Ayurvedic Practice Notes

Unit 1: Holistic Living: The Ayurveda Concept & Tools of Ayurveda Goal of Ayurveda, Purpose of Ayurveda, Preventive Care – Life style, Food, Rejuvenators, Supplements.
Unit 2: Ayurveda, Food, Ingredients, Utensils & Classification Ayurveda and Food, When to eat, How to eat, What to eat, Different food combinations and their impact on human body, Concept of fasting, Classification of Food, Satvik, Rajsik, Tamsik, Ingredients & utensils used : Medicinal perspective, Utensils: Earthen, copper etc, Organic Vegetables & fruits, Herbs & Spices, Turmeric, Saffron, Fenugreek, Cloves, Ginger, Saunf, Black Pepper, Cinnamon, Nutmeg etc, Medicinal and health importance of cow milk and its bye-products
Unit-3: Taste and Flavours: Impact & Prevention and cure of diseases through Ayurvedic eating practices Sweet, Sour, Salty, Pungent, Bitter, Astringent, Hypertension, Gastric problems, High cholesterol, Diabetes, Joint pain, Seasonal flu, etc
Unit 4: Food, Seasons & Elements Food and Seasons, Summer, Monsoon, Winter, Elements, Earth, Fire, Water, Air, Space, Prevention and cure of diseases, Dietary guidelines for different body constituents – Vata, Pitta, Kapha
Unit-5: Modern day trends & Benefits of Ayurveda Staying well, De-stressing, Relaxation, Revitalizing Energy, Concentration, Anti-aging

Ayurveda is a truly holistic health system which supports you from the cradle to the end of your life. The Ayurvedic mode of living aims to maximise your lifespan by optimising your health through interventions that care for your body, mind, spirit and environment. Ayurveda places a great emphasis on the prevention of disease and on health promotion, as well as on a comprehensive approach to treatment.
Ayurveda’s origins
The genealogy of Ayurveda traces back to about 5,000 years ago in the Indus valley, where the Vedas, or oldest Ayurvedic scriptures, originated. Legend has it that the knowledge within the Vedas was downloaded, so to speak,to a number of sages in deep meditation. This was experienced as an act of divine love to help us manage and maximise our lives on earth. For centuries, this knowledge was passed down from one generation to the next in the form of memorised chants known as sutras. There are four Vedas, the oldest of which is the Rig Veda, which refers to three great beings governing the universe, in the form of Agni, Soma and Indra, which are personifications of the sun, moon and wind. These in turn become what are known as the doshas, which govern all activities in your body and are called pitta, kapha and vata respectively.
Known as the fourth veda, the Atharvaveda (meaning ‘no vibration’, or how to make the mind stable), contains the knowledge of Ayurveda. Two systems of medicine are described. The first is a compilation of drugs used on an empirical, rational basis, while the other describes a type of magical spiritual medicine.
Yet another version of the origins of Ayurveda is given by Sushruta, considered the founder of surgical medicine. Sushruta and other sages approached Dhanvantari, the god of Ayurveda. Dhanvantari imparted to them the wisdom of Ayurveda for the betterment of mankind and to help rid it of the suffering of disease. These legends aren’t so far away from the divine origins of the healing arts in contemporary cultures closer to home in the West that Apollo gave us from Greece and Thoth from Egypt. If you want to delve deeper into the origins of Ayurveda, the three very important texts that all scholars of Ayurveda can’t manage without are: the Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, and Ashtanga Hrdayam by Vagbhata.
The Ayurveda Concept
Ayurveda is the ancient medical system of India. It encompasses the healing of body, mind and spirit through diet, lifestyle and rejuvenation methods. This wholistic healing art teaches that food and diet can make a vital contribution to continous good health. Illness provides an ‘Opportunity’ to change our habitual patterns related to thinking, feeling and eating. Serious illness is the result of poor food choices and ignorance of the art of proper cooking for oneself and the family.
“Food is medicine when rightly combined”
Goal of Ayurveda
According to the Vedas, “Food should be prepared in time with proper quality, taste, purity and feeling”. Ayurveda can provide much insight about which foods will suit and balance each individual. It teaches how much to prepare and cook these foods properly and how to avoid combinations that will create toxins in the body. Ayurvedic cooking emphasizes that we should cook with a feeling of great love and respect to every stage of food preparation and serving. The following recipes are Tridoshic meaning good for all constitutions. The herbs and spices are used with these benefits in mind:
• Enhance taste
• Stimulate digestive fire
• Increase digestibility and absorption
• Help counteract any incompatible food combinations.
Purpose of Ayurveda

Tools of Ayurveda: Preventive Care
• Life style
• Food
• Rejuvenators
• Suppliments
Ayurveda and Food
Annam BrahmË Raso Vishnu,
Pakto Devo MaheÚaraÒ
Evam JñËtvË Tu Yo Bhunkte,
Anna Dosho Na Lipyate. The creative energy in the food is Brahma,
The nourishing energy in the body is Vishnu,
The transformation of food into pure consciousness is Shiva.
If you know this, then any impurities in the food you eat will never become a part of you.

When to eat, how to eat and what to eat:
Improper Eating Habits
1. Overeating
2. Eating soon after a full meal
3. Too much water or no water during a meal
4. Drinking very chilled water during a meal or, indeed, anytime
5. Eating when constipated
6. Eating at the wrong time of day—either too early or too late
7. Eating too much heavy food or too little light food
8. Drinking fruit juice or eating fruit with a meal
9. Eating without real hunger
10. Emotional eating
11. Eating incompatible food combinations
12. Snacking in between meals
Time of Day and Time of Season
The body’s biological clock is regulated by the doshas. The time of maximum activity of kapha is during early morning and early evening, 6 to 10 AM and 6 to 10 PM. The pitta period is during midday and midnight, 10 AM to 2 PM and 10 PM to 2 AM, while vata hours are dawn and dusk, 2 to 6 AM and 2 to 6 PM. Thus, a pitta-type disease, like ulcers, may cause the most discomfort late at night in the pitta time of the bio-clock. The reverse is also true, in the sense that experiencing a sharp pain in the stomach region late at night may signify ulcers or another pitta-type aggravation.
Utensils for your Ayurvedic kitchen
 One (at least) heavy cast-iron frying pan
 One chapati skillet, if possible (saucer-shaped, without steep sides)
 Two or three medium-sized pots with lids—stainless steel is best
 One soup pot with lid—also stainless steel
 One small metal pot for melting ghee
 One deep pot for frying—cast iron is best
 One heavy frying pan with lid
 Two or three mixing bowls, measuring cup and spoons
 Hand eggbeater
 Large metal spoon and soup ladle
 Blender
 Chapati, or other rolling pin, and cutting board
Different food combinations and their impact on human body
• Concept of fasting
Classification of Food
• Satvik
• Rajsik
• Tamsik
Ingredients & utensils used: Medicinal perspective
• Utensils: Earthen, copper etc
• Organic Vegetables & fruits
• Herbs & Spices
• Turmeric
• Saffron
• Fenugreek
• Cloves
• Ginger
• Saunf
• Black Pepper
• Cinnamon
• Nutmeg,etc
Medicinal and health importance of cow milk and its bye-products
Taste and Flavours: Impact
• Sweet
• Sour
• Salty
• Pungent
• Bitter
• Astringent
Food and Seasons
• Summer
• Monsoon
• Winter
• Earth
• Fire
• Water
• Air
• Space
Prevention and cure of diseases through Ayurvedic eating practices
• Hypertension
• Gastric problems
• High cholesterol
• Diabetes
• Joint pain
• Seasonal flu, etc
Dietary Guidelines for different body constitutions
• Vata
• Pitta
• Kapha
Modern day trends with regard to Ayurveda, Yoga , Vegetarianism and Organic food.

Benefits of Ayurveda
• Staying well
• De-stressing
• Relaxation
• Revitalizing Energy
• Concentration
• Anti-aging
Ayurvedic Cuisine
Detail of Ayurvedic Dishes
 Broken Wheat Porridge (also known as Cracked Wheat, Dalia or Bourghoul)
 Ragi Porridge (also known as Finger Millet)
 Fresh Fruit
 Steamed Vegetables
 Budgies and Gravy
 Dal and Suriki
 Dal and Potalunga .
 Cabbage and Beetroot
 Spinach with Dal or drumstick leaves if available
 Spinach (Kira) Chutney
 Steamed Vegetable with Coconut
 Potatoe Gravy with Coconut Milk
 Tomato Soup
 Vegetable Soup
 Chappati
 Peanuts
 Yam
 Chick Pea Gravy
 Mung Bean
 Tur Dal (yellow lentils)
 Lassi
 Sweet — Dal Payasam
 Herbal Teas
Ayurveda Tips
 Best to have a bath before exercise to loosen the muscles, a bath before dinner helps digestion.
 Do not eat when angry, depressed, bored or emotionally unstable or after physical exertion—intense exercise. Food will not be well digested.
 Cook with a feeling of love.
 Avoid exercise within an hour of eating and avoid sleeping or studying with two hours.
 Try not to eat Kapha food at night, ie. melons, yogurt, sesame products, cheese, ice-cream at night. Generally, ice cold food weakens digestion.
 The biggest meal should be at noon when the digestive fire is strongest. Eat meals every 4–6 hours depending on constitution.
 After two hours, fresh fruit or vegetable juice is okay.
 Benefits of jaggery is considered by some to be a particularly wholesome sugar and, unlike refined sugar, it retains more mineral salts. Moreover, the process does not involve chemical agents.
 Indian Ayurvedic medicine considers jaggery to be beneficial in treating throat and lung infections.
Twenty Qualities of Ayurveda:
According to Ayurveda, everything you can see, hear, smell, taste and touch is experienced as mixture of the 20 different qualities, or attributes. They describe everything in our physical and mental world.
Qualities Qualities
Dull Sharp
Hard Soft
Heavy Light
Cold Hot
Wet Dry
Dense Subtle
Rough Smooth
Slow Quick
Solid Liquid
Oily Brittle

Ayurvedic Food Chart
Fruit Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor
Dried Fruits Sweet Fruits Sour Fruits Sweet Fruits Sweet & Sour Fruits Apples
Apples (raw) Apples (cooked) Apricots Apples Avacado Applesauce
Cranberries Applesauce Berries Avacado Bananas Apricots
Pears Apricots Bananas Coconut Coconut Berries
Persimmon Tamarind Cherries Figs Figs (fresh) Cherries
Pomegranate Bananas Cranberries Grapes (dark) Grapefruit Cranberries
Watermelon Berries Grapefruit Mango (ripe) Grapes Figs (dry) *
Raisins Cherries Grapes (green) Oranges (sweet) * Lemons Grapes *
Prunes (dry) Coconut Lemons Pears Melons lemons*

Dates (dry)
Figs (Fresh)
Oranges (sour) Pineapple (sweet)
Limes *
Grapefruit Papaya* Plums (sweet) Papaya Peaches *
Grapes Peaches Pomegranate Pineapples Pears

Lemons Pineapples
Mango Persimmons Raisins Rhubarb Persimmons
Melons (sweet) Plums (sour) Applesauce Tamarind Pomegranate
Oranges Rhubarb Apricots (sweet) Watermelon Prunes
Papaya Strawberries Berries (sweet) Mangos ** Raisins
Peaches Tamarind Cherries (sweet) Strawberries *
Pineapples Apples (sour) Dates
Dates (fresh) Kiwi ** Limes *
Kiwi Mangos (green) Melons
Limes Papaya *
Oranges Strawberries *
Plums Watermelon
Prunes (soaked)
Raisins (soaked)
Ayurvedic Vegetable Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor
Generally frozen, raw or dried vegetables



Sweet & Bitter

Sweet & Juicy

Pungent & Bitter



Beets (raw)



Beet Greens ** Beets Carrots Asparagus Parsnips ** Asparagus

Bitter Melon Cabbage
Beets (cooked)
Pototatoes (sweet)
Beet Greens
Broccoli Carrots Garlic Bitter Melon Pumpkin Beets
Brussel Sprouts Cauliflower * Onions Broccoli Squash (summer) Bitter Melon
Burdock Root Cilantro Peppers (hot) Brussel Sprouts Taro Root Broccoli
Cabbage (raw) Cucumber Radishes Cabbage Tomatoes Brussel Sprouts
Daikon Radish*
Carrots (cooked)
Tomatoes (raw)
Burdock Root
Celery Fennel (Anise) Tomatoes Carrots (raw)* Zucchini Cabbage
Corn (fresh)** Garlic Beet Greens Cauliflower Carrots
Green Beans
Burdock Root
Eggplant Green Chilies Corn (fresh)** Cilantro Celery
Horseradish ** Leafy Greens* Daikon Radish Cucumber Cilantro
Kale Leeks Green Chilies Cucumber Corn
Kohlrabi Lettuce* Horseradish Dandelion Greens Daikon Radish

Leafy Greens * Mustard
Fennel (Anise) Dandelion
Lettuce * Okra (cooked) Leeks (raw) Green Beans Eggplant

Olives (black)
Mustard Greens Jerusalem
Fennel (Anise)
Olives (green) Onion (cooked) Olives (green) Kale Garlic
Onions (raw) Parsley* Onions (raw) Leafy Greens Green Beans
Parsely * Parsnip Peppers (hot) Leeks (cooked) Green Chilies

Peas (raw)
Peas (cooked) Prickly Pear
Peppers (sweet
& hot)
Potatos (sweet)
Radishes (raw)
Mushrooms Jerusalem

Potatoes (white)
Pumpkin Spinach
(cooked) **
Prickly Pear
(fruit & leaves) Radishes
Spinach (raw)
Olives (black)
Radish (raw) Sprouts* Tomatoes Onions (cooked) Leafy Greens

Spinach * Squash
Turnip Greens
Squash, winter Taro Root Turnips Parsnips Lettuce
Tomatoes Turnip Greens Peas Mushrooms
Watercress Peppers (green) (sweet)
Tomatoes (raw) Zucchini Potatoes Okra
Ayurvedic Grain Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor

Amaranth* Bread (with yeast)
Bread (with yeast)
Bread (with yeast)
Durham Flour
Oats (cooked)

Oats (cooked)
Cereal (dry) Rice (brown &
Cereals (cold, dry, or puffed)
Pasta ** Cereal (cold, dry, or puffed)
Corn Quinoa Museli** Crackers Rice Cakes ** Corn
Couscous Rice (all kinds) Oats (dry) Durham Flour Wheat Couscous

Crackers Seitan (wheat meat)

Granola Sprouted Wheat
Bread (essene)
Rice (brown)**
Oat Bran
Durham Flour*
Millet Wheat Rye Oats (cooked) Granola
Muesli Pancakes Millet
Oat Bran Pasta Muesli
Oats (dry) Quinoa Oat Bran

Pasta** Rice (basmati &
white) Rice (basmati, small amount)
Plenta** Wheat
Rice Cakes**
Wheat Bran

Ayurvedic Legumes Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor
Aduki Beans Lentils (red)* Miso Aduki Beans Kidney Beans Aduki Beans
Black Beans Mung Beans Soy Sauce Black Beans Soy Beans Black Beans
Peas Mung Dal Soy Sausages Black-eyed Peas Soy Cheese Black-eyed
Chick Peas (garbanzo beans) Soy Cheese* Tur Dal Chick Peas
(garbanzo beans) Soy Flour Chick Peas (garbanzo beans)

Kidney Beans
Soy Milk*
Urad Dal
Kidney Beans
Soy Powder Lentils (red &
Lentils (brown) Soy Sause* Lentils (brown) Soy Sauce Lima Beans
Lima Beans Soy Sausages* Lima Beans Tofu (cold) Mung Beans*
Miso** Tofu* Mung Beans Urad Dal Mung Dal
Navy Beans Tur Dal Mung Dal Miso Navy Beans
Peas (dried) Urad Dal Navy Beans Peas (dried)
Pinto Beans Peas (dried) Pinto Beans
Soy Beans Pinto Beans Soy Milk
Soy Flour Soy Beans Soy Sausages
Soy Powder Soy Cheese Split Peas
Split Peas Soy Flour * Tempeh
Tempeh Soy Milk Tofu (hot)*
White Beans Soy Powder* Tur Dal
White Beans

Ayurvedic Dairy Chart
Vata Pita Kapha
Avoid Favor Avoid Favor Avoid Favor
Cow’s Milk
(powdered) Most Dairy is
Butter (salted)
Butter (unsalted)
Butter (salted)

Goat’s Milk


Cheese (soft, not aged, unsalted)

Butter (unsalted)** Cottage Cheese (from skimmed goat’s milk)
Yogurt (plain, frozen or w/fruit)
Cheese (hard)
Cottage Cheese Cheese (soft &

Cheese (hard)*

Sour Cream

Cow’s Milk

Cow’s Milk Goat’s Cheese (unsalted & not aged) *

Cheese (soft) Yogurt (plain, frozen or w/fruit)
Ice Cream Goat’s Milk
Cottage Cheese Goat’s Milk Sour Cream Yogurt (diluted)

Cow’s Milk Goat’s Cheese
(soft, unsalted) Yogurt (plain, frozen or w/fruit)
Ghee Ice Cream

Goat’s Milk Yogurt (freshly made & diluted) *

Ayurvedic Spices Details:
Vata Favor Spices : All Spices are Good, Ajwan, Almond Extract, Anise, Asafoetida (Hing), Basil, Bay Leaf, , Black Pepper, Caraway, Cardamom, Cayenne*, Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel, Fenugreek*, Garlic, Ginger, Marjoram, Mustard Seeds, Nutmeg, Orange Peel, Oregano, Paprika, Parsley.
Pita Avoid Spices: Ajwan, Basil (dry), Cayenne, Cloves, Fenugreek, Garlic, Ginger (dry), Mace, Marjoram, Mustard Seeds, Nutmeg, Oregano, Paprika, Pippali, Poppy Seeds, Rosemary, Sage, Salt, Star Anise, Thyme.
Pita Favor Spices: Cinnamon, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel, Ginger (fresh), Mint, Need Leaves*, Orange Peel*, Parsley*, Peppermint, Saffron, Spearmint, Tarragon*, Vanilla*, Wintergreen.
Kapa Favor Spices: Almond Extract, Anise, Asafoetida (Hing), Basil, Bay Leaf, Black Pepper, Caraway, Cardamom, Cayenne, Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel*, Fenugreek, Garlic, Ginger, Marjoram, Mint, Mustard Seeds, Neem Leaves, Nutmeg, Orange Peel, Oregano, Paprika, Parsley, Peppermint, Pippali.


