, unlike its black cousin should never be cooked as it may loose its fragrance if subjected to heat. Fresh truffle should be firm to touch and not spongy. They impart a distinct aroma when fresh. Because of their exorbitant prices, their usage in the kitchen and the garde manger is fairly limited