CAE 308 Food Quality Management
UNIT-1: QUALITY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT: Quality- Definition, Historical Perspective, Quality in different areas of society, Terminology of Quality, Basic tools of Quality, Quality Management- Importance, Principle, Processes, Requirements, Implementation & Certification of a QMS.
1.1 Quality
The Oxford American Dictionary defines quality as “a degree or level of excellence.” According to Garvin – Quality is an unusually slippery concept, easy to visualize and yet exasperatingly difficult to define. The word ‘quality’ normally conveys notions of nebulous factors that are not readily measured or tied down. Quality conveys a positive connotation to whatever it is applied The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something.
Concept of quality – historical background
The concept of a quality as we think of it now first emerged from the Industrial Revolution. Previously goods had been made from start to finish by the same person or team of people, with handcrafting and tweaking the product to meet ‘quality criteria’.
Quality, as a profession and the managerial process associated with the quality function, was introduced during the second half of the 20th century and has evolved since then. Over this period, few other disciplines have seen as many changes as the quality profession.
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1.2 Terminology of Quality Management
• The field of quality management has its own set of terminology that includes many acronyms. Here’s a list of some common terms, along with definitions, to help you navigate the world of operational excellence.
• Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP): Processes and Procedures, as part of the AIAG (Automotive Industry Action Group) industry best practices, put in place to ensure product design integrity throughout the manufacturing process. Find out more by watching our APQP webinar.
• Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA): A process of identifying the root cause of problems identified in the nonconformance process, as well as the definition of the initial issue correction, and finding a way to prevent future occurrences. Learn more.
• Change Management: Robust process to guarantee controls in place to maintain change process integrity, authorization, and traceability with process and documentation changes.
• Complaint Management: The process of logging, analysing, reporting, and responding to customer criticisms, as well as determining whether a regulatory filing is required. Read more on our Evaluation Page.
• Corrective Action Management: The method of taking steps to address nonconformances in the production process.
• Document Control and Management: The process of tracking, maintaining version control of, and storing documents to ensure document integrity through approvals and change management. Document Control is also a key component of Training Compliance Management. Explore the offering on our Support Page.
• Enterprise Quality Management Software (EQMS): End-to-end enterprise-wide quality management software, including full integration of applications that standardize and optimize production processes to help manufacturers optimize quality, minimize manufacturing interruption, and improve manufacturing margins as well as comply to industry requirements and regulations. Explore the QAD CEBOS suite of EQMS products.
• Gauge Management: Tracking and reporting the accuracy of a company’s gauge calibrations to guarantee inspection accuracy and reduce escaped defects. Read about QAD CEBOS Gauge Calibration and Management products on our Operations Page.
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• Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) Software: A solution that takes a preventative approach to food safety during the production process.
• International Automotive Task Force (IATF) 16949: An automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM) industry requirement that establishes global quality standards. Take a deeper dive into the need for IATF standards in our blog.
• International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standards: Worldwide process best practices for industrial and commercial production that are set by ISO, a global quality organization.
• ISO 9000/9001: International standards for quality management and assurance that specify the elements needed to enforce quality standards in any industry. Read our blog on ISO 9000 Standards.
• ISO 13485: Specifies the quality management system requirements for companies in the medical device manufacturing industry.
• ISO 17025: Outlines the requirements a laboratory needs to meet to demonstrate competence in calibration and testing.
• Layered Process Audit (LPA): A frequency and outcome-based proactive process-based method of conducting internal audits so companies can ensure that they are meeting quality management standards. Learn more about how QAD CEBOS supports LPAs.
• Materials Management Operations Guidelines (MMOG): MMOG/LE defines a global set of industry best practices for supply chain management and allows an organization to assess their internal processes and implement, verify, and track the resulting improvement.
• MQ1: QAD CEBOS’ suite of enterprise-wide quality management software that automates business processes and integrates data.
• New Product Introduction (NPI) or New Product Launch (NPL): Software that allows for the updating and revision of the product design, accelerating the design, development, and launch of a new or improved product while reducing costs and improving quality. Get the details on the QAD CEBOS approach to NPI. Watch our APQP webinar.
• Nonconformance Report (NCR): A document that records a problem with quality and the resulting corrective action that was taken, as well as steps taken to prevent the problem from happening again.
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• Production Part Approval Process (PPAP): A system put in place to ensure that suppliers produce quality products, particularly in the automotive manufacturing industry, and demonstrate good manufacturing practices (GMP). Check out the features of QAD CEBOS PPAP.
• Process Adherence: A group demonstrates with evidence that they understand and follow standards for business processes that ensure quality and consistency.
• Process Compliance: People in an organization follow governance and regulatory requirements.
• Process Audit: Evaluating outcomes to determine if production processes are being managed effectively enough to ensure quality.
• Quality Management System (QMS): A set of policies and procedures required for design, development, and production that ensure operational excellence and customer satisfaction. Explore the full range of QAD CEBOS QMS products.
• Quality Management Standards: Guidelines and requirements that ensure products consistently meet an expected level of quality based in ISO, AIAG, VDA MMOG/LE guidelines.
• Quality Process Compliance: Meeting the standards that external regulatory organizations set for product quality. Learn the steps to take to meet quality compliance in our blog.
• Risk Management: Identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing potential problems and mitigating actions so processes can be put in place to prevent product nonconformity. Find out more about how QAD CEBOS helps clients with Risk Management.
• Six Sigma: A method for improving processes to boost productivity and encourage consistency that was devised by engineer Bill Smith at Motorola and championed by Jack Welch at GE.
• Software Validation Procedure: A method of ensuring that an application fits its purpose, reducing risk and liability for the developer.
• Statistical Process Control (SPC): Using analytics to monitor and track the production process to ensure manufacturing within specification and identify issue trends to proactively improve quality and boost production. Get the details on QAD CEBOS SPC.
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• Total Quality Management (TQM): A company-wide approach to operational excellence that promotes quality at every stage of product design and manufacturing. Read our blog on TQM in automotive manufacturing.
• Training Compliance Management: Tracking employee training education and skills and awareness to ensure that production employees have the ongoing training required for manufacturing process optimization. See what QAD CEBOS has to offer for Training Management.
Quality Control (QC)
Quality control (QC) is implemented as a means of fulfilling quality requirements, reviewing all factors involved in production. The business confirms that the good or service produced meets organizational goals, often using tools such as operational auditing and inspection. QC is focused on process output
• Procedures used in each assay to assure a test run is valid and results are reliable
• A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in an individual
test or process
• A generic term that refers to the monitoring and assessment of laboratory testing processes to identify problems and maintain performance
• The operational techniques and activities used to fulfil requirements for quality
Quality Assurance (QA)
Quality assurance is implemented as a means of providing enough confidence that business requirements and goals (as outlined in quality planning) for a product and/or service will be fulfilled. This error prevention is done through systematic measurement, comparison with a standard, and monitoring of processes
• A part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled
• A formal and systematic exercise in identifying problems in medical care delivery, designing activities to overcome the problems, and carrying out follow-up monitoring to ensure that no new problems have been introduced and that corrective steps have been effective
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• A broad spectrum of evaluation activities aimed at ensuring compliance with minimum quality standards
• All actions taken to establish, protect, and improve the quality of health care
Quality Improvement (QI)
Quality improvement is implemented as a means of providing mechanisms for the evaluation and improvement of processes, etc. in the light of their efficiency, effectiveness, and flexibility. This may be done with noticeably significant changes or incrementally via continual improvement
• A formal approach to the analysis of performance and systematic efforts to improve it.
• Systematic and continuous actions that lead to measurable improvement in health care services and the health status of targeted patient groups.
• Defining standards of care, reassessing those standards periodically, and continuously improving the medical systems that support those standards.
• A set of techniques for continuous study and improvement of the processes of delivering health care services and products to meet the needs and expectations of the customers of those services and products. It has three basic elements: customer knowledge, a focus on processes of health care delivery, and statistical approaches that aim to reduce variations in those processes.
Quality Management (QM)
Quality management ensures that an organization, product or service is consistent. It has four main components: quality planning, quality assurance, quality control and quality improvement. Quality management is focused not only on product and service quality, but also on the means to achieve it. Quality management, therefore, uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality. What a customer wants and is willing to pay for it determines quality. It is written or unwritten commitment to a known or unknown consumer in the market. Thus, quality can be defined as fitness for intended use or, in other words, how well the product performs its intended function
• The application of a quality management system in managing a process to achieve maximum customer satisfaction at the lowest overall cost to the organization while continuing to improve the process
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• Management activities and functions involved in determination of quality policy and its implementation through means such as quality planning and quality assurance (including quality control)
• Quality management is the act of overseeing all activities and tasks needed to maintain a desired level of excellence. This includes the determination of a quality policy, creating and implementing quality planning and assurance, and quality control and quality improvement
• All activities of the overall management function that determine quality policy objectives and responsibilities; and implement them by means such as quality planning, quality processes, quality control, quality assessment, and quality improvement within the quality system
Quality Management System (QMS)
• Management system to direct and control an organization with regard to quality
• A formalized system that documents the structure, responsibilities and procedures required to achieve effective quality management. A QMS helps coordinate and direct an organization’s activities to meet customer and regulatory requirements and improve its effectiveness and efficiency on a continuous basis
• The organizational resources, processes and procedures to implement quality management, which is broader than both quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC). Besides QA, the laboratory quality management system also includes management of equipment, supplies and inventories, management of capital, finances and budgeting, and providing training and continuous support of staff and customer service
• The organizational structure, resources, processes, and procedures needed to implement quality management
Total Quality Management (TQM)
• A management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction
• A management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational functions (finance, production, customer service, etc.) to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives
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• A business philosophy that the long-term success of a company comes from customer satisfaction. TQM requires that all stakeholders in a business work together to improve processes, products, services and the culture of the company itself
Quality planning – Quality planning is implemented as a means of “developing the products, systems, and processes needed to meet or exceed customer expectations.” This includes defining who the customers are, determining their needs, and developing the tools (systems, processes, etc.) needed to meet those needs.
Food quality
Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. This includes external factors as appearance, texture, and flavour; factors such as federal grade standards and internal. Food quality in the United States is enforced by the Food Safety Act 1990. Public analysts carry out scientific analysis on the samples to determine whether the quality is of sufficient standard. Food quality is an important food manufacturing requirement, because food consumers are susceptible to any form of contamination that may occur during the manufacturing process. Many consumers also rely on manufacturing and processing standards, particularly to know what ingredients are present, due to dietary, nutritional requirements, or medical conditions. Besides ingredient quality, there are also sanitation requirements. It is important to ensure that the food processing environment is as clean as possible in order to produce the safest possible food for the consumer. As the matter of fact is that it depends on individual as their quality standards may vary from person to person.
1.3 Quality & Quality Management Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. This includes external factors as appearance (size, shape, colour, gloss, and consistency), texture, and flavour; factors such as federal grade standards (e.g. of eggs) and internal (chemical, physical, microbial). Food quality in the United States is enforced by the Food Safety Act 1990. Members of the public complain to trading standards professionals, who submit complaint samples and also samples used
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to routinely monitor the food marketplace to public analysts. Public analysts carry out scientific analysis on the samples to determine whether the quality is of sufficient standard. Food quality is an important food manufacturing requirement, because food consumers are susceptible to any form of contamination that may occur during the manufacturing process. Many consumers also rely on manufacturing and processing standards, particularly to know what ingredients are present, due to dietary, nutritional requirements (kosher, halal, vegetarian), or medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, or allergies).
Raw Material Control
Raw materials are the basic ingredients used to create food products. These could be fruit and vegetables that are farmed and harvested; cows, chickens, pigs and sheep that are farmed for their meat, eggs and dairy products and various other items. Naturally, raw material control is directly related to process control as raw ingredients will need to meet certain guidelines before reaching processing phases.
Process Control
This principle relates to the process of food manufacturing. Ultimately, preventative measures are used alongside corrective measures – preventative strategies can only resolve a certain number of quality issues due to outside factors such as environment, storage and other such conditions. Many manufacturers work according to the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system as a result of this unpredictability. This system focuses on food safety as well as spoilage and other potential food risks. Total Quality Management (TQM) and ISO 9000 standards also relate to manufacturing processes and quality guidelines.
Finished Product Inspection
The third principle focuses on the final product – the packaged food that is then sold to consumers and suppliers. There are many forms of testing done at different stages – visual observation, physical tests and chemical tests are just some examples. Microbiological testing is very effective for determining health and sanitation controls, with a stringent monitoring process that incorporates records, data collection and the analysis of trends. External inspectors are also used alongside internal testers. Systems are designed for immediate corrective action when any products have raised red flags at any stage of the inspection, to reduce safety and hazard risks.
Quality management plays a vital role within the food industry, across many different stages of sourcing, processing and packaging. In addition to basic laws and regulations on nutritive value,
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quality levels also incorporate factors such as shelf-life, raw materials, taste, texture, use of preservatives and many other indicators too.
Not surprisingly, this makes it all the more important for food manufacturers to adhere to an efficient quality management system (QMS) in order to achieve standardisation and meet the demands of consumers and authorities.
When it comes to food quality, the definition can vary considerably in its use – some may use the term to define high end products such as caviar, while others may use the term in reference to basic quality of everyday items such as bread. In terms of quality control and management however, the term is used universally to ensure that all food products are processed according to strict guidelines.
Businesses may choose to obtain external recognition or accreditation of their FS & QMS for a number of reasons.
• Gain independent confirmation that the systems operated comply with industry standards and are sufficiently robust.
• Customer assurance.
• Serve as a continuous improvement initiative.
• Gain a competitive advantage and access to new markets.
• Demonstrate control and legal ‘due diligence’.
Benefit from related impacts of the improvement in general site efficiency.
Gaining accreditation of a recognised quality standard typically starts with the selection of the appropriate ‘scheme/standard’ for the manufacturing operation. Such standards include:
• Global G.A.P;
• IFS (International Featured Standards);
• BRC (British Retail Consortium);
• ISO 9001 Food quality management standard (International Organization for Standardization);
• ISO22000 FSMS-Food Safety Management System;
• Food Safety System Certification (FSSC) 22000.
Defining technical and quality standards, for further information with regard to the selection of appropriate food industry standards and certification schemes.
After the appropriate standard has been selected by the organisation, the standard will often contain hundreds of clauses requiring the business to operate extensive systems and procedures to assure
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ongoing and consistent control, all of which will have to be met before the site can achieve full approval/accreditation according to the standard. Therefore, a process cycle of gap analysis, procedure implementation and review can continue up to the point where the business feels sufficiently confident that all requirements of the chosen standard are met. At this point, the business should seek to secure the services of an accredited/authorised independent third-party audit body to assess the operation against the requirements of the standard.
Once the audit has been completed, and any nonconformances raised dealt with appropriately (and within the timescales required), then the operation can be awarded certification or approval against the selected standard.
Accreditation will often be on a graded basis and usually will be for a fixed period, after which another audit will be required to ensure that the operation continues to meet the requirements of the standard, including incorporating any updates or additions to the standard since the last site assessment.
Food fraud is a significant and growing problem, driven by globalization, economic opportunity, and the low probability and severity of punishment. Although food fraud is economically motivated, it may result in serious health consequences. Therefore, emerging food fraud issues are described in this chapter, including the usage of food fraud databases. Analytical verification of food fraud and food authentication is needed to support proper food safety management systems. However, due to time and money constraints, only a restricted number of samples can be analysed in a laboratory. For analysis outside the laboratory, rapid, non-destructive, nontargeted methods are needed. This can be either handheld equipment for food safety inspectors or in-line equipment for the food manufacturers.
1.4 Quality Control in the Food Industry– Defect Identification
Quality control (QC) is a set of activities for ensuring quality in products by identifying defects in the actual products produced. It’s a reactive process and aims to identify (and correct) defects in finished products.
QC can be achieved by identifying and eliminating sources of quality problems to ensure customer’s requirements are continually met. It involves the inspection aspect of quality management and is typically the responsibility of a specific team tasked with testing products for defects.
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Quality management is the act of overseeing all activities and tasks needed to maintain a desired level of excellence. This includes the determination of a quality policy, creating and implementing quality planning and assurance, and quality control and quality improvement. It is also referred to as total quality management (TQM).
Within the master’s programme you can choose one of the following Specialisations to meet your personal interests.
• Quality Control and Assurance
• Quality and Food Logistics
• User-oriented Food Quality
• Quality Management and Entrepreneurship
Master’s Food Quality Management
The Food Quality Management Master of Science study programme offers an integrated approach to the study and assessment of quality processes in the agri-food chain through an exclusively developed techno-managerial approach. The whole supply chain is studied from the primary sector to the final consumer. Food, flowers and cattle are also discussed. This two-year MSc gives you the chance to analyse problems using both the social and life sciences. This allows you a higher level of approach on the topics of food quality, quality management, quality design, quality control, quality improvement, quality assurance, quality policy and business strategy.
Importance of Quality Control
We have identified a few reasons why brands dealing in food items must not ignore quality control:
Reduced production cost SE banner Square
By undertaking effective inspection and control in the production processes and operations, companies in the food industry can reduce their production costs considerably. Wastages and poor product quality further increase production costs. Quality control keeps tabs on the production of inferior products and wastages thereby bringing down the cost of production significantly.
Better goodwill
By producing goods of better quality and satisfying customer’s needs, quality control gives a boost to the goodwill of the company in the minds of people. This consequently results in a good brand reputation and positive word-of-mouth on both offline and online channels. A reputed concern can
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easily raise finances from the market. Furthermore, when a company has enhanced goodwill, the chances of its survival in the highly competitive market are also high.
Facilitates Pricing
By employing quality control measures, food industry companies can ensure that uniform products of the same quality are produced. This greatly facilitates the problem of price fixation for food products. This also eliminates the worry of constantly changing the prices of commodities.
Increase sales
Quality control ensures the production of good quality products which is immensely helpful in attracting more customers to the product thereby increasing sales. It is significantly beneficial in maintaining the existing demand and also creating new demand for the company’s products. Also, the rise in the use of social media has made it more essential for brands to be on their toes. Any negative comment or review by a customer could affect the brand image.
Improved techniques of production
Quality control ensures that commodities are produced at reasonable rates and the desired standards. By supplying technical and engineering data for the product and manufacturing processes, better methods and designs of production are contact Unsure by quality control.
Higher employee morale
An effective quality control system is greatly useful in increasing the morale of employees. When employees start to feel that they are working in a concern producing good and higher quality products their willingness and motivation to work towards the company’s objectives tend to increase. Also, these employees are more likely to keep up with the company’s standards of quality control in their operations.
1.5 Quality Management System
A Quality Management System (QMS) is defined as a formalized system that documents processes, procedures, and responsibilities for achieving quality policies and objectives. A QMS helps coordinate and direct an organization’s activities to meet customer and regulatory requirements and improve its effectiveness and efficiency on a continuous basis.
Quality management serves many purposes: –
• Improving processes
• Reducing waste
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• Lowering costs
• Facilitating and identifying training opportunities
• Engaging staff
• Setting organization wide direction
Requirements of quality management system: –
➢ Design
➢ Deploy
➢ Build
➢ Control
➢ Measure
➢ Review
➢ Improve
1. Design and Build: – The design and build portions serve to develop the structure of a QMS, its processes, and plans for implementation. Senior management should oversee this portion to ensure the needs of the organization and the needs of its customers are a driving force behind the systems development.
2. Deploy: – Deployment is best served in a granular fashion by breaking each process down into subprocesses and educating staff on documentation, education, training tools, and metrics. Company intranets are increasingly being used to assist in the deployment of quality management systems.
3. Control and Measure: – Control and measurement are two areas of establishing a QMS that are largely accomplished through routine, systematic audits of the quality management system. The specifics vary greatly from organization to organization depending on size, potential risk, and environmental impact.
4. Review and Improve: – Review and improve detail how the results of an audit are handled. The goals are to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of each process toward its objectives, to communicate these findings to the employees, and to develop new best practices and processes based on the data collected during the audit.
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Requirement of Quality Management System
Design and Build
The design and build portions serve to develop the structure of a QMS, its processes, and plans for implementation. Senior management should oversee this portion to ensure the needs of the organization and the needs of its customers are a driving force behind the systems development.
Deploy Deployment is best served in a granular fashion by breaking each process down into subprocesses and educating staff on documentation, education, training tools, and metrics. Company intranets are increasingly being used to assist in the deployment of quality management systems.
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Control and Measure
Control and measurement are two areas of establishing a QMS that are largely accomplished through routine, systematic audits of the quality management system. The specifics vary greatly from organization to organization depending on size, potential risk, and environmental impact.
Review and Improve
Review and improve detail how the results of an audit are handled. The goals are to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of each process toward its objectives, to communicate these findings to the employees, and to develop new best practices and processes based on the data collected during the audit.
Quality management systems serve many purposes, including:
• Improving processes
• Reducing waste
• Lowering costs
• Facilitating and identifying training opportunities
• Engaging staff
• Setting organization-wide direction
QMS Certification
QMS Certification Services are responsible for auditing and certifying thousands of organisations in a range of industries, across the world. By building a strong reputation for the highest quality service, market leading pricing and simplified client process, QMS are Australia’s most trusted accredited third-party International Certification Body.
QMS was formed with customer service and value in mind and these aims have been embodied into every internal and external process.
Our certification services are designed with a customer-first focus, to help us create and deliver value through everything we do. We strive to be proactive in enhancing the quality of our offerings, so we can proudly lead the market in certification services. Our teams are comprised of experienced professionals that have previously been involved in the development of quality management systems, either as auditors, auditees or trainers. This experience allows us to understand every aspect of management system and how to deliver optimal results consistently.
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1.6 Environmental Management System (EMS)
An environmental management system (EMS) is “a system and database which integrates procedures and processes for training of personnel, monitoring, summarizing, and reporting of specialized environmental performance information to internal and external stakeholders of a firm”.
The most widely used standard on which an EMS is based is International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) 14001.
An environmental management information system (EMIS) or Environmental Data Management System (EDMS) is an information technology solution for tracking environmental data for a company as part of their overall environmental management system.
Goals/Aim of EMS
The goals of EMS are to increase compliance and reduce waste. Compliance is the act of reaching and maintaining minimal legal standards. By not being compliant, companies may face fines, government intervention or may not be able to operate. Waste reduction goes beyond compliance to reduce environmental impact. The EMS helps to develop, implement, manage, coordinate and monitor environmental policies. Waste reduction begins at the design phase through pollution prevention and waste minimization. At the end of the life cycle, waste is reduced by recycling.
To meet these goals, the selection of environmental management systems is typically subject to a certain set of criteria: a proven capability to handle high frequency data, high performance indicators, transparent handling and processing of data, powerful calculation engine, customised factor handling, multiple integration capabilities, automation of workflows and question & answer processes and in-depth, flexible reporting.
Features of EMS
Serves as a tool, or process, to improve environmental performance and information mainly “design, pollution control and waste minimization, training, reporting to top management, and the setting of goals”. Provides a systematic way of managing an organization’s environmental affairs. The aspect of the organization’s overall management structure that addresses immediate and long-term impacts of its products, services and processes on the environment. EMS assists with planning, controlling and monitoring policies in an organization.
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Gives order and consistency for organizations to address environmental concerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibility and ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. Creates environmental buy-in from management and employees and assigns accountability and responsibility. Sets framework for training to achieve objectives and desired performance. Helps understand legislative requirements to better determine a product or service’s impact, significance, priorities and objectives. Focuses on continual improvement of the system and a way to implement policies and objectives to meet a desired result. This also helps with reviewing and auditing the EMS to find future opportunities. Encourages contractors and suppliers to establish their own EMS. Facilitates e-reporting to federal, state and provincial government environmental agencies through direct upload.
EMS Model
An EMS follows a Plan-Do-Check-Act, or PDCA, Cycle. The diagram shows the process of first developing an environmental policy, planning the EMS, and then implementing it. The process also includes checking the system and acting on it. The model is continuous because an EMS is a process of continual improvement in which an organization is constantly reviewing and revising the system.
This is a model that can be used by a wide range of organizations — from manufacturing facilities to service industries to government agencies.
Other Meaning
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An EMS can also be classified as: A system which monitors, tracks and reports emissions information, particularly with respect to the oil and gas industry. EMSs are becoming web-based in response to the EPA’s mandated greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting rule, which allows for reporting GHG emissions information via the internet. A centrally controlled and often automated network of devices (now frequently wireless using z-wave and zigbee technologies) used to control the internal environment of a building. Such a system namely acts as an interface between end user and energy (gas/electricity) consumption.
Companies Providing Environmental Management Systems Wisdom business development agency workflow-based environmental management software NEMS environmental management suite Emisoft’s environmental management, reporting and compliance platform Medgate environmental management software Monitor Pro environmental data management system EsDat environmental data management system Enviance regulatory compliance system ERA Environmental’s environmental management system
The purpose of the ISO 14001 management system standard is to specify general requirements and guidelines that, when followed, should provide reasonable assurance that the outputs from
the system will have minimal negative environmental impact and improved environmental performance. It should be noted that the ISO 14001 standard is no prescriptive; that is, it details what should be done, not necessarily how to do it.
The ISO 14001 standard is developed around the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) model of improvement, an iterative process that must be applied regularly to ensure benefits are being realized and the standard is being upheld. The primary operational components of an ISO
14001 EMS can be grouped as follows:
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1. Create/update environmental policy.
2. Plan:
1. Environmental aspects
2. Legal and other requirements
3. Objectives, targets, and programs
3. Do:
1. Resources, responsibilities, and authority
2. Competence, training, and awareness
3. Communication
4. Documentation
5. Control of documents
6. Operational control
7. Emergency preparedness and response
4. Check:
1. Monitor and measure
2. Evaluate compliance
3. Nonconformity, corrective and preventive action
4. Control of records
5. Internal audits
5. Act:
1. Management review
2. ISO 14001 audit
History of Environmental Management Systems
Quality approaches have traditionally maintained a fairly strict focus on business and customer issues, such as reducing defects and waste and improving efficiency, profitability, and customer satisfaction.
Environmental and sustainability goals for quality initiatives are relatively recent. Because the business world is accustomed to treating environmental practices as sources of added costs, the challenge for quality practitioners is to identify where environmental and sustainability quality issues, such as reduction of waste and use of renewable energy, also serve business and customer interests.
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In EMS the Bridge to Sustainability, a presentation available from the Energy and Environmental Division, Chris Spire of the ANAB Accreditation Council explains the characteristics of each stage in the evolution of compliance management to sustainability:
1990 to 1994: Compliance management (CM) meant focusing on regulation and relying on environmental departments to react to issues. 1994 to current: Environmental management systems (EMS) brought a more systematic, organization-wide focus on environmental issues. 1998 to current: Environmental information management systems (EIMS) involve using web- based systems and integrating multiple systems. 2002 to current: Environmental process management systems (EPMS) make use of quality tools, using a project focus to drive improvements. 2006 to current: Sustainability requires integrating environmental, social, and economic goals and using best practices to address risk and uncertainty.
In 2004, Larry R. Smith of Ford Motor Co. defined sustainability as “finding win/win/win solutions for both the short- and long-term effects of design on social responsibility, environmental performance and business results—the triple bottom line.”
Importance of EMS
It is expected that a company will know and meet all the environmental requirements that are specified for their operations, but not every company will look past this and work towards improving their operations with respect to reducing the negative impacts on the environment. This is the reason for having an environmental management system, and is the biggest selling point for why a company would want to implement such a system. Reducing your environmental impact can help gain market share in a world with ever growing environmental awareness.
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UNIT-2: System of Quality Management: TQM and TQM in Practice, Components of TQM Principles of TQM, Steps of TQM, Models of TQM, Implementation of TQM, Evaluation of TQM, Banners of TQM.
2.1 Total Quality Management (TQM)
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a concept created by W. Edwards Deming. It was originally introduced in Japan after World War II to assist the Japanese in re-building their economy. The main focus of TQM was and is continuous quality improvement in the areas of product or service, employer-employee relations and consumer-business relations. Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the 1950s and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980s.
ISO defined TQM as “A management approach of an organization centered on quality, based on participation of all its members and aiming at long term benefits to all members of the organization and society.”
TQM is “a system of continuous improvement employing participative management and centered on the needs of customers” (Jurow and Barnard, 1993)
Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a company that strives to provide customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company’s operations, with processes being done right for the first time to eradicate defects waste from operations.
Total Quality Management is a method by which management and employees can become involved in the continuous improvement of the production of goods and services. It is a combination of quality and management tools aimed at increasing the business and reducing losses due to wasteful practices.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is a proven technique to guarantee survival in world-class competition. Only by changing the actions of management will the culture and actions of an entire organization be transformed. TQM is for the most part common sense. Analyzing the three words, we have:
Total: Makeup of the whole.
Quality: Degree of excellence a product or service provides.
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Management: Act, art, or manner of handling, controlling, directing, etc.
The Principles of Total Quality Management
1. Primary responsibility for product quality rests with top management.
2. Quality should be customer focused and evaluated using customer-based standards.
3. The production process and work methods must be designed consciously to achieve quality
4. Every employee is responsible for achieving good product quality.
5. Quality cannot be inspected into a product, so make it right the first time.
6. Quality must be monitored to identify problems quickly and correct quality problems immediately.
7. The organization must strive for continuous improvement.
8. Companies must work with, and extend TQM programs to their suppliers to ensure quality inputs.
Following are the various models of total quality management:
1. Deming Application Prize
2. Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence
3. European Foundation for Quality Management, and
4. ISO quality management standards
Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to “install and make permanent climate where employees continuously improve their ability to provide on demand products and services that customers will find of particular value.”[1] “Total” emphasizes that departments in addition to production (for example sales and marketing, accounting and finance, engineering and design) are obligated to improve their operations; “management” emphasizes that executives are obligated to actively manage quality through funding, training, staffing, and goal setting. While there is no widely agreed-upon approach, TQM efforts typically draw heavily on the previously developed tools and techniques of quality control. TQM enjoyed widespread attention during the late 1980s and early 1990s before being overshadowed by ISO 9000, Lean manufacturing, and Six Sigma.
Steps in Total Quality Management
Clarifying Vision
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If a business wants to be known for quality, it must start by defining “quality.” Is it a lack of mistakes in providing a product or service, for example? Or is it the greatest return on investment for customers? Everyone in the business must know what it does and where it wants to go to help it reach its destination.
Defining Success
TQM initiatives should be actionable and measurable. Identifying critical success factors like customer satisfaction and market share allow companies to align their actions with their objectives. Then they can track their progress by monitoring metrics, like customer satisfaction ratings and market share percentages.
Engaging Everyone
In TQM, customer satisfaction isn’t confined to one department. Nor is it the responsibility of management alone. All employees contribute to the cause. So, businesses must inform employees of their roles and solicit their input before planning an approach.
Planning an Approach
Once a company targets the desired improvement, like increasing customer satisfaction ratings, it takes steps like:
• Defining the problem: Customers aren’t happy.
• Collecting related data: Customer survey responses for the past three months.
• Finding the root cause: Customers wait too long on the phone for service.
Doing the Work
Total quality management helps businesses to systematically tackle problems and seize opportunities through steps like:
• Developing a solution: Automatically routing calls to the next available customer service representative.
• Picking a measurement: Hold time for customers.
• Implementing changes: Start automatically routing calls.
Checking the Results
Companies can gauge the effectiveness of their TQM initiatives by comparing data from before changes were made to after. If automatically routing calls to the next available service representative is successful, then the company should see shorter h old times for customers. Satisfaction scores should increase as well.
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Acting on the Findings
A business can reap long-term benefits by documenting the results of successful TQM initiatives and sharing them throughout the organization. When the customer service team improves its performance, that can help sales and marketing do better as well because they can point to those same improvements when working with prospective customers.
Systematizing Improvements
Also, the process that was used to increase customer satisfaction scores could be applied to other problems, perhaps with refinements based on lessons learned. For example, the production department might be able to compare pre-change and post-change data to measure the effectiveness of its efforts to reduce the number of defective products.
Sustaining Success
Just as everyone shares in the work, everyone should share in the rewards. If the company achieves its goal of improving customer satisfaction, it might pay employees bonuses for reaching the targets it has set for individuals, departments and the organization as a whole
Management Models
Total Quality Management is a combined effort of both top-level management as well as employees of an organization to formulate effective strategies and policies to deliver high quality products which not only meet but also exceed customer satisfaction.
Total Quality management enables employees to focus on quality than quantity and strive hard to excel in whatever they do. According to total quality management, customer feedbacks and expectations are most essential when it comes to formulating and implementing new strategies to deliver superior products than competitors and eventually yield higher revenues and profits for the organization.
Credits for the process of total quality management go to many philosophers and their teachings. Drucker, Juran, Deming, Ishikawa, Crosby, Feigenbaum and many other individuals who have in due course of time studied organizational management have contributed effectively to the process of total quality management.
There are many models of total quality management and it is really not necessary that every organization should select and implement the same model.
Following are the various models of total quality management:
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▪ Deming Application Prize
▪ Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence
▪ European Foundation for Quality Management, and
▪ ISO quality management standards
Customers and their feedbacks are the foundation of every Total Quality Management model. In simpler words, Total Quality Management begins with understanding customers, their needs and what they expect from the organization. Design fool proof processes and systems to collect customer data, information to further study, analyse and act accordingly. Such activities not only help you understand your target customers but also predict customer behaviour.
As a business marketer, you need to know the age group of your target customers, their preferences and needs. Employees need to know how their products or services can fulfil customer needs and demands.
Total Quality Management model requires meticulous planning and research. Every total quality management model integrates customer feedbacks with relevant information and plans accordingly to design effective strategies to achieve high quality products.
Strategies formulated to yield better quality products need to be evaluated and reviewed from time to time. Remember, customers are satisfied only when products meet their expectations, fulfil their needs and are value for money. Their overall experience with the organization needs to be pleasant for them to be happy and return to the organization even the next time.
Continuous improvements, changes and modifications in the existing processes according to customer expectations are necessary to yield higher profits. Processes can’t be same always. If a customer complaint about a particular product of yours, find out the root cause of problem. Understand and implement necessary total quality management models to rectify the problem, remove the defect for a high-quality product.
The successful implementation of Total quality Management model needs extensive planning and most importantly participation of every single member who is benefitted out of the organization (Management, suppliers, clients and even customers). Without the participation of each and every employee, total quality management model would be a complete failure.
Total Quality Management model begins with research and collecting information about end-users followed by planning and full participation of employees for successful implementation. Top level Management needs to make other team members aware of the benefits of total quality management
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process, importance of quality to survive in the long run and how they can implement various TQM models by prioritizing their customers and their feedbacks.
Steps to Creating a Total Quality Management System
1. Clarify Vision, Mission, and Values
Employees need to know how what they do is tied to organizational strategy and objectives.
All employees need to understand where the organization is headed (its vision), what it hopes to accomplish (mission) and the operational principles (values) that will steer its priorities and decision making.
Develop a process to educate employees during new employee orientation and communicate the mission, vision, and values as a first step.
2. Identify Critical Success Factors (CSF)
Critical success factors help an organization focus on those things that help it meet objectives and move a little closer to achieving its mission.
These performance-based measures provide a gauge for determining how well the organization is meeting objectives.
Some example CSF:
• Financial Performance
• Customer Satisfaction
• Process Improvement
• Market Share
• Employee Satisfaction
• Product Quality
3. Develop Measures and Metrics to Track CSF Data
Once critical success factors are identified, there needs to be measurements put in place to monitor and track progress.
This can be done through a reporting process that is used to collect specified data and share information with senior leaders.
For example, if a goal is to increase customer satisfaction survey scores, there should be a goal and a measure to demonstrate achievement of the goal.
4. Identify Key Customer Group
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Every organization has customers. Those that understand who the key customer groups are can create products and services based on customer requirements.
The mistake a lot of organizations make is not acknowledging employees as a key customer group.
Example Key Customer Groups:
• Employees
• Customers
• Suppliers
• Vendors
• Volunteers
5. Solicit Customer Feedback
The only way for an organization to know how well they are meeting customer requirements is by simply asking the question.
Create a structured process to solicit feedback from each customer group in an effort to identify what is important to them.
Organizations often make the mistake of thinking they know what is important to customers and ask the wrong survey questions. This type of feedback is obtained through customer focus groups.
6. Develop a Survey Tool
Next, develop a customer satisfaction survey tool that is based on finding out what is important to customers.
For example, customers might care more about quality than cost but if you are developing a product and trying to keep the cost down and skimping on the quality, you are creating a product that might not meet the needs of the customer.
7. Survey Each Customer Group
Create a customized survey for each customer group. This survey will help to establish baseline
data on the customers’ perception of current practice.
Now you will have a starting point for improvements and will be able to demonstrate progress as improvement plans are implemented.
8. Develop Improvement Plan
Once the baseline is established you should develop an improvement plan based on customer feedback from each group.
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Improvement plans should be written in SMART goals format with assignments to specific staff for follow through.
• Process improvement initiatives: such as customer call hold times
• Leadership Development: Walk-the-Talk
• Management Training/Development: How to manage employees in a quality environment
• Staff Training/Development: Customer Service
• Performance Management: Setting expectations, creating job descriptions that support the vision and holding staff accountable.
9. Resurvey
After a period of time (12-18 months), resurvey key customers to see if scores have improved. Customer needs and expectations change over time so being in-tune to changing needs and expectations is critical to long-term success.
10. Monitor CSF
It is important to monitor CSF monthly to ensure there is consistent progress toward goals. This also allows for course correction should priorities and objectives change during the review period.
11. Incorporate Satisfaction Data into Marketing Plans
Once you’ve achieved some positive results with your satisfaction data, use it as a marketing tool!
A lot of successful organizations miss the boat by not letting others know what they do well. Customers want to know how an organization’s internal processes work, especially if those processes help to deliver an outstanding product or service!
12. Technology
Make sure technology is user-friendly and supports targeted improvements. For example, a website should be easy to navigate as well as easy to find (SEO) and the content should be easy to understand.
Final Thoughts
Make sure employees understand the vision as well as their role in supporting it. Look for ways to ensure that all internal processes are standardized and that employees receive the training to understand the standardization.
• Some of the first seeds of quality management were planted as the principles of scientific management swept through U.S. industry.
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• Businesses clearly separated the processes of planning and carrying out the plan, and union opposition arose as workers were deprived of a voice in the conditions and functions of their work.
• The Hawthorne experiments in the late 1920s showed how worker productivity could be impacted by participation. quality.
1950s• Walter Shewhart developed the methods for statistical analysis and control of
• W. Edwards Deming taught methods for statistical analysis and control of quality
to Japanese engineers and executives. This can be considered the origin of TQM.
• Joseph M. Juran taught the concepts of controlling quality and managerial breakthrough.
• Armand V. Feigenbaum’s book Total Quality Control, a forerunner for the present understanding of TQM, was published.
•Philip B. Crosby’s promotion of zero defects paved the way for quality improvement in
many companies.
•The Japanese named their approach to total quality “companywide quality control.” It is around this time that the term quality management systems arises.
• Kaoru Ishikawa’s synthesis of the philosophy contributed to Japan’s ascendancy as a
quality leadern Today
• TQM is the name for the philosophy of a broad and systemic approach to managing organizational quality.
• Quality standards such as the ISO 9000 series and quality award programs such as the Deming Prize and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award specify principles and processes that comprise TQM.
• TQM as a term to describe an organization’s quality policy and procedure has fallen out of favor as international standards for quality management have been developed. Please see our series of pages on quality management systems for more information.
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UNIT-3: ISO 9000 AND 14000 FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE: Origin and History of ISO 9000, Implementation of ISO, ISO 9000 Registration Process, ISO and World Trade, ISO in Developing countries, who develops ISO SFDS, How ISO standards are developed, Auditing Standards Disadvantages to adopting ISO 9000 requirement, ISO 14000- History Who and what do the standards apply to, ISO 14000 Family, EMS Mood, Elements of ISO 14001 standards, Total Quality Environmental Management.
3.1 International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and works in 164 countries.
It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. It is the world’s largest developer of voluntary international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Over twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety, agriculture and healthcare.
Use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality. The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste. By enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis. The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally.
International Standards are developed by ISO technical committees (TC) and subcommittees (SC) by a process with six steps:
1: Proposal stage
2: Preparatory stage
3: Committee stage
4: Enquiry stage
5: Approval stage
6: Publication stage
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ISO is funded by a combination of:
• Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work.
• Subscriptions from member bodies. These subscriptions are in proportion to each country’s gross national product and trade figures.
• Sale of standards.
The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard- setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and works in 164 countries.
It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United
Nations Economic and Social Council.
What is ISO 9001?
❖ Full form of ISO- international organization system
❖ It’s a quality management system that can be adopted by any kind of organization.
❖ The system focuses towards meeting the customer requirements and enhancing of customer satisfaction.
❖ It was published in the year 2005
❖ Its formation took place on 23 February 1947.
❖ Its headquarters lies in geneva
❖ There are 63 countries as its members
Use of the standard aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality. The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste.
The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and the end users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally HISTORY:
The organization today known as ISO began in 1928 as the International Federation of the N during World War II, but after the war ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London
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and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization; the new organization officially began operations in February 1947.
ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISO’s strategic objectives. The organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva.
A Council with a rotating membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance, including setting the Central Secretariat’s annual budget. The Technical Management Board is responsible for over 250 technical committees,
who develop the ISO standards? IEC joint committees
ISO has formed two joint committees with the International Electro technical Commission (IEC) to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) was created in 1987 to “[d]evelop, maintain, promote and facilitate IT standards”, where IT refers to information technology.
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 (JTC 2) was created in 2009 for the purpose of
“tandardization in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources”
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ISO member countries with a national standards body and ISO voting rights. Correspondent members (countries without a national standards body). Subscriber members (countries with small economies).
ISO has 163 national members.
ISO has three membership categories
• Member bodies are national bodies considered the most representative standards body in each country. These are the only members of ISO that have voting rights.
• Correspondent members are countries that do not have their own standards
organization. These members are informed about ISO’s work, but do not participate in standards promulgation.
• Subscriber members are countries with small economies. They pay reduced membership fees, but can follow the development of standards.
Participating members are called “P” members, as opposed to observing members, who are called “O” members.
A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long process that commonly starts with the proposal of new work within a committee. Here are some abbreviations used for marking a standard with its status
• PWI – Preliminary Work Item
• NP or NWIP – New Proposal / New Work Item Proposal
• AWI – Approved new Work Item
• WD – Working Draft
• CD – Committee Draft
• FCD – Final Committee Draft
• DIS – Draft International Standard
• FDIS – Final Draft International Standard
• PRF – Proof of a new International Standard
• IS – International Standard
Abbreviations used for amendments
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• NP Amd – New Proposal Amendment
• AWI Amd – Approved new Work Item Amendment
• WD Amd – Working Draft AAmendmen
• CD Amd / PDAmd – Committee Draft Amendment / Proposed Draft Amendment
• FPDAmd / DAM (DAmd) – Final Proposed Draft Amendment / Draft Amendment
• FDAM (FDAmd) – Final Draft Amendment
• PRF Amd
• Amd – Amendmen
Other abbreviations
• TR – Technical Report
• DTR – Draft Technical Report
• TS – Technical Specification
• DTS – Draft Technical Specification
• PAS – Publicly Available Specification
• TTA – Technology Trends Assessment
• IWA – International Workshop Agreement
The fact that many of the ISO-created standards are ubiquitous has led, on occasion, to common use of “ISO” to describe the actual product that conforms to a standard. Some examples of this are:
• Many CD images end in the file extension “ISO” to signify that they are using the ISO 9660 standard file system as opposed to another file system—hence
CD images are commonly referred to as “ISOs”. Virtually all computers with CD-
ROM drives that can read CDs use this standard. Some DVD-ROMs also use ISO 9660 file systems.
• Photographic film’s sensitivity to light (its “film speed”) is described
by ISO 6, ISO 2240 and ISO 5800. Hence, the film’s speed is often referred to by its
ISO number.
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• As it was originally defined in ISO 518, the flash hot shoe found on cameras is often called the “ISO shoe”.
• ISO 11783, which is marketed as ISOBUS.
• ISO 13216, which is marketed as ISOFIX.
International Standards and other publications:
ISO’s main products are international standards. ISO also publishes technical reports, technical specifications, publicly available specifications, technical corrigenda, and guides.
International standards
These are designated using the format, where nnnnn is the number of the standard, p is an optional part number, yyyy is the year published,
and Title describes the subject. IEC for International Electrotechnical
Commission is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1 (the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee). ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International. yyyy and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard and may under some circumstances be left off the title of a published work.
Technical reports
These are issued when a technical committee or subcommittee has collected data of a different kind from that normally published as an International Standard, such as references and explanations. The naming conventions for these are the same as for standards, except TR prepended instead of IS in the report’s name.
For example:
• ISO/IEC TR 17799:2000 Code of Practice for Information Security Management
• ISO/TR 19033:2000 Technical product documentation — Metadata for construction documentation
Technical and publicly available specifications
Technical specifications may be produced when “the subject in question is still under development or where for any other reason there is the future but not immediate possibility of an agreement to publish an International Standard”. A publicly available specification is usually
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“an intermediate specification, published prior to the development of a full International Standard, or, in IEC may be a ‘dual logo’ publication published in collaboration with an external organization”. By convention, both types of specification are named in a manner similar to the organization’s technical reports.
For example:
• ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation — Reference designation system — Part 1: General application rules
• ISO/PAS 11154:2006 Road vehicles — Roof load carriers
Technical corrigenda
ISO also sometimes issues “technical corrigenda” (where “corrigenda” is the plural of corrigendum). These are amendments made to existing standards due to minor technical flaws, usability improvements, or limited-applicability extensions. They are generally issued with the expectation that the affected standard will be updated or withdrawn at its next scheduled review.
ISO guides
These are meta-standards covering “matters related to international standardization”. They are named using the format
For example:
• ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004 Standardization and related activities — General vocabulary
• ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996 General requirements for bodies operating product certification
Document copyright
ISO documents are copyrighted and ISO charges for most copies. It does not, however, charge for most draft copies of documents in electronic format. Although they are
useful, care must be taken using these drafts as there is the possibility of substantial change before they become finalized as standards. Some standards by ISO and its official U.S. representative (and, via the U.S. National Committee, the International Electrotechnical Commission) are made freely available.
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UNIT-4: QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLES: Define and Objectives, Principles of QCC, Benefits of QCC, Implementation of QCC, Steps invoiced in QCC, Quality Management in the food Industry-HACCP and development of HACCP, Steps of HACCP, Principles and Implementation HACCP, Similarity and Differences in ISO 9000 & HACCP.
4.1 Quality Control Circles
Participate methods in the workplace are one way to improve both the work environment for employees and productivity and quality for the company. Quality Circle is one of the employee participation methods.
It implies the development of skills, capabilities, confidence and creativity of the people through cumulative process of education, training, work experience and participation. The creation of facilitative conditions and environment of work, which creates and sustains their motivation and commitment towards work excellence.
This resulted in the Quality Circle concept being accepted all over the world as a very effective technique to improve the total quality of work life.
Concept of QCC
Participative Management Technique Suggestion Effecting Workplace Performance Related Problems Organizes. It is based upon recognition of the value of the worker. As a human being. As someone who willingly activists on his job, his wisdom, intelligence, experience, attitude and feelings.
3 Major Attributes:
1. Quality Circle is a form of participation management.
2. Quality Circle is a human resource development technique.
3. Quality Circle is a problem-solving technique.
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A quality circle or quality control circle is a group of workers who do the same or similar work, who meet regularly to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems.
It consists of minimum three and maximum twelve members in number.
Normally small in size, the group is usually led by a supervisior or manager and presents it’s solutions to management where possible, workers implement the solutions themselves in order to improve the performance of the organization and motivate employees.
Quality circles were at their most popular during the 1980s, but continue to exist in the form of kaizan groups and similar worker participation schemes.
Quality circles are typically more formal groups. They meet regularly on company time and are trained by competent persons (usually designated as facilitators) who may be personnel and industrial relations specialists trained in human factors and the basic skills of problem identification, information gathering and analysis, basic statistics, and solution generation.
METHODOLOGY This program involves a wide range of learning approaches, including self – assessments, case studies, small group activities, discussions, interactive lectures, experimental learning group assignments, exercises, presentations and critiques. It will also include computer simulations to help reinforce participant’s understanding of the QC tools functions in problem solving cycles.
Quality circles were originally described by W. Edwards Deming in the 1950s, Deming praised Toyota as an example of the practice. The idea was later formalized across Japan in 1962 and
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expanded by others such as Kaoru Ishikawa. The Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) coordinated the movement in Japan. The first circles started at the Nippon Wireless and Telegraph Company; the idea then spread to more than 35 other companies in the first year. By 1978 it was claimed that there were more than one million quality circles involving some 10 million Japanese workers. Quality circles have been implemented even in educational sectors in India, and QCFI (Quality Circle Forum of India) is promoting such activities. However, this was not successful in the United States, as the idea was not properly understood and implementation turned into a fault-finding exercise – although some circles do still exist. Don Dewar together with Wayne Ryker and Jeff Beardsley established quality circles in 1972 at the Lockheed Space Missile factory in California
There are seven basic quality improvement tools that circles use:
1. Cause-and-effect diagrams (sometimes called Ishikawa or “fishbone” diagrams)
2. Pareto charts
3. Process mapping, data gathering tools such as check sheets
4. Graphical tools such as histograms, frequency diagrams, spot charts and pie charts
5. Run charts and control charts
6. Scatter plots and correlation analysis
7. Flowcharts
Quality Circle Process
Most quality circles will work through a set process with each meeting. In general, this will follow the Plan, Do, Check, Act process, which is ideal for continuous improvement projects.
Following this process not only makes it easier to identify potential solutions and implement them, but it also has an established flow for moving from one process improvement to the next. This is
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important because this type of group meeting is scheduled to take place on a regular basis, with new problems being identified and resolved on a regular basis.
“HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. “HACCP is designed for use in all segments of the food industry from growing, harvesting, processing, manufacturing, distributing, and merchandising to preparing food for consumption. Prerequisite programs such as current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. Food safety systems based on the HACCP principles have been successfully applied in food processing plants, retail food stores, and food service operations. The seven principles of HACCP have been universally accepted by government agencies, trade associations and the food industry around the world.”
HACCP is emerging as an industry-driven concept that the firm should take a proactive role in assuring the food processing procedure will lead to a safe product.
• HACCP is considered an alternative to traditional government inspections; but the government retains a role in the overall process by using its regulatory authority to assure that businesses have adequate HACCP plans and that the plan is being appropriately implemented.
• HACCP allows (requires) each business to focus on their operation and its unique characteristics rather than having a standardized inspection process that may not offer the flexibility to consider the uniqueness of each business and each food product. The focus of HACCP is not on having a standardized production process but on having a monitoring
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process that is adequate to assure each business (regardless of its manufacturing process) is producing a safe product by minimizing the risk of a food safety problem.
Seven principles of HACCP;
• Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.
• Principle 2: Determine the critical control points (CCPs).
• Principle 3: Establish critical limits (CL).
• Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures.
• Principle 5: Establish corrective actions.
• Principle 6: Establish verification procedures.
• Principle 7: Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.
HACCP also can generally be implemented with a 12-step process
Step #1 Assemble a HACCP Team
• A commitment from management.
• Multidisciplinary membership.
• Know the manufacturing process and the products
• Know how to take corrective action.
• Understand the HACCP principles.
Step #2 Processing and Distribution of Foods
• A separate HACCP is needed for each product.
• What method will be used for distributing the product?
• Is the product refrigerated, frozen or shelf-stable?
• What safety hazard or quality issue are associated with this food product?
Step #3 Intended Use and Consumers
• What impact will the product have on the general public?
• Are you targeting a specific segment of the market? Particular consumers? Are you targeting a wholesale or retail market?
• What are the ingredients? Do any ingredient pose a food safety risk?
• Does the food offer specific characteristics, such as, a low fat products
Step #4 Develop a Flow Diagram
• The diagram or flow chart must cover all steps of the manufacturing process.
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• It is not an engineering drawing.
• Verify the accuracy and completeness of the flow diagram.
• Take the diagram to the production floor to assure/verify its accuracy.
Step #5 Conduct a Hazard Analysis
• Are you concerned about microbiological, chemical or physical hazards (again, this list is expanding)?
• Identify steps in the manufacturing process where a hazard can happen.
• Consider risk (probability) of the hazard and severity if the hazard occurs.
• Remember — hazard is limited to safety; it does not focus on quality issues (even though they may be related).
• Identify preventative measures that can be applied.
Step #6 Critical Control Points (CCP)
• CCP — any place in the manufacturing and distribution process where control can be applied to prevent a hazard.
• GMPs can and should control many hazards.
• A CCP for one product many not be a CCP for another product.
Step #7 Critical Limits (CL)
• Limit that must be met to ensure safety of the product.
• Exceeding the CL means a health hazard exists.
• CLs can be derived from regulatory standards (e.g., dairy), guidelines, studies, experts, etc.
• Examples of CLs: temperatures (for some products it may be what is too high and for other products it may be what is too low), time, pH, residues, kind and count of bacteria.
Step #8 Monitoring/Inspection
• Planned sequence of observations or measurements.
• Must control CCP’s
• Must be effective.
• Monitoring intervals must be reliable.
• Must be rapid, no lengthy analysis.
• Adequate plan to see that the monitoring is carried out.
Step #9 Corrective Actions
• Specify procedures to be taken when deviations occur.
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• Corrective actions must be documented.
• Eliminate actual or potential hazards.
• Be prepared to put products on hold if a problem is identified.
• Make changes to prevent future occurrence.
Step #10 Records
• Must include every part of the HACCP program, from team membership through all actions — steps #1 – 12
Step #11 Verification
• Consists of methods, procedures or tests used in monitoring compliance.
• CCP’s are under control
• Necessary changes have been made.
• All records are complete.
• Sample analysis to verify.
• Training and knowledge.
Step #12 Evaluation and Revision
• At least an annual review.
• Anytime manufacturing process is changed or products are changed.
• Anytime new raw materials or sources are used.
• Anytime formulation is changed.
• Anytime new equipment is installed; in some cases, even adjusting the performance of the equipment may necessitate are review of the HACCP.
• Anytime there is a change in personnel or shifts.
• Anytime there is a changes in storage or distribution.
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UNIT 5 CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION (CAC), FSSAI AND BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS: Introduction, Role, Actions, Motive of establishment, Consumer Protection Law, Legal Meteorology and Standards, Management of Advertisements
5.1 Codex Alimentarius:
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.
Its name is derived from the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus. Its texts are developed and maintained by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a body that was established in early November 1961 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), was joined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 1962, and held its first session in Rome in October 1963. The Commission’s main goals are to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the international food trade. The Codex Alimentarius is recognized by the World Trade Organization as an international reference point for the resolution of disputes concerning food safety and consumer protection.
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety. Its name is derived from the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus.
The regulations of the codex refer to food hygiene and quality, including microbiological standards, food additives, pesticide, and residues from veterinary drugs, contaminants, food labelling and marketing, methods for sampling and hazard analysis, food import and export, certification system, etc.
It also ensures that product complying with codex standard can be sold on the international market without compromising health or interest of consumer. Codex standard ensure product is safe internationally
Scope of Codex Alimentarius
The Codex Alimentarius covers all foods, whether processed, semi-processed or raw. In addition to standards for specific foods, the Codex Alimentarius contains general standards covering matters such as food labelling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticide residues, and procedures for assessing the safety of foods derived from modern biotechnology. It also contains guidelines
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for the management of official i.e. governmental import and export inspection and certification systems for foods.
Codex Commission
Develop codex in 1962, subsidiary of food and agriculture organisation (FAO), united nations (UN) and world health organization (WHO)
Joint venture between FAO and WHO to formulate internationally accepted food safety standard for protection of human health and to ensure fair trade practices.
• Coordination of all food standards
• Initiation and supervision of draft standard
• Finalisation of food standard
• Publication of standard worldwide
• Amend standard in face of new technology
The Codex Alimentarius includes standards for all the principle foods, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, for distribution to the consumer. Materials for further processing into foods should be included to the extent necessary to achieve the purposes of the Codex Alimentarius as defined. The Codex Alimentarius includes provisions in respect of food hygiene, food additives, residues of pesticides and veterinary drugs, contaminants, labelling and presentation, methods of analysis and sampling, and import and export inspection and certification.
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally adopted food standards and related texts3 presented in a uniform manner. These food standards and related texts aim at protecting consumers’ health and ensuring fair practices in the food trade. The publication of the Codex Alimentarius is intended to guide and promote the elaboration and establishment of definitions and requirements for foods to assist in their harmonization and in doing so to facilitate international trade
The significant contributions of Codex have historically centered on its effort to protect consumer health and safety; the Codex impact on international trade has been believed by many to be of secondary importance. While one of the major goals of Codex continues to be focused on consumer protection, recent events have brought new attention to the role of Codex in assuring fair practice
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in food trade. In 1995, establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) highlighted a place for Codex in the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee (SPS) dispute settlement process. Codex was referenced by the SPS document as the international body to be used for scientific advice on food matters brought before the WTO under SPS.
The Codex Alimentarius Commission consists of the following main organizational elements:
• Commission
• Executive Committee
• Codex Secretariat
• Codex subsidiary bodies
With the exception of the Codex Secretariat, all these elements are made up of Codex Members (i.e. national delegations and representatives of “observers”) , endeavouring to reflect stakeholder views as appropriate.
The Commission
• The decision-making body of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
• Consists of member governments, as well as a number of international government (IGOs) and nongovernment organizations (INGOs) which have official observer status with the Commission
• Presently meets annually, with meetings alternating between Rome (FAO Headquarters) and Geneva (WHO Headquarters)
The Executive Committee
• Executive Committee is established by CAC – CCEXEC acts as the executive organ of CAC.
• Responsible for managing the standards development process, developing the draft strategic plan, reviewing applications for observer status and making other recommendations about the general direction of the Commission’s work.
• The Commission elects executive officers for a period starting at the end of the session in which elected until the end of the following regular session.
• Elected officials include a chairperson and three vice-chairpersons elected among the delegates of the Members of the Commission. (These officers are chairperson and vice-chairpersons of the CAC & CCEXEC).
• The CCEXEC meets between Commission sessions.
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• The Executive Committee is geographically balanced – one member country elected from each geographic regions: 1.Africa 2.Asia 3.Europe 4.Latin America and the Caribbean 5.Near East 6.North America 7.The Southwest Pacific
• The Regional Coordinators of the six regions
• Chair is same as of CAC
• The total membership of the CCEXEC is 17
The Secretariat
• The Codex Secretariat assists the CAC in the implementation of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
• Reports to the Director-Generals of FAO and WHO.
The Codex Secretariat is located at FAO headquarters in Rome.
The Subsidiary Bodies
Under its Rules of Procedure, CAC is empowered to establish four kinds of subsidiary bodies:
• General Subject Committees (sometimes referred to as horizontal), which establish standards and guidelines applicable to all foods;
• Commodity Committees (sometimes known as vertical), which prepare standards for specific commodities;
• FAO/WHO Coordinating Committees, through which regions or groups of countries coordinate food standards activities in the region, including the development of regional standards;
• Intergovernmental Task Forces, which are time-limited and prepare standards and guidelines on specific issues.
Codex General Subject Committee
• General Principles – France
• Food Additives – China
• Contaminants in food – Netherlands
• Food Hygiene – USA
• Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems – Australia
• Methods of Analysis & Sampling – Hungary
• Pesticide Residues – China
• Residue of Veterinary Drugs in Foods – USA
• Food Labelling – Canada
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• Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses – Germany
Codex Alimentarius Commission and Member Countries
• Most of Members use some of Codex Standards/ texts as the basis of their legislation/ regulations/ guidelines etc.
. • Because – Internationally recognized – Based on sound science
Management of Codex Activities at National Level
1) Strengthening National Codex capacity through improving familiarity and understanding of Codex structures and processes – establishment and strengthening of NCCP, NCC, Codex Country Manual/ working procedures, websites;
2) Providing practical guidance on how to participate in Codex committees;
3) Support networking and collaboration at the national level bringing together all interested parties – National Codex Committee,
Codex Procedural Manual
• Intended to help Member Governments participate effectively in the work of the joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
• Outlines the agreed set of rules to ensure the Commission and its subsidiary bodies work in a uniform manner
• Contains – Statues of CAC – Rules of Procedure – Additional procedures for the elaboration of Codex standards & related texts, basic definitions and guidelines for the operation of CAC & its subsidiary bodies (Codex committees)
Statutes of Codex
The Statutes of the Codex Alimentarius Commission
: • provide the legal basis for the Commission’s work;
• provide its mandate or terms of reference;
• describe the formal operating procedures; and
• reflect the concepts behind and reasons for the establishment of Codex.
The Statutes can be found in Section I of the Codex Procedural Manual
Statutes of Codex-Mandate
The mandate of the Codex Alimentarius Commission is clearly specified in the first article of its Statutes:
Article 1 – Mandate
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(a)protecting the health of the consumers and ensuring fair practices in the food trade;
(b)promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations;
(c) determining priorities and initiating and guiding the preparation of draft standards through and with the aid of appropriate organizations;
(d)finalizing standards elaborated under (c) above and publishing them in a Codex Alimentarius either as regional or worldwide standards, together with international standards already finalized by other bodies under (b) above, wherever this is practicable; (e)amending published standards, as appropriate, in the light of developments.
Statutes of Codex Membership
Article 2 – Membership
Membership of the Commission is open to all Member Nations and Associate Members of FAO and WHO that are interested in international food standards. Membership shall comprise such of these nations as have notified the Director-General of FAO or of WHO of their desire to be considered as Members.
Membership conditions to become a Member of the CAC, two conditions must be met: 1) The country must be a Member of either FAO or WHO. 2) The country must notify either the Director-General of FAO or of WHO of its wish to become a Member.
Codex Commodity Committees
• Commodity Committees that are active: – Milk and Milk Product – New Zealand – Fish And Fishery Products – Norway – Fats And Oils – Malaysia – Sugars – Colombia – Processed Fruits and Vegetables – USA – Fresh Fruits And Vegetables – Mexico – Cereal, Pulses and Legumes – USA – Spices and Culinary Herbs – India
• Commodity Committees that have been adjourned: – Meat Hygiene – New Zealand – Natural Mineral Water – Switzerland – Vegetable Proteins – Canada – Cocoa Products and Chocolates – Switzerland
In summary, practically all the work of Codex has had, and is having, a positive impact on safeguarding consumers and international trade. Harmonization of regulatory systems, including certification systems that promote increased competition in world trade while maintaining the highest level of protection for consumers, will result in a safer and less costly food supply
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throughout the world. Significant progress has been made in many of these areas through Codex Alimentarius but there is still much work to be done.
5.2 FSSAI (Food Safety and Standards Authority of India)
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is an autonomous body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. The FSSAI has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which is a consolidating statute related to food safety and regulation in India. FSSAI is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety.
The FSSAI is headed by a non-executive Chairperson, appointed by the Central Government, either holding or has held the position of not below the rank of Secretary to the Government of India. FSSAI has its headquarters at New Delhi. The authority also has 6 regional offices located in Delhi, Guwahati, Mumbai, Kolkata, Cochin, and Chennai.
The FSSAI consists of a chairperson & 22 members. The FSSAI is responsible for setting standards for food so that there is one body to deal with and no confusion in the minds of consumers, traders, manufacturers, and investors.
The following are the statutory powers that the FSS Act, 2006 gives to the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
• Framing of regulations to lay down food safety standards
• Laying down guidelines for accreditation of laboratories for food testing
• Providing scientific advice and technical support to the Central Government
• Contributing to the development of international technical standards in food
• Collecting and collating data regarding food consumption, contamination, emerging risks etc.
• Disseminating information and promoting awareness about food safety and nutrition in India
The FSSAI functions under the administrative control of the Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare. The main aim of FSSAI is to
• Lay down science-based standards for articles of food
• To regulate manufacture, storage, distribution, import and sale of food
• To facilitate safety of food
The FSSAI has prescribed standards for following food products:
• Dairy products and analogues
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• Fats, oils and fat emulsions
• Fruits and vegetable products
• Cereal and cereal products
• Meat and meat products
• Fish and fish products
• Sweets & confectionery
• Sweetening agents including honey
• Salt, spices, condiments and related products
• Beverages, (other than dairy and fruits & vegetables based)
• Other food product and ingredients
• Proprietary food
• Irradiation of food
FSSAI FSSAI stands for Food Safety and Standards Authority of India which is an organization that monitors and governs the food business in India. It ensures the food products undergo quality checks thereby curtailing the food adulteration and sale of sub-standard products. It is responsible for the registering and licensing of the food business operators (FBO) in India and it lays down the rules and regulation for running the food business in India.
Importance FSSAI Enrollment
Each nourishment business administrator associated with the assembling, preparing, capacity dispersion and clearance of nourishment items should obligatorily get FSSAI Enrollment or Permit. FSSAI Enrollment is not quite the same as FSSAI Permit as in relying upon the size and nature of the business, FBO ought to acquire the essential enlistment or permit.
It is a 14-digit enlistment or a permit number which is imprinted on all the nourishment bundles. This enrollment technique is intended to make greater responsibility on the FBO to keep up the nature of the nourishment items.
FSSAI Enlistment/Permit System
FSSAI enlistment or permit depends on the business volume and premises. Contingent on the introduced limit or turnover or area, candidate premises are qualified for the permit, for example, focal permit, state permit, enlistment, railroad and so forth
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FSSAI Enlistment Prerequisites
FSSAI Enlistment is a fundamental permit and it is required for all the FBO engaged with the little scale nourishment business. This class covers the accompanying business
1. Any FBO with a yearly turnover of not more than Rs. 12 Lakhs
2. Petty retailer managing in nourishment items
3. Any individual who fabricates or sells any nourishment article independent from anyone else
4. Food deal is finished by the impermanent slow down holder
5. Any person who appropriates nourishment in any strict or get-together with the exception of a cook
6. Small-scale or bungalow ventures managing in the nourishment business and the accompanying:
Methodology for Getting FSSAI Enrolment
1. FSSAI enrollment is started by submitting Structure An (application) to nourishment and wellbeing division.
2. This application can be acknowledged or it might be dismissed by the Division inside 7 days from the application date and the reality must be suggested to the candidate recorded as a hard copy
3. If the application is acknowledged, at that point the division will give an enrollment authentication with the enlistment number and the photograph of the candidate.
4. FBO ought to unmistakably show the declaration of enrollment at the spot of business during the business hours.
Regular reports required for getting FSSAI enrollment
1. Form B – finished and marked
2. Photo Character of FBO
3. Proof of ownership of premises (eg. Tenant contract)
4. Partnership Deed/Endorsement of Joining/Articles of Affiliation and so on
5. List of nourishment items to be managed
6. Food security the executive’s framework plan
FSSAI Permit Necessity
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For all other FBO separated from little scale business, FSSAI permit must be acquired. FSSAI Permit can be characterized into two classifications for example State FSSAI Permit and Focal FSSAI Permit dependent on the size of the business whether it is a medium scale or enormous scale business.
For the most part, FBO who are enormous makers, merchants, exporters managing in huge scale nourishment business need to acquire FSSAI enlistment from focal government and FBO with little to medium measured assembling units, transporters, advertisers, brokers, and so forth., need to take FSSAI enrollment from the state government.
Documents required for obtaining the central license:
1. Form B properly finished and marked
2. Plan of the handling unit demonstrating the measurements and activity astute region allotment
3. List of Chiefs/Accomplices/Owner with address, contact subtleties, and picture ID
4. Name and rundown of hardware and apparatus utilized with the number and introduced limit
5. List of nourishment classification to be made
6. Authority letter from maker named a dependable individual name and address
7. Analysis report of water to be utilized in the process to affirm the movability
8. Source of crude material for milk, meat and so on
9. Recall plan any place relevant
10. Ministry of Trade Declaration for 100% EOU
11. NOC/Dad record gave by FSSAI
12. IE code record gave by DGFT
13. Form IX
14. Certificate from Service of The travel industry
15. Proof of ownership of premises
16. Partnership deed/affirmation of ownership
17. NOC and duplicate of Permit from the producer
18. Food wellbeing the board framework plan or testament
19. NOC from the district or neighborhood body
20. Supporting report for confirmation of turnover and transportation
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21. Declaration structure
Reports required for the acquiring the state permit:
1. Form B appropriately finished and marked
2. Plan of the preparing unit demonstrating the measurements and activity savvy territory assignment
3. List of Executives/Accomplices/Owner with address, contact subtleties, and personal ID
4. Name and rundown of hardware and apparatus utilized with the number and introduced limit
5. List of nourishment class to be fabricated
6. Authority letter from producer designated a capable individual name and address
7. Analysis report of water to be utilized in the process to affirm the conveyability
8. Proof of ownership of premises
9. Partnership deed/sworn statement of ownership
10. NOC and duplicate of Permit from the producer
11. Copy of testament acquired under Coop Act 1861/Multi state Coop Act 2002
12. Food wellbeing the executive’s framework plan or authentication
There are various structures and reports which are required to be submitted transformation, recharging, and adjustment of permit.
BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) BIS stands for Bureau of Indian Standards. BIS is the National Standard Body of India established under the BIS Act 2016 for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. BIS has been providing traceability and tangibility benefits to the national economy in a number of ways – providing safe reliable quality goods; minimizing health hazards to consumers; promoting exports and imports substitute; control over proliferation of varieties etc. through standardization, certification and testing. It is headquartered at New Delhi and has five regional offices which are located at Chandigarh, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, and Delhi. As of 2015, Smt. Alka Panda is the Director General of BIS.
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Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) came into existence, through an Act of Parliament on 1 April 1987, with a broadened scope and more powers taking over the staff, assets, liabilities and functions of erstwhile Indian Standards Institution (ISI) with following objectives. • Harmonious development of activities of standardization, marking and quality certification • To provide new thrust to standardization and quality control • To evolve a national strategy for according recognition to standards and integrating them with growth and development of Industrial production and exports. BIS is involved in multifarious activities like Standards Formulation, Certification, Product/Schemes. Laboratory Services, International Activities, Consumer – related Activities, Promotional Activities, Training Services, Information services, Sale of Standards & Publication. Standards Formulation Under Standards formulation, it is engaged in formulation of Indian Standards for 14 sectors namely Chemicals, Food and Agriculture, Civil, Electrical, Electronics & Telecommunications and Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Management & Systems, Metallurgical Engineering, Petroleum, Coal & related Products, Medical and Hospital Planning, Textile, Transport engineering and Production and General Engineering, Water Resources under Division Councils which have 308 Sectional Committees working under them. As on 31 March 2008, 18424 Standards formulated by BIS, are in force. These cover important segments of economy, which help the industry in upgrading the quality of their goods and services. BIS formulates need-based Indian Standards in line with the national priorities as a time-bound programme. Product Certification Scheme
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BIS Product Certification Scheme is basically voluntary in nature. However, keeping in view the health and safety of the consumer, it has been made mandatory for 68 items by the Government through various statutory measures such as Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, Coal Mines Regulations and Indian Gas Cylinders Rules besides BIS Act. Some of the items brought under mandatory certification on consideration of health and safety are milk powder, packaged drinking water, LPG cylinders, oil pressure stoves, clinical thermometers etc. As on 31 March 2008, 20025 certification marks licences are in operation under the Scheme, covering about 1000 different items ranging from food products to electronics. All foreign manufacturers of products who intend to export to India are required to obtain a BIS product certification licence. Towards this, BIS launched its Product Certification Scheme for overseas manufacturers in the year 1999. Under the provisions of this scheme, foreign manufacturers can seek certification from BIS for marking their product(s) with BIS Standard Mark. Under this scheme, about 101 licences of foreign manufacturers in about 15 countries are in operation as on 31 March 2008. Under the scheme for Indian importers, Certification Marks Licence can be granted to Indian importers for the product imported into the country and are not covered under Regulatory Requirements. Indian importers can apply for BIS licence on such products and they are treated as Indian manufacturers. Three licences are in operation under this scheme. BIS also runs other certification schemes like IECEE-CB, IECQ and IECEs Schemes of IBC under different provisions. India is a certifying member of the IEC System of Quality Assessment of Electronic Components (IECQ) and IEC System for Conformity Testing to Standards for Safety of Electrical Equipment (IECEE). Further, BIS has taken new initiatives like simplification of procedure for grant of licence, basically to reduce the procedural time. This has yielded some encouraging results. Laboratories To support the activities of product certification, BIS has a chain of 8 laboratories. These laboratories have established testing facilities for products of chemical, food, electrical and mechanical disciplines. Approximately, 25000 samples are being tested in the BIS laboratories every year. In certain cases where it is economically not feasible to develop test facilities in BIS laboratories and also for other reasons like overloading of samples, equipment being out of order, the services of outside approved laboratories are also being availed. Except for the two labs,
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all the other labs are NABL (National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories) accredited. BIS has recognized about 116 laboratories for product certification purposes. BIS has undertaken the project of modernization of all its testing laboratories in order to increase the in-house capacity of testing of samples as well as to reduce the time taken in testing. Hallmarking Hallmarking of Gold Jewellery started in April 2000 on voluntary basis under BIS Act 1986. It is aimed at to protect the consumer’s interest and providing third party assurance to consumers on the purity of gold. Till 31 Mar 2008, 91 hallmarking centres have been recognized. Since the launch of the scheme, over 5403 gold jewellers have taken licence from BIS, a figure which stood at 186 in the year 2001-02. So far, over 381 lakh jewellery articles have been hallmarked. The list of hallmarked jewellers with BIS licence and BIS recognised hallmarking centres has been hosted on BIS website. Under a similar scheme of Hallmarking of Silver, 405 licences have been granted since its launch in October 2005. Management Systems Certificate BIS runs other important systems certification schemes under the Management Systems Certification. Under Quality Management System Certification Scheme (QMSCS), which was launched in September 1991, the total number of operative licences as on 31 Mar 2008 is 1161 which has grown from the figure of 916 in 2001-2002. BIS Quality Management System Certification has been accredited by Raad voor Accreditatie (RvA) Netherlands for 23 major economic activities. • Under Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Certification (HACCP) Integrated Scheme, 64 certified companies are under operation as on 31 March 2008. Under the Environmental Management Systems Certification Scheme (EMSCS), the total number of operative licences as on 31 March 2008 is 131 which has grown from a figure of 61 in 2001-02. Under the Occupational Health & Safety Management System (OH & SMS) Certification Scheme, which was launched in January 2003, the total number of operative licences as on 31 Mar 2008 is 35. • Among the new Schemes, BIS has launched public Service Delivery Management systems as per IS 15700-2005 “Quality Management Systems – Requirements for Service Quality by Public Service Organizations.” in order to ensure minimum standards of service delivery in all sectors pertaining to or influenced by the government.
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Enforcement activity • With the growth and popularity of the BIS Certification Marks Scheme, there have been instances of misuse of BIS Standard Mark also. BIS, therefore, lays emphasis on enforcement activity to stop misuse of Standard mark, enforcement raids are carried out and prosecution cases filed in the court of law wherever legally tenable. To strengthen this activity, two outsourced agencies have been engaged for providing intelligence and assisting in carrying out raids against offending parties for an initial period of one year in selected locations. The number of search and seizures operations carried out in 2007-08 stand at 125. International Activities • Since its inception in 1947, the then ISI and now BIS has been an active member of international organisations namely, ISO and International Electronical Commission (IEC). BIS represents India as Member Body in ISO and IEC. It holds Participating Membership (P) status in 259 Technical Committees/ Sub-committees of ISO and 62 Technical Committees/ Sub-committee of IEC, whereas it is Observer Member (O) on 308 Technical committees/ Sub-committees of IDO and 84 Technical Committees/Subcommittees of IEC. It participates in various policy-making committees of these international standards bodies. BIS also holds secretariat of some of the important ISO/IEC Committees which are of trade interest of India. As member of ISO, BIS also takes active part in the development of International Standards with a view to protect the interests of Indian trade & industry. BIS is actively involved is Regional and Bilateral Cooperation Programmes pertaining to standardization, conformity assessment & accreditation etc. It has signed MoU/MRA with 16 countries/organizations including ISO and American National Standards Institute (ANS) of USA to this effect. Consumer protection • To meet with the growing expectations of consumers in the country, BIS has established a separate department with a specific mandate of providing consumer protection and welfare and dealing with public grievances. This department maintains liaison with Central Consumer Protection Council and consumer associations and coordinates with the Ministry of Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution on consumer issues. It is guided in its activities by a Consumer Policy Advisory Committee which advise BIS on all policy
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matters relating to efficient discharge of the functions and for making standardization and certification activities user-friendly. A well-defined procedure has been established for handling complaints. The complaints can also be lodged on line, and are monitored regularly. • Promotion of Indian Standards assumes great significance and has been a prime objective of BIS . All standards are generally voluntary in nature. Promotional activities are, therefore, essential to implement the standards for deriving the desired benefits. • The promotion of standardization involves varied interests ranging from ordinary consumers to educational institutions. To propagate the concept of standardization and quality systems among small scale industries, discussions and video film shows are organised where the participants are exposed to the concepts of standardization, quality system, product certification and other BIS activities. Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award • With a view to encourage manufacturers and service organizations to strive for excellence, Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award was instituted by the Bureau in 1991. This annual award compares well with similar international awards, such as, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award of USA and European Quality Award. The assessment for this award is made based on parameters, such as, Leadership, Policies objectives and Strategies; Human Resources Management; Resources, Processes; Customer Focus; Employees’ Satisfaction; Business Results and Impact on Environment and Society. Information & SSI Facilitation Cell • Marching further ahead on the path of ‘total customer satisfaction’ BIS had set up a single window Information & SSI Facilitation Cell at its headquarters in New Delhi which became operational since 1997 with the aim of providing variety of information/assistance. Several entrepreneurs, consumers and professionals visit this centre. National Institute of Training for Standardization (NITS) • To impart training to technical and management personnel from industry, consumer organizations, public sector undertakings, government bodies and developing countries, BIS has established, the National Institute of Training for Standardization (NITS) at NOIDA (U.P.)
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• NITS conduct training on Quality Management Systems as per IS/ISO 9001, Environment Management Systems as per IS/ISO 14001, Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems as per IS 18001, Food Safety Management Systems as per IS/ISO 22,000, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) and Laboratory Management Systems as per IS/ISO/IEC 17025. It also conducts International Training Programmes in Standardization and Quality Systems and on Management systems for developing countries of Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America every year since 1968. NITS also conduct training programmes for BIS employees. On an average, about 630 personnel have been trained/retrained every year since last six years. Library • BIS Technical Library is a national resource centre for information on standards and related matters and meets the needs of industry, trade, government, researchers and consumers. It is the largest library of standards in the South Asian Region, covering a floor area of 1000 square meters. The collection includes about 6 lakh standards from all over the world and 50,000 technical books. The Bureau’s library system comprises the Headquarters’ Library (New Delhi) and four Regional Office Libraries at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chandigarh and Chennai. BIS has also been designated as WTO/TBT Enquiry Point by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India under the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of World Trade Organization. • BIS has brought out all Indian standards on CD-ROMs through a franchisee with a view to computerize its sales points as well as to provide standards in electronic form directly to the customers. The product has been well received by the industry and provides excellent full text searching facility in over 18,000 standards formulated by the Bureau. • BIS has a website with domain name www.bis.org.in which includes its Hindi version also. Information of interest to the Indian industry as well as consumers, relating to various activities and schemes of the Bureau, such as certification, standards formation, consumer affairs, various application forms, laboratory services and other support services, is available on the website. Finance & Account
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For over a decade now, BIS is self-reliant in meeting its non-plan expenditure without any budgetary support from the Government of India. Financial resources of BIS are broadly mobilized under the following heads: • product Certification • Management System Certification • Hallmarking • Sale of BIS Standards and Publications • Training Institute.
Question Bank for Food Quality Management
Write a detail note on
Quality Control Circle
Codex Alimentarius
Quality Assurance
Importance of quality management in the organization
Advantages of ISO certificate
legal meteorology department
Quality Control
• What is HACCP? Explain the principle and implemented process of HACCP
• Write an essay on International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
• What do you understand by QCC
• What is the role of FSSAI
• Responsibilities of codex Alimentarius commission (CAC).
• Basic tools of quality management




As one travels around the world today, one cannot help being impressed by the extent to which Chinese food and cooking has been established in almost every corner of the earth.  But this popularization of the Chinese cuisine seems to have gathered a sudden and overwhelming momentum only in the last couple of decades.  So, what is it that has caused this sudden success of Chinese cuisine?  The answer lies in the unique traditions and techniques of Chinese cooking, and in the inherent appeal of Chinese food and flavors to the palate. Also Chinese food can be extremely economical as well as being highly nutritious, because, most ingredients are cut into small pieces, and then quickly cooked so as to retain their natural goodness.


Trade and cultural change between China and the outside world took place as early as the time of the Roman Empire and over the past centuries, foreign influence and modern technology has affected nearly all walks of everyday life in China, except one, namely, the Culinary Art of China.  In fact, foreign foodstuffs have been introduced in China since the dawn of history, but they all became integral parts of Chinese food.


Obviously, Chinese culinary art has gone through thousands of years of refinement and development, but the Chinese unique way of cooking and preparing food, remains basically unchanged.  Archaeological finds of the bronze age (around 1850 BC) indicate that the Chinese had utensils such as bronze CLEAVER for cutting up foods into small pieces and cooking them in animal fat, using a bronze pot not dissimilar to the modern wok.  There is data to prove that as long as the ZHOU dynasty (12th C BC) the Chinese used soya sauce, vinegar, rice wine, fruit jam and spices as seasonings in the cooking and that elaborate and complicated cooking methods were already being employed.


By the time of China’s greatest sage CONFUCIUS (551 – 479 BC) who was an acknowledged gourmet besides, it was recorded that the importance of heat application and blending of different flavors were emphasized in Chinese cooking; and the uses of high, moderate or low heat, the blending of sour, piquant, salty, bitter or sweet flavors were all given their correct application in order to achieve a harmonious whole.  This theory of harmony is one of the main characteristics of Chinese cuisine of this day.





There exists a certain ‘uniqueness’ that distinguishes Chinese cooking from other food cultures.  To start with, there is the Chinese division when preparing and serving food, between ‘FAN’ (grain & other starch food) and ‘CAI’ (meat and vegetable dishes). Grains in various forms of rice or wheat flours (bread, pancakes, noodles or dumplings) make up the FAN half of the meal.  Vegetables and meat (including poultry, meat and fish) cut up and mixed in various combinations into individual dishes constitute the CAI half.  A balanced meal must have an appropriate amount of both FAN & CAI.  It is in combining various ingredients and the lending of different flavors for the preparation of CAI, that lies the fine art and skill of Chinese cuisine.


The other distinctive feature of Chinese cuisine is the harmonious blending of colors, aromas, flavors, shapes and texture in one single CAI dish.  The principle of blending complimentary or contrasting colors and flavors is a fundamental one – the different ingredients must not be mixed indiscriminately.  The matching of flavors should follow a set pattern and is controlled and not casual.  The cutting of ingredients is another important element of Chinese cooking in order to achieve the proper effect. Slices are matched with slices, shreds with shreds, cubes with cubes, chunks with chunks and so on.


This is not only for the sake of appearance but also because ingredients of the same size and shape require about the same amount of time in cooking.  This complexity of interrelated element of colors, flavors and shapes in Chinese cooking is reinforced by yet another feature: TEXTURE.  A dish may have just one, or several textures, such as tenderness, crispiness, crunchiness, smoothness and softness.  The textures to be avoided are: sogginess, stringiness and hardness.  The selection of different textures in one single dish is an integral part of blending of flavors and colors.  The desired texture or textures in any dish can only be achieved by using the right cooking methods.  In all different methods of cooking, the correct degree of heat and duration of cooking time are of vital importance.



Looking at the map of China, it is not difficult to understand why there should be such a rich variety of different styles throughout the land.  There is no official classification of various regional cuisines in China, but it is generally agreed that SICHUAN in west, SHANDONG in North, CANTON in the south and JIANGSU in the east represents the four major regional cooking styles of China.  In addition, four more provinces ZHEJIANG, FUKIEN, ANHUI in the east and HUNAN in the west are usually included in the roll of honour while one talks of the “Big Eight” distinguished schools of cuisine in China.


Now Peking cuisine is quite a different matter – it is not a separate regional school, but rather the combination of all China’s regional style of cooking.  Being the capital of China for many centuries Peking (or Beijing as it is now called) occupies a unique position in the development of Chinese culinary art.  Peking cuisine has been defined by the eminent Chinese gourmet Kenneth Lo as “The crystallization of many inventions and performance of the generations of important chefs of different dynasties which have ruled in Peking for nearly a millennium, and the grass root dishes of the locality which people of Shandong and Hubei have been in the habit of preparing together with all the culinary contributions which have flowed from the far flung regions and provinces of China and which over the years have established their reputation in the old capital”.  Peking cooking is in short, the top table of Chinese culinary art.  Finally, the central province HUBEI in the middle reaches Yangtze River has a distinct style of cooking, known as “The Province of Thousand Lakes” as well as “Land of Fish and Rice”.  One of Hubei’s specialties is its fish cookery.



The Northern School:          

Archaeological evidence shows that in about 5000 BC, the inhabitants of North China had begun to farm, settle down and make painted pottery, eating and cooking vessels.  Some of the most conspicuous traces of early Chinese culture have been found at sites that lie along the valley of the Yellow River, which is why this area is sometimes described as the “Cradle of Chinese Civilization”.


Two ancient capitals of LUOYANG and KEIFENG are both situated just south of the Yellow River in HUNAN province (“HU” is the Chinese word for “river” and “NAN” means “south”).  The noblemen and the imperial families live in such luxury that their chefs invented and perfected many of the Chinese classic dishes.  These recipes were passed down through the centuries, and were moved to the capital, Peking and beyond.  The same recipes are still in use all over China even to this day – with very little changes.


Besides the cooking of TIANZING is Hubei, in which province Peking is also situated, the Northern School embraces the distinguished cooking style of SHANDONG and SHANXI, as well as Chinese Moslem cooking of inner Mongolia and XINJIANG (details of Chinese Moslem food will be discussed under separate heading).



The Western School: 

The red basin of SICHUAN or SZECHWAN is one of the richest lands of China.  Owing to its geographical position it was practically inaccessible from the rest of China until recently therefore it developed a very distinct style of cooking.  Its richly flavored and piquant food has influenced its neighboring province of HUNAN and GUIZHOU, although they both have a style of their own.


The province of Sichuan is the most popular in China, with an estimated 1 billion inhabitants or about 10% of the nation’s total population.  High mountains, fending off the cold air from the world, encircle the basin, so Sichuan has hot summers and mild winters.  It is virtually frost free with abundant rainfall in winters and spring.  Plant growth continues the whole year round.  One of China’s important rice bowls, the Sichuan Basin also yields a wealth of subtropical products, including silk, fruit and tea, all which have earned Sichuan the name “Land of Abundance”.  The cuisine of Sichuan has a wide fan following both at home and abroad.  Its richly flavored and hot food is particularly popular in the Indian Subcontinent.  But not all the dishes from here are hot and spicy; many people outside China believe that all you need to cook Sichuan food is to use a lot of ginger, garlic, pepper and chillie.  This is entirely untrue.  The Sichuan prides itself into distinct creating 100 distinct flavors for 100 individual dishes.


Hot chilies are used not to paralyze the tongue but to stimulate the palate.  One of the characteristics of Sichuan cuisine is that each dish usually contains a number of different flavors such as sweet, sour, bitter and hot, salty, aromatic and fragrant.  When the palate is stimulated by mildly hot chilies, it becomes more sensitive and capable of taking in several different flavors simultaneously.



The Eastern School: 

The Yangtze, China’s longest river (about 500km in length), which traverses the width of China from west to east flows through China’s leading agricultural regions – Sichuan and Hunan (on the upper reaches), Hubei and Jiangzi (on the middle reaches), Jiangsu and Zhejiang (on the lower), which contains some of the most fertile land in China.


Both wheat and rice are grown here, as well as other crops, which include – barley, corn, sweet potatoes, peanuts and soya beans.  Fisheries abound in the multitude of lakes and other tributaries and deep-sea fishing has long been established in the coastal province and Jiangsu and Zhejiang.  The areas that cover the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze are traditionally referred to as ‘Land of Fish and Rice’, and is collectively known as Jiangnan (“JIANG” means “great river” referring to the Yangtze and “NAN” referring to the south), and it boasts a number of distinctive cooking styles.


The Yangtze River delta has its own cooking style known as HUAIYANG with the culinary center in Shanghai, that is China’s largest city, which lies on the Yangtze estuary.  South East China has always been regarded as the most culturally developed and economically prosperous region.  Both Nanjing in Jiangsu and Hangzhou in Zhejiang have been China’s capital of several dynasties; other culinary centers are to be located in YANGZHOU (Yangchow), SUZHOU and ZHENJIANG.  Yangchow fried rice; chow mein (open fried noodles), wantons, spring rolls, dumplings and many other Cantonese dimsum dishes have all originated from here.


South of Zhejiang is the province FUJIAN (FUKIEN) which is sometimes grouped in the Eastern School, but its cooking style is more influenced by its southern neighbor Canton, so very often Fukien cuisine is included with Cantonese in the Southern School.



The Southern School:

The Pearl River delta, with Canton as a provincial capital of GUANGDONG (KWANGTUNG), is undoubtedly the home of the most famous of all Chinese cooking styles.  Unfortunately the reputation of Cantonese cuisine has been badly damaged by a so-called ‘chop suey’ food outside China.  Authentic Cantonese food has no rival, and has greater variety of food than any other school, because Canton was the first Chinese port open for trade, therefore foreign influence are particularly stronger in its cooking.


Fisheries play a major role in the economy, Guangdong contributes about one fourth of China’s fish catch (over 20% of the fish caught here are fresh water fish).  Rice is dominant food grain; the other crops are tea, tobacco, peanut, sugarcane, and sub tropical fruits such as bananas, pineapples, oranges, tangerines and lychees.


HAINAN Island is the only truly tropical area of China and produces coconuts, coffee, natural rubber and figs.  The Southern School consists of three distinct styles of cooking:  CANTON, CHAOCHOW (Swatow), and DONGJIANG (also known as HAKKA), which means ‘family of guest’, which refers to the immigrants from North China who settled in the South during the Song Dynasty after the invasion of Mongols in the 13th century.  So it was the Hakka’s who introduced noodles, wantons and dumplings etc. into the Cantonese diet.


There was a mass immigration overseas after the 17th. century, both by the Cantonese and the Hakka.  When Swatow was opened to foreign trade in 1858, it became a major port for Chinese immigration to South East Asia, America and Europe.  That is why, the first Chinese restaurant to open abroad introduced only Cantonese cooking to the outside world.  There are two other schools, though not regional in character, nevertheless should be included here among China’s various styles of Schools of Cooking, namely the Moslem and Vegetarian School.



The Moslem School: 

The Chinese Moslem known as “HUI”, though Chinese speaking are distinguished from the Chinese by their affiliation with the Sunni branch of Islam.  One theory is that they are descendants of the Moslems who settled in China in the 13th. century and adopted the Chinese language and culture.


There are nearly 5 million Hui widely distributed throughout almost every province in China, but their traditional areas of settlement is in the North-West with heavy concentration in Hunan, Shanki, Hubei and Shangdong.  They form the Chinese Moslem School, together with two other national minorities: the UYGOR group in XINJIANG (4 million, virtually all Moslems); and about 1.5 million MONGOLS who are traditionally nomadic, and therefore, like the Moslem do not eat pork.  Their daily diet consists of beef, mutton, milk and butter, items an average Chinese has no taste for.



The Vegetarian School: 

Chinese vegetarians are not allowed anything remotely associated with animals; apart from egg and milk.  They obtain their proteins mainly from soya beans and its byproducts such as bean curd (tofu) and nuts and fungi.


Chinese vegetarian has a long history; its origin can be traced to as far back as around 500 BC, when the TAOIST SCHOOL of THOUGHT developed the hygienic and nutritional science of fruit and vegetables.  Some centuries later, when Buddhism, which abhors the killing of any living creature and the eating of flesh in any form, was introduced into China from India, this philosophy was readily grafted into TAOIST school of Cooking and a new form of vegetarianism was born. 


Apart from the extensive use of fresh and dehydrated vegetables, the vegetarian chefs have developed a new art by creating food that has become known as imitation meats.These imitation pork, chicken, fish and prawn and so on bare an amazing resemblance to their fleshy counterpart in form and texture, though not quite in flavor.






The Chinese batterie de cuisine consists of very few basic implements.  To start with, only four of the most rudimentary implements are essential to cook Chinese food, i.e. cleaver, chopping block, wok and stirrer.


In western kitchen, equivalent equipments are always valuable.  Cutting knives and board, pots and frying pans, fish slicer and cooking spoons, so on and so forth.  But the Chinese cooking utensils are ancient designs, they are made of basic and inexpensive material, and they have been in continuous use for several thousand years, therefore they do serve a special function that they are more sophisticated and much more expensive western counterparts prove to be rather inadequate.


As for the rest of cooking utensils such sieves, spatula, strainer, casserole and steamer etc., again you will find the western version to be less effective.



Let me state straight away that I disagree with calling the Chinese kitchen knife a Cleaver.  As you know the term “cleaver” applies to ‘heavy duty chopper’ that serves only one function, and in my mind not all that efficient unless you buy one that weighs a ton and probably will cost you an arm and a leg – sorry about the pun!!!.  While as the Chinese cleaver (I will call it by that name for the time being), since it is the generally accepted term in English, is an all purpose cook’s knife that is used for slicing, shredding, peeling, pounding, crushing, chopping and even for transporting cut food from the chopping board or to a plate directly to the wok.


At the first sight, a Chinese cleaver may appear to be hefty, gleaming ominously sharp.  But in reality it is quite light, steady and not at all dangerous to use, provided you handle it correctly and with care.  Once you have learned to regard it as a kitchen tool mainly used for cutting and not just a chopper, then you will be surprised how easy and simple it is to use compared to an ordinary kitchen knife.  Cleavers are available in a variety of materials and weight.  They all have a blade of about 8 – 9 inches (20 – 23 cms) long and 3 – 4 inches (8 – 10 cms) wide.  The heaviest, weighing almost 2 lb.  (1 kg) called CHOPPER, is really meant for the professionals and is excellent for chopping bones such as drumsticks, pork spare ribs.  The smaller and much lighter SLICER with a thinner and sharper blade is convenient for slicing meat and vegetables.  But most Chinese cooks prefer a medium weight, dual purpose cleaver known as THE CIVIL AND MILITARY KNIFE (wen-wu dao in Chinese).  You use the lighter, front half of the blade for slicing, shredding and scoring etc, and the heavier, rear half of the blade for chopping and so on.


The Chinese cook uses the back of the blade as a pounder and tenderizer and the flat side of the blade for crushing and transporting: the end of the handle acts as a pestle for grinding spices etc.  The blades of a cleaver should be made of tempered carbon steel with wooden handle.  Stainless steel cleavers with metal handle may look good, but require more frequent sharpening also the handle gets slippery; therefore they are less satisfactory for both safety and steadiness.


Always keep your cleaver blade sharp and clean.  To prevent it rusting and getting it stained, wipe it dry with cloth or kitchen paper after use. Sharpen it frequently on a fine fine-grained whet stone.  Try getting a whet stone (also known as oilstone, which is man made composition of silicon carbide) that has two different grades of surface.  Use a rough grain surface only if the blade has become blunt and the finer grained surface for a sharp finish to the edge.  Lubricate the stone with vegetables oil or water and then put a damp cloth beneath it for stability.  Hone the cleaver evenly on both sides to keep the blade straight and sharp.  After cleaning the blade and wiping it fry, hang the cleaver by the handle to keep the blade becoming dulled on other metals in the drawer.



The traditional Chinese chopping block is a cross section tree trunk.  Made of hardwood, they range from about 12 inches (30 cms.) in diameter and 2 inches (5 cms.) thick, to giant ones up to 20 inches (50 cms.) by 6 – 8 inches (15 – 20 cms.).  The ideal size should be about 16 inches (40 cms.) in diameter and at least 3 – 4 in (7 – 10 cms.) thick to be of real use.


To prevent it from splitting, season a new block with a liberal dose of vegetable oil on both sides.  Let the wood absorb as much oil as it will take, and sponge the block with salt and water and dry it thoroughly.  Never soak the block in water nor wash it with any detergent – after each use, just scrape it clean with the blade of your cleaver, then wipe the surface with a sponge or cloth wrung out in plain hot water.  Always stand the block on its side when not in use.


In a professional kitchen, the health regulations specify that you must never cut your raw ingredients and cooked food on the same surface.  In other words, you should use a different block or board for the two types of food for hygienic reasons.  One answer to this is to get plastic chopping board made of white acrylic which will not split, smell or warp, and is easy to clean but it has no aesthetic appeal whatever, personally I would recommend a large board of hard wood, at least 2” thick (5 cms.) that will take a heaviest blow with a cleaver.  If you use one side for chopping only, then the other side should remain smooth for pastry making.



The Chinese cooking utensils known as ‘WOK’ is the ‘POT’ or ‘PAN’ the correct translation should be GOU. But wok it is and wok it shall remain. The wok was designed with a rounded bottom to fit snugly over a traditional Chinese braizer or oven, which burned wood, charcoal or coal. It conducts and retains heat evenly and because of its shape, the food always returns to the center of the wok where the heat is most intense that is why it is ideally suited for quick stir-frying.


Of course the wok is far more versatile than just a frying pan, it is also ideal for deep frying; its conical shape requires far less oil than a flat-bottomed deep-fryer, and has more depth (which means more heat) and more frying surface (which means that more food can be cooked more quickly at one go). Furthermore, since the wok has a large capacity on the upper end and as the oil level rises when the raw ingredients are added to it, there is little chance for the oil to overflow and cause the pan to catch fire as often is the case with the conventional deep fryer.


Besides being a frying pan (deep or shallow), a wok is also used for braising, steaming, boiling, and even smoking – in other words the whole spectrum of Chinese cooking method can be executed in one single use utensil. Basically there are only two different types of wok – the DOUBLE HANDLED WOK with two handles on two opposite sides, and the frying pan type SINGLE HANDLED WOK. Both types are usually made of light weight iron or carbonized steel, and the diameter ranges from about 12 – 18 inches (32 – 46cms.).


The single handled wok may appear to be unsteady and slightly tipped to one side, but in fact it is quite safe and much easier to handle particularly for quick stir-frying, since it offers you plenty of leverage of tilting and tossing. The disadvantages of using a double handled wok is that you need strong wrist and oven gloves to lift it, as the metal handles get very hot even if they are reinforced with heat resistant plastic or wood.


A dome shaped lid would be another useful item for certain braising and steaming dishes. Wok lids are usually made of light metal such as aluminum, with a wooden or plastic knob on top as a handle. The dome shape allows the cooking of a whole chicken or duck in a wok and the natural curve will guide the condensation inside the lid, sliding down along the edge, rather than dropping down directly onto the food that is being cooked.



Some wok sets often consist of a pair of stirrers in the shape of a ladle and a spatula, made of iron and stainless steel, both have a long handle with wooden tip. Of the two, the ladle or scooper is more versatile. It is an indispensable utensil in the professional kitchen, since it is used for adding ingredients and seasonings to the wok, besides being a stirrer and scooper during cooking as well as transferring food from the wok to serving dish or bowl. It is also a measure for the cook, as the standard ladle will hold 6 fl oz. (180 ml or 2/3 cup) liquid, slightly smaller than the rice bowl.


The spatula or shovel has a rounded end to match the contours of the wok, therefore it can be very useful for scraping and lifting fried food from the bottom of the wok such as when cooking a whole fish etc. Sometimes it is used in conjunction with the ladle for stir-frying, rather like when you are mixing and tossing a salad with a pair of spoon and fork.


One common factor regarding the wooden tip attached to the end of the handles, it often becomes loose and falls off in your hand during cooking; so make sure it is nailed or glued firmly in place. You may have to do this yourself, since very seldom will you find this to be done by a manufacturer.





A new wok is either coated with machine oil or a film of wax to keep it from rusting. This coating has to be removed and a anew coat of seasoning must be applied to the surface after the cleaning and be maintained throughout its life in order to keep the wok from rusting as well as preventing food being stuck to the bottom.


If the new wok is covered with only grease, then just wash in warm soapy water with a stiff brush until clean; but if the wok is coated with was, you will have to remove it by burning it over hot stove first and then clean it in warm, soapy water with a stiff brush and rinse well.


After that, place the clean and smooth wok over a moderate heat to dry, wipe the surface with a pad of kitchen paper soaked in cooking oil until clean. The wok is now seasoned and ready for use.


After each use, wash the wok under hot or cold water, never use any detergents as that will remove seasoning and cause food to stick to the surface the next time you cook. Should any food get stuck in the wok, scrape it off with a stiff brush or nylon scourer without soap. Rinse and dry the wok thoroughly over low heat; rub some more oil over the surface if it is not to be used again soon, otherwise the wok might go rust.


After you have cooked with a new wok some 8 – 10 times, and if you never have to clean it with detergent or metal abrasives then your wok will acquire a beautiful, glossy finish like a well-seasoned omelet pan. This is the ‘PATINA’ much treasured by Chinese chefs as the wok flavor.






Cutting Techniques  –

The cutting of various ingredients into different sizes, thickness and shapes is an important element in Chinese cuisine. As mentioned earlier, the Chinese always cut their food into small neat pieces before cooking, partly because of fuel conservation; small pieces of food can be cooked quickly before the sticks of firewood burn out! And partly because, small pieces of food are easier to be served and eaten with chopsticks, since knives and carvers have never been used on Chinese tables. The fact that small pieces of food only require a short cooking time, thus retain much of the natural flavors and nutritious value is an added bonus in Chinese cooking, which must be regarded as an incidental discovery.


So the Chinese started cutting their food into small pieces before cooking for practical reasons, but as their cuisine developed into a fine art, naturally too the cutting too became more and more sophisticated. We must have found out the close relationship between cooking and cutting, so instead of cutting everything into small bits and pieces indiscriminately, we gradually worked out the following basic rules that govern cutting of food.


  1. The size and shape of the cut ingredient must first of all be suitable for the particular method of cooking. For instance, the ingredients for quick stir-frying should be cut into small, thin slices or shreds, never large thick chunks.


  1. Learn and understand the character of the ingredients, their textures and the color changes – an important factor that helps you to choose the appropriate cutting and cooking method. Tender ingredients can be cut thicken than tougher ones that require more cooking time and most meats change color when cooked (chicken and pork become paler, while beef and lamb tend to become darker after they are cooked)


  1. The ingredients must be cut into pieces of uniform shape, size and thickness – this is not only to create aesthetic harmony but because each piece must be cooked evenly, larger pieces will be undercooked and smaller ones overcooked.



  1. Whenever possible, different ingredients for the same dish should be cut into pieces of the same shape a and size, slices are matched with slices, shreds with shreds, cubes with cubes, chunks with chunks and so on.


There are certain shapes, which are standard in Chinese cooking. Slice, Strip, Shred, Chunk, Piece, Dice, Cube, Grain and Mince. The actual shape is decided by the character of the ingredient and the cooking method required.


SLICE: Are thin, flat pieces of the ingredient. Cut them by first cutting the ingredient into sections as required by the dimension of the slice, and then slice the sections according to the desired thickness. The required size is often decided by the cooking method.


STRIP, SHRED: Strips and shreds are similar – one is thicker, other is thinner. First cut the ingredient into slices, then pile them one on top of each other like a pack of playing cards and cut them into strips or shreds as desired.


CHUNK, PIECE: There are many kinds of chunks and pieces: diamond, hexagonal, rectangular or wedge shaped. Cut them by first cutting the ingredient into broad strips or sections, and then into smaller pieces as required.


DICE, CUBE: Diced cubes and small cubes are pieces cut from strips.


GRAIN, MINCE: Grains are finely chopped ingredient, and are cut from shreds. Mince is even finer and is cut by much chopping and pressings with the flat of the blade.


In addition to these, there are FLOWER – CUTTING and SCORING for thick pieces such as kidney, squid and fish in order to allow more heat and sauce penetration.




A Chinese dish is usually made up of more than one ingredient because when a single item is served on its own, it lacks contrast, therefore there is no harmony. Some cooks like to mix contrasting flavours and unrelated textures; others prefer the matching of similar tastes and colors. Some wish the flavor of each ingredient to be preserved, others believe in the infusion of flavours.


To start with, you first choose the ‘main’ ingredient, then decide which type or types of ‘supplementary’ ingredients will go best with it, bearing in mind the difference of color, flavor and texture and so on. For instance, if the main ingredient is chicken breast, which is white in color and tender in texture, then one would choose as a supplementary ingredient something crisp like celery, which is also pale in color, or one would perhaps choose something more colorful like green or red peppers, with crisp or something soft like mushrooms.


By combining different supplementary ingredients with the main one, and by the addition of various seasonings, it is possible to produce almost an endless variety of dishes without resort to unusual and exotic items. That is why a Chinese cook abroad can always produce a Chinese meal, even using only local ingredients. For the ‘ Chineseness’ of the food depends entirely on how it is prepared and cooked, not what ingredient is used.


As mentioned earlier, the cutting of variety ingredients into different sizes, thickness and shapes is an important element in Chinese cuisine.  The Chinese practice of cutting their food into small, neat pieces before cooking, partly because of fuel conservation and partly because small pieces of food are easier to be served and eaten with chopsticks, small pieces of food are easier to be served and eaten with chopsticks, since knives and carvers have not been used on Chinese tables since ancient times.  Of course small pieces of food require only a short cooking time, thus retain much of the natural flavors and nutritional value.


The size and shape of the cut ingredient must, first of all, be suitable for the particular method of cooking.  For instance, ingredients for quick stir-frying should be cut into small, thin slices or shreds, never large, thick chunks.  Learn and understand the character of the ingredients, their texture and their color changes – an important factor that helps you to choose the appropriate cutting and cooking method.  Tender ingredients can be cut thicker than tougher ones that require more cooking time, and most meats change color when cooked.  Chicken and pork become paler while beef and lamb tend to go darker after being cooked.


After cooking, the next step in the preparation of food (usually applies to ingredients such as meats, poultry and fish, not to vegetables) before actual cooking is marinating.  The basic method is to marinate the white meats and fish in salt, egg white and cornflour, in order to preserve the natural delicate texture of the food when cooked in hot oil.  For red meats the basic marinade usually consists of salt, sugar, soya sauce, rice wine and cornflour, the purpose of this marinating is to tenderize and enhance the flavors of the meat.


When it comes to the actual cooking, the two most important factors are degree of heat and duration of cooking.  These two factors are so closely related to each other that it is very difficult to give a precise cooking time in most recipes, since much depends on the size and condition of the ingredients, and above all, on the type of the stove and cooking utensils used.


All in all, there are well over 50 different distinct methods of cooking in Chinese Cooking.  They fall roughly into the following categories:


WATER COOKING :            Boiling, poaching and simmering.

OIL COOKING       :             Deep-frying, Shallow frying, stir-frying and    braising.

FIRE COOKING    : Roasting, baking and barbecuing.

STEAM COOKING :            Steaming.




The Chinese divide the temperature of heat into ‘Military’ (high or fierce and medium) and ‘civil’ (low or gentle and weak).  And proper control of temperature and cooking time is key to success or failure. 


High or fierce heat is usually used for quick cooking for and tender foods.  Different kinds of frying, steaming, instant boiling etc., call for a high heat.


Medium or moderate heat can be used for quick braising, steaming and boiling.


Low or gentle heat is used for slow cooking allowing the flavours to penetrate through all the ingredients such as in roasting and simmering.


Weak heat is used for long cooking, turning hard ingredients soft.  It is used for simmering, braising and stewing.


Here are 25 commonly used methods in Chinese cooking.  One dish may require one, two or three methods; each will produce a different effect.


  • CHAUN Quick or rapid boiling.  This simple cooking method is often used for making soups.  Bring the water or stock, boil over high heat, add the ingredients and seasonings, and serve as soon as the soup re-boils.  No thickening agent added and the vegetables will be crisp and fresh.


  • SHAU Instant boiling or rinsing.  Thinly sliced ingredients are dipped into boiling water for a second or two, occasionally drinking it as if rinsing, then serve with a sauce.  This cooking method keeps the ingredients fresh and tender.


  • AO           Stewing or braising.  Flavour a little hot oil with spring onions and ginger-root, and then stir-fry the ingredients for a short time.  Now add the stock or water and seasonings.  Simmer over a low heat.  The food should be soft and tender.


  • HUI Braising or Assembling. A method of cooking a dish that consists of several different ingredients. Stir-fry the ingredients first, add stock or water and seasonings, boil over high heat for a short while, then thicken the gravy before serving.  Alternately, prepare the gravy first then add the partly cooked ingredients (deep fried or steamed) cook over low heat, thicken the gravy and serve.


  • BAN: Mixing salads. This method does not actually involve cooking, but simply calls for cutting the raw or cooking ingredients and dressing it with seasonings.


  • QIAND: Hot salads. Here the raw ingredients are parboiled or blanched first, then dressed with seasonings.



The difference between cold salad and hot salad dressing is as follows –

Cold Salad Dressing  –    Soya sauce, vinegar and sesame seed oil.

Hot Salad Dressing – Ginger shreds, sichuan peppercorn, salt, sugar and sesame seed oil.


  • YAN: Pickling. Pickle the food with salt and sugar or with salt and wine. Dishes prepared this way have a subtle fragrance and are crisp.


  • JIAN: Shallow frying. A flat-bottomed pan is used, a little oil and medium or low heat.  Seasonings are added when food is half done.  The pan should be turned from time to time during cooking so that the heat is evenly distributed.


  • TA: Pan-frying. The ingredients are coated with batter, fried in a small amount of oil on both sides over a low heat until done.  The ingredients may be deep-fried first, and then finished off by pan-frying.  Seasonings and sauce are added towards the end of cooking.


  • TIE-PAN: Sticking frying. This is basically a form of shallow frying, but only one side is fried, the food is not turned over, so that one side is golden brown and the other side is soft and tender.


  • ZHA: Deep frying. Food is fried in a large quantity of oil over a high or medium heat.  There are different variations of deep-frying.
  1. Neat deep-frying:    The raw ingredients are not coated with batter or flour.
  2. Dry deep-frying: Raw ingredients are coated with dry flour or breadcrumbs.
  3. Soft deep-frying: Raw ingredients are coated with batter, first and then deep-fried for crispiness.


  • LIU: Sauté. This is a special technique, which involves two stages of cooking.  First deep-fry, quick or rapid boil steam, or boil the ingredients until done, then mix with seasonings to make a sauce.  Next either.


  1. Dark brown sauté: Pour the sauce over the cooked foods and serve.
  2. Slippery sauté: Stir-fry the raw ingredients and pour the sauce over half way through cooking, stirring constantly until done.
  3. Soft sauté: Steam or boil the ingredients and then, while they are still hot, add a thin and delicate sauce.


  • CHAO: Stir frying. Stir-fry the ingredients in a little hot oil over a very high heat.  This method is widely used and has many variations:
  1. Pure stir-frying:     The raw ingredients are not marinated nor coated with a batter, they are just stir-fried in hot oil and seasonings are added towards the end of cooking.  Most vegetables are cooked in this way.
  2. Braising stir-frying:    The main and supplementary ingredients are cooked in this way, separately at first and then brought together with the addition of seasoning and stock or a thickening agent (usually of cornflour mixed with water), and braised very quickly over high heat.
  3. Twice cooked stir-frying:   One ingredient has been previously cooked and is here cut into smaller pieces and stir fried with other ingredients and seasonings.


  • BAO : Rapid stir-frying.  Another form of stir-frying, the ingredient or ingredients have been deep-fried or rapid boiled first, they are then quickly stir-fried over very high heat for a short period of time.  Variations in this method include rapid stir-frying in oil, rapid stir-frying in bean sauce and rapid stir-frying with spring onions.


  • PENG: Quick braising. This is one of the important cooking techniques and is always used with deep-frying.  The ingredients are cut into small pieces and deep fried first, then taken out of the oil and a sauce is added.  While the sauce is hot stir-fry over high heat and remove the wok from heat and combine stirring a few more time before serving.


  • DUN: Slow cooking. There are two kinds of slow cooking in water.  Slow cooking in water is a from of stewing, slow cooking out of water involves a double boiling technique.  When the pot that contains the food is immersed in a large pot of boiling water.


  • MEN : Slow braising.  The food must be fried first (light browned) then all the ingredients (seasonings etc) are in a tightly covered pot and simmered over a very low heat slowly like a casserole.


  • LU: Soya stewing. A soya gravy is made first, the ingredients are stewed in this gravy over a low heat.



  • JIANG: A soya braising. The difference between soya stewing and soya braising is that the ingredients are marinated first in the sauce in which it is cooked, with additional stock and water.  The sauce is reduced or thickened and is served with the dish.


  • SHAO: Red cooking. In this widely used method of cooking the meat is cut into small chunks, then fried, deep fried, par boiled or steamed until half done.  Seasonings (Soya sauce, wine, ginger and sugar etc.) stock or water are then added to it, the whole thing is brought to a boil and simmered until done.


  • PA: Braising in sauce. In this method, a little oil is first flavored with spring onions and/or ginger-root, the ingredients are then placed in the wok / pot and simmered until done.


  • ZHU: Boiling. Boil the ingredients directly in water over low heat.


  • ZHENG: Steaming. Another widely used method in China not only for cooking but also for treating raw ingredients before cooking by other methods, or to keep food war after they have been cooked.


  • KAO : Roasting.  The ingredients area first marinated or treated then either cooked in an oven or over an open fire like barbequing.


  • SHUN: Smoking. Cooking with heat and smoke from burning materials such as sawdust, tea leaves, cypress branches, bamboo leaves or granulated sugar.



Learn these methods carefully and practice with different ingredients for each method, bear in mind that certain food may or may not be suitable for a particular cooking method.


Most important point to remember is cooking time.  Even a slight variation in time or temperature will lead to different results.  So you should use your own eyes, nose and ears while cooking.  Once you have learnt to control the temperature and cooking time, you should be able to judge the precise moment when a dish a done.




A dish is made up of one or more ingredients.  The ingredients usually divided between the ‘main’ ingredient and the ‘supplementary’ ingredient or ingredients. The main ingredient is the major ingredient used for the dish, and the supplementary ingredients serve as contrast to it as well blend the flavours for the dish.


In selecting the ingredients for a dish or a course of dishes attention should be paid to –


  1. Quantity: The main ingredients – color, aroma, flavor or shape should be maintained.  If there is no marked distinction between the main and supplementary ingredients, then equal proportions should be used.


  1. Flavour: The main ingredients flavor should dominate the dish; the supplementary ingredients should be lighter in flavor.  If the main ingredient itself is light in flavor, then heavily seasoned supplementary ingredients will complement the main one.


  1. Texture: The texture of the various ingredients can be similar, or in contrast , which offers a more interesting result.  Attention should be paid to the temperature of heat and duration of cooking time for each individual item, so that the ingredient retains its proper texture.


  1. Shape: Affects the appearance of the dish and the cooking itself.  Usually the shape of the main ingredient is the most prominent.  And in selecting dishes for a complete meal, there should be a variety of shapes – slices, cubes, shreds etc., in order to avoid monotony.


  1. Color: Color will affect the presentation of the dish – and the flavor.  One color may be chosen for the dish and all the ingredients will then match.  Alternatively, different colors will often add to the variety in presentation value.



There are 5 basic flavors in Chinese Cuisine:


  1. Salty – flavoring agents – salt, soy sauce, soyabean paste etc.
  2. Sweet – sugar, honey, jam etc.
  3. Sour – vinegar, plum sauce, tomato sauce etc.
  4. Hot – chilli, chilli sauce, pepper, ginger, mustard etc
  5. Bitter – almond, orange peel, herbs etc.



In addition, certain regional cuisines include 2 extra flavors.


  1. Aromatic – flavoring agents – wine, garlic, spring onions, sichwan, pepper, sesame seeds, sesame seed oil, spices etc.


  1. Delicious – This is a literary translation from the Chinese character XIAN, made up by joining a fish with a goat, produces the delicious flavor. Flavoring agents: Mono-sodium glutamate, oyster sauce, shrimp sauce, chicken and meat stock etc.


Out of these basic flavors. A Chinese cook can create several combination flavors:

Sweet and sour:          Salt, sugar, vinegar etc.

Sweet and salty:      Salt, sugar, soy sauce etc.

Hot and sour:                Chilli, chilli bean paste, vinegar etc.

Salty and hot:  Soy sauce, chilli sauce etc.

Aromatic and hot:         Chilli oil, curry powder, mustard etc.

Aromatic and salty:  Salt, sichwan pepper


The most famous and popular sweet and sour sauce has many regional variations, but there are only 2 basic styles:




The Cantonese usually make their sweet and sour sauce in large quantity, which is used for different dishes, be it pork, chicken, fish or prawn.



Vinegar                                   800      ml

Sugar                                       400      gms

Salt                                          3          tbsp

Tomato puree              200      gms

Water                          1500    ml





Dissolve the sugar in vinegar over medium heat, then add the rest of the ingredients, blend until smooth.




The Peking style is used throughout the rest of China with only very slight variations according to regional taste – for instance, in Eastern China (Shanghai and Soudrow) more sugar would be used, while in Western China (Sichwan), more vinegar would be used.  Also the sauce is always made just for an individual dish, therefore adjustments could be made to suit a particular ingredient.



Oil                                                       2-3       tablespoons

Vinegar                                               2-3               “

Sugar                                                   3-3.5           “

Dark Soy sauce                                   1-2              “

Cornflour mixed with water   1                 “

Stock / Water                          2-3              “

Finely chopped spring onions, ginger-root and garlic (1/2 tsp each)




First heat the oil, then flavor the oil with spring onions, ginger and garlic, and stir until aromatic.  Add stock or water, soy sauce, sugar and vinegar, blend and bring to the boil.  Finally thicken the sauce with cornflour and water paste.





Marinate the raw ingredients with basic seasonings (salt, sugar, soy sauce, vinegar, wine, cornflour etc.) creates a basic flavor for, or defuses certain strong flavors in the ingredient.


Seasonings added to the ingredients during cooking enhance the flavor of food. 


After cooking, supplementary seasoning added to the dish in the form of garnishes (sesame oil, spring onions, coriander etc.)  further enhance the appearance and flavor of the dish.  Also in certain cooking methods such as deep-frying, instant boiling, steaming or blanching etc., seasonings cannot be added during cooking, therefore seasonings in the form of dips or garnishes can make up for the flavor deficiency.


Balance:  You should know what is the correct flavor of the dishes, if it calls for several different spices or seasonings, make the leading flavor stand out.


The nature of the ingredients:  Fresh foods should not be seasoned too

highly, or their original delicacy will be lost.  Food that has a strong flavor should be highly seasoned in order to reduce or eliminate the strong flavor.


The seasons:  People’s tastes change with the seasons.  Generally they like light food during the hot season and heavier food in the colder and milder seasons.





Batters are used to coat ingredients before cooking. They help the food retain freshness, flavor and moisture. They will give the cooked food a crisp outside and a tender soft inside.  Batters help retain the natural nutrients in food that would otherwise be lost in the cooking process. Finally, batters help the food retain shape where they might have been broken up or shrunken during cooking.


The primary ingredients in batters include egg, cornflour wheat flour, baking powder and breads crumbs.


  1. Egg-white batter: made of egg white, cornflour and salt.
  2. Egg and flour batter: made of whole egg, cornflour or wheat flour and salt.
  3. Water and cornflour batter: made of conflour and water.
  4. Baking powder batter: Made of baking powder, flour and water.
  5. Egg batter and flour dredge: The food is first coated with a thin layer of dry cornflour, and then dipped in a batter before cooking.      
  6. Egg batter and breadcrumbs dredge: the food is first covered with batter and then rolled in breadcrumbs before deep-frying.





A thin paste made of corn flour and water, when added to food shortly before it is done, will thicken the gravy or sauce. It serves to:


  1. Bring the seasonings and the ingredients together to heighten the flavours.
  2. Make the surface of the cooked dish smooth and soft, and make the colors bright – in another word, it improves the appearance of the dish.
  3. Create a transparent coating around the food, keeping the heat

            So that the dish doesn’t get cold too quickly.

  1. In some soup dishes, heavier ingredients tend to sink to the bottom, the thickening agents make the ingredients remain more evenly distributed in the soup.


There are two types of paste:  thick and thin.


Thick paste is further divided into 2 types: a thick coating paste when sticks to the ingredients, leaving no liquid in the dish, and a fluid paste which thickens the gravy in a dish.


Thin paste also falls into two categories:  glazing paste, which is added to the gravy left in the wok after the food is removed, this is then heated and poured over the food as a sauce and a creamy sauce, which thickens the gravy only slightly when poured into the dish.




Serving Chinese food often puzzles most people in the West, particularly   because the order of different course served at Chinese meal bears no resemblance to the western convention of soup-fish-poultry-meat-cheese-desert sequence.


The Chinese cooking tradition makes for a greater harmony of living, an aspect of Chinese cuisine which has often been over looked: there is a great feeling of togetherness in the way the Chinese eat. They gather around a table and partake all the dishes, which are placed on the table in a communal style. Nobody is served just an individual portion in the western way. The chopsticks are used not only as eating implements but also to help others to a choice piece – especially from a particular dish this is usually an expression of respect and affection.


Due to the multi-course nature of the Chinese meal, eating and dinning have always been very much a family or communal event and Chinese food is best eaten this way, for only then can you enjoy a variety of dishes.  An informal Chinese dinner served at home is essentially a buffer-style affair, with more hot dishes than cold served on the table at the same time, to be shared by everyone. Only at formal dinner parties or banquets dishes are served singly, or in groups course by course, and the order in which different course or dishes are served depends more on the method of cooking, and the way the ingredients are prepared before cooking, rather than on the actual food itself.



A typical dinner menu for 10-12 people would consist of 8-10 dishes served in the following order:


First course:     3-4 cold starters or an assorted hors d’oeuvre dish.


Second course:            2-3 or 4 quick stir – fried dishes,  or deep fried or quick braised dishes    (which should always be ‘dry’ rather than full of gravy); the exact number  and variety of dishes are flexible  here, it all depends on the scale of the   occasion, or what was served before and to follow.


Main course:    1,2,or 3 (or even 4) ‘big’ dishes; these can be steamed, long- braised (red cooked) or roasted, but usually consisted of a whole chicken, duck, fish and joint of meat. Again the number and variety of dishes are dependents on the occasion.


Rice course:     Noodles and dumplings are often served instead of, or as well as rice at the end of a big meal.


Dessert:           Only served at formal banquets in China, soup is often served for lesser grand occasions. As a compromise, fresh fruit and Chinese Tea can always be served at the end of a big Chinese meal instead of pudding.


When it comes to planning the menu , just remember that, as a rule, allow one dish per person, but 2 dishes should be enough for 3-4 people, 3 dishes for 6-8 and so on. But  also remember the Chinese never serve an individual dish to each person, you all share the same dishes on the table . The only exception is for a light  snack when a dish of chow mein or a bowl of noodles or soup is given his or her own portion.


A Chinese meal is served absolutely ready-to-eat there is no last minute carving on the table, nor dishing out separate items such as meat, vegetables, gravy or sauce and with all their attendant condiments; there is no long prelude when you wait for everybody to be served before you start.  At a Chinese meal, as soon as the first dish or course of dishes is placed on the table, the host will raise his glass and say ‘gan bei’ (Cheers) or Bon Appetite.





Chinese people generally look younger than their age, and very few have a weight problem.  This must be because Chinese food when done properly, often using simple and easy methods of preparation and cooking, retains its natural flavors as well as the nutritional value.


A nutritious substance is also known as nutrient, and all edible items consists of a number of nutrients, these include energy producing calories (proteins, fats and carbohydrates), dietary fiber, the essential fatty acids, the essential minerals including trace elements.


The human body needs food and drink as nourishment to sustain its growth and maintenance, but good health requires a well-balanced diet based on a variety of different food and drink, since the nutritional value in different foods vary enormously.  From the earliest days of their civilization, the Chinese have always been highly aware of, (one could even say, almost obsessed with the idea of) the close relationship between food and health.


The Chinese consider the human body and mind as a whole, they do not make so strong a distinction between the mental, the spiritual and the physical as do people of the western this school of thought clearly related to the ancient philosophy of yin-yang.


‘A healthy mind within a healthy body’.  Whereas the Confucianists were more concerned with the physical aspects of the food – appearance, flavor and texture, the Taoists, who were  primarily responsible for the development of hygienic and nutritional science of food, were concerned the ‘spiritual’ or life-giving attributes of various food: nourishment of body and happiness of life.


The main distinctive features in Chinese Cuisine is the emphasis on the harmonious blending of colors, aromas, flavors and textures both in one single dish and a course of dishes for a meal.  Consciously or unconsciously, a Chinese cook from a housewife to the professional chef all work to the yin-yang principles i.e. harmonious balance and contrast in conspicuous juxtapositions of different colors, aromas, flavors and texture by varying the ingredients, cutting-techniques, seasonings and cooking methods and so on.


Perhaps one of the best examples for the yin-yang principle in Chinese cuisine is in the way we blend different seasoning.  Complimentary pairs:  sugar (yin) and vinegar (yang), salt (yin) and sichwan pepper (yang), spring onion (yin) and root ginger (yang), soy sauce (yin) and rice wine (yang) and so on.


There is no set rules for the exciting yin-yang combinations, is all done by subtle intuition and the ‘feel’ of the process an experienced good knows by instinct that what does and does not go together just as a true gourmet will judge the success or failure of a dish purely on its visual appeal, if it doesn’t look right, then it won’t taste right.


The Chinese attitude to eating is further characterized by the ideas and beliefs that most foods are also medicines – the even riding idea is that the kind of food one eats is intimately relevant to one’s health.  Many foods are classified into those that possess the yin quality and those of the yang quality.  When the yin-yang forces in the body are not balanced, illness results, therefore, proper amounts to foods of one kind or the other may then be administered (i.e. cooked and clean) to counterbalance the disorder.


With health food and cooking for health in mind, a Chinese cook concentrates on three points:


  1. The selection of the raw materials: This requires a deep understanding of the various ingredients to be used – what is their nutritional value, and whether there is sufficient balance in variety, are they fresh and in their prime conditions?  Above all they must be fresh in the case of seafood and vegetables.


  1. The cooking methods employed: A significant quantity of vitamins is destroyed through prolonged cooking, therefore the various cooking methods can drastically alter the nutritional value in any given food.  The Chinese quick stir-frying, braising, steaming and rapid- boiling etc. are all cooking methods particularly favorable for nutritional preservations.


  1. How to make dishes delicious: A good Chinese cook prides him/her self on being able to make a dish highly palatable without resorting to too much flavoring agents or seasoning.  At the back of the Chinese mind, there is a strong conviction that any food that is fresh should retain its natural flavor therefore is bound to be delicious to the palate and be nutritious as well.


To return to my earlier remarks about the Chinese regarding the human body and mind as a whole, I would like to quote a paragraph from the preface to ‘The Correct Guide to Food and Drink’ by Hu Sihui, the 14th century Imperial Dietitian (literally ‘Food Doctor Official).


What determines human life is the mind which is the master body if the body is at ease and in harmony with the environment the mind will be able to deal with all changes in life.  Thus it is important to keep the body in good repair and maintenance, essence of which is to keep the golden mean, that is not too deficient in nutrition and not to indulge in excesses.  Use of 5 flavors (salty, sweet, sour, bitter, and piquant)  to the 5 vital organs.  If these are at peace, the vital fluid to us will flow smoothly, then our mind will find its equilibrium and the whole person will find himself in a supreme state of well being.


With these thoughts and references in mind, we can now start the actual preparation and cooking of Chinese food.  The dishes selected are not only healthy and easy to digest, but also extremely delicious.


Ghevar Recipe

Plain flour (Maida) 250gm
Puree ghee 50gm
Sugar 400gm
Water 100ml
Milk 50gm
Ghee/oil for fry ghever

Method of Preparation: –
❖ Combine the sugar and water in a pan and simmer till it reaches a 1 string consistency.
❖ Remove from the heat and keep warm. Combine the flour and melted ghee in a bowl.
❖ Add water in a thin stream, whisking continuously but at no point should the ghee and water separate.
❖ The batter should be of a coating consistency. Keep the batter in a cool place away from the heat.
❖ Place the ghevar mould in a kadhai and pour melted ghee in it till it reaches 3/4 of the height of the mould.
❖ Heat the ghee on a medium flame and put in one spoonful of the batter into the mould in a thin stream. The batter should settle in the mould.
❖ When the froth subsides, pour in another spoonful in the centre in a thin
❖ Increase the flame and allow it to cook in the centre by pouring ladlefuls of hot ghee in the centre of the mould 2 or 3 times.
❖ When the centre is firm and cooked then Deep in sugar syrup and serve at room temp.
Note :- Alternatively, you can use a large mould to get fewer ghevar in which case the cooking time will increase. Rabid or mava also use on top the ghevar.


Unit-1: Dressings and Condiments, Salads – Vinaigrette, Blue cheese, Italian, Boiled, Sour cream, Salads – Components, Principles, Ingredients, classification.


The three basic dressings are: vinaigrettes, mayonnaise-based, and dairy-based

  • Vinaigrettes are made with oil and vinegar. Temporary emulsion, needs to be shaken or stirred while using. Procedure is: Combine vinegar with seasonings, Whip in the oil a little at a time, by hand or machine and Serve immediately or chill for later.
  • Mayonnaise is a permanent emulsion with eggs, oil, and vinegar or acid. Good mayonnaise is creamy, pale ivory, not too acidic, should hold its own shape and Mustard is often added to give a little tartness.
  • Dairy-based can be made with cream or acidic, fresh dairy products. Should be used up immediately or soon, as they have a short shelf life, adjust seasoning and thickness before using, Excellent for fruit salads, jellied salads, chilled fish


  1. FRENCH: 1 part vinegar: 2 parts oil + salt, pepper, french mustard.
  2. ENGLISH: 2 parts vinegar: 1 part oil + salt, pepper, caster sugar, english mustard.
  3. AMERICAN: Equal parts of oil and vinegar + salt. Pepper, english mustard and additional sugar.
  4. MAYONNAISE: Mayonnaise sauce thinned down with vinegar or lemon juice.
  5. VINAIGRETTE: 1 part vinegar: 2 parts olive oil + salt, pepper, english/french mustard.
  6. RAVIGOTTE: Vinaigrette + chopped chervil, chives, tarragon, capers and parsley.
  7. GRIBICHE: Mayonnaise dressing + chopped gherkins, capers, chervil, taragon, parsley and strips of hard boiled egg white.
  8. ACIDULATED CREAM: Fresh cream + fresh lemon juice and salt
  9. THOUSAND ISLAND : Mayonnaise dressing + a little chili sauce and chopped red pimento, chives and green peppers 
  10. LEMON DRESSING: Substitute the vinegar with lemon juice adds oil according to taste plus salt, pepper and preferred mustard component.



Herba Salata, the Latin equivalent of salted greens, is where the term salad is derived from. This suggests that the earliest salads were mixtures of pickled greens, seasoned with salt. This culinary variation evolved by the time of Imperial Rome into mixtures of greens served with a fresh herb garnish and an oil-vinegar dressing. The 17th and 18th Century brought more additions to the humble culinary creation called the salad. Lettuces of various types were used as a base with some type of meat, poultry and mixed vegetables placed on the top. It was in the early 20th century that Escoffier carried the art of salad making to new heights. The possibilities for salad combinations are limited only by the imagination of the chef. They may include leaf greens, raw and cooked vegetables, fruit, meat, legumes and rice and pasta-based salads, to mention just a few.

Components of salad

Base, Body, Dressing and Garnish

  • The BASE or UNDERLINER of the salad is usually a layer of greens.
  • The BODY of the salad is the main ingredient. It may include vegetables, fruits, meats, or cheeses.
  • The DRESSING is a liquid or semi-liquid used to flavor, moisten, or enrich the salad.
  • The GARNISH of the salad adds color and appeal, and sometimes flavor. It must always be edible, and may be as simple as a sprinkling of crumbs or spice.

Principles of salad layout

The wide variety of salads makes it difficult to state exact rules for the proper preparation of salads. However, there are some rules of thumb that must be followed.

  • Utilize the freshest ingredients and especially those in season.
  • Light leaf vegetables should be tossed in a dressing just before the service.
  • Pour enough dressing to season; not drown the main ingredient.
  • Use a suitable container to present the salad.
  • Never overcrowd the salad plate.
  • Accommodate the salad within the dish and not on or over the edge.

Guidelines for Arranging Salads

Perhaps even more than with most other foods, the appearance and arrangement of a salad are essential to its quality. The colorful variety of salad ingredients gives the creative chef an opportunity to create miniature works of art on the salad plate.

  1. Keep the salad off the rim of the plate: Think of the rim as the frame of a picture. Keep the salad within the frame. Select the right plate for the portion size, not too large or not too small.
  2. Strive for a good balance of color: Pale iceberg lettuce is pretty plain and colorless but can be livened up by mixing in some darker greens and perhaps a few shreds of carrot, red cabbage or other colored vegetables such as peppers. On the other hand don’t overdo it and go overboard. Three colors are usually more than enough. Shades of green give a good effect and too many colors will look messy.
  3. Height makes a salad attractive: Ingredients mounded onto a plate are more interesting than that lying flat. Lettuce cups as a base adds height. Often, just a little height is enough.
  4. Cut the ingredients neatly: Ragged or sloppy cutting makes the whole salad look unattractive and haphazard.
  5. Make every ingredient identifiable: The pieces should be large enough for the customer to identify each ingredient. Don’t pulverize everything. Bite size pieces are the rule. Seasoning ingredients like onion could be chopped fine.
  6. Keep it simple: A simple, natural arrangement is pleasant to view. An elaborate design, a contrived arrangement, or a cluttered plate will defeat the purpose.

Preparation of salad ingredients

In many food service operations, salads are the items that are given the least attention and consideration, both in planning and preparation. Chefs often erroneously perceive it as a simple task that needs little or no training. This attitude results in salads of a poor quality. Certain factors need to be considered while planning a salad. These include:

  • Fresh ingredients
  • Attractive plating
  • Proper textures
  • Eye appeal

Well balanced flavor

Classification of salads

  1. Simple
    1. Compound
  2. Simple: These salad comprise one primary ingredients for body and one or two ingredient used for garnish for e.g. tomato salad garnish with coriander leaves. These salad also tossed with dressing and mostly fresh ingredients used for e.g. beetroot salad with vinaigrette dressing

Compound Salads

These salads comprise of more than one ingredients and based on skill and chef imagination. E.g. are Nicoise Salad, Waldorf salad, Russian Salad, Caesar Salad Coleslaw salad etc.  Compound salad are made up of four parts:

BASE: normally one/combination of the above greens. It gives definition to the placement of the salad on the plate. A green lettuce leaf is used as an under liner for the salad. Shredded greens can also be utilized and this will give height and dimension to the plate. The base also absorbs excess dressing preventing it from running around the plate during the presentation and the meal. However, the base is not always necessary. A cole slaw made up of leafy vegetable (cabbage) need not have a base at all. Beetroot salad whose color might run can do without the base.

BODY: This is the main ingredient in the salad and will generally give the name to the salad. The body must be the main ingredient and will be placed on top of the base. The body could be made up of just on ingredient or in some cases, several.

DRESSING:  is used to enhance and add to the taste and flavor of the body. It makes the salad more palate pleasing. The dressing may be tossed with the body of the salad, or served as an accompaniment poured over the salad at the table. The dressing is made up of four parts:

  • THE OIL: This could include plain refined, odorless oil or a more exotic one such as Avocado oil, Olive oil, Sesame seed oil, Walnut oil, Peanut oil, Corn oil, Almond oil & Soybean oil. One could also have flavored oil such as chili oil, herb oil or garlic oil.     
  • THE ACIDIC MEDIUM: Is normally vinegar, red or white. However, Lemon/Lime juice, Yogurt (curds), Red and White Wine can also be used. The popular vinegars include Cider Vinegar, Malt Vinegar, Wine Vinegar, Wine Vinegar, Chili Vinegar and Rice Vinegar.
  • THE SEASONING: Would include varieties of salt.
  •   THE FLAVOR ENHANCERS: These will include Spice Powders, Herbs, Garlic, Proprietary Sauces, Fruit Juices & Cream.

GARNISH: Ideally, the garnish will embellish the salad. However, it is not necessary to always have a garnish. Sometimes, if the vegetables are neatly cut and have retained their colors, the salad will look good on its own. Like the base, the garnish is optional.

Parts/Composition of Salad is same: Base, Body Dressing and Garnish

Other Types of Salad

    A.  Tossed

    B.  Mixed

    C.  Arranged

    D.  Cooked

    E.  Molded

     F.  Layered

    G.  Frozen

Salads can be served at the following positions in the meal:

Today, the salad is considered to be a popular item. It is the favorite of weight watchers and those on a diet. It is also a versatile dish and can be served as:

  • An appetizer
  • An entrée
  • A main course
  • An accompaniment to the main course
  • A dessert
  • On the buffet as part of the salad bar
  • As a sandwich filling
  • As a plate garnish


A simple salad is a variety of one or more greens. A mild dressing such as a light Vinaigrette is used so the delicate taste of the greens is not masked. Various types of greens are now available locally and would include:  

–   Cos – Oak Leaf Escarole Arugula
–   Romaine – Ruby Chicory Radiccio
Bibb – Roquette Endive  
Iceberg – Frezie Belgian endive  
Limestone – Boston Red/white cabbage  
Curly – Crisphead Spinach  
Chinese – Butterhead Cress/Water Cress  

Leaf salads are usually served as an accompaniment to the main course and rarely as any other course.


  1. Wash the greens thoroughly in several changes of water.
  2. Drain the greens well. Poor draining will result in watered down dressing.
  3. Crisp the greens. Place them in a colander in the refrigerator.
  4. Cut or tear into bite size pieces.
  5. Mix the greens well. Toss gently till uniformly mixed.
  6. Plate the salads. Use cold plates please! Not those just out of the dishwasher.
  7. Refrigerate.
  8. Add dressing just before serving along with garnish. Dressed greens wilt rapidly.

Six attributes of a salad are:

    a.  color

    b.  flavor

    c.  texture

    d.  shape

    e.  style

    f.   nutritive value


Archiduc, Augustin, Demi Deuil, Eve, Eleonora, Florida, Francaise, Gauloise, Lorette, Louisette, Nicoise, Russian, Rachel And Waldorf.

Review Questions

  1. How would you define a Salad?
  2. Differentiate between a simple salad and a compound salad.
  3. Describe the Parts/Composition of Salad
  4. Make a list of various dressings. Differentiate the French and English dressing.
  5. Explain in detail the principle and guideline the arranging the salad.
  6. Basic Procedure for Leaf Salads

Unit-2: Hors D’oeuvres – Cold, Hot, Classic

Hors d’oeuvre and Appetizers

Hors d’oeuvre is a French expression and its true definition is a preparation served outside of the menu proper, at the beginning of the meal before the main course. It comes from the French term outside (hors) and goes back to the early times when at banquets, the appetizer (hors d’oeuvre) was served in a separate room (ante chamber/room) while the guests assembled and waited for the arrival of the host and the chief guest. Hors d’oeuvre or appetizer as it is called in English can be described as a small tidbit, which should be light, delicate attractive and tasty. The term hors d’oeuvre should never be spelt with the final s, since there is plural form for the term in French. An hors d’oeuvre can be either in the solid form (appetizer) or in the liquid form (aperitif) which may be an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage.

Hors d’oeuvre may be classified in various ways:

  • Hot and Cold hors d’oeuvre
  • Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian hors d’oeuvre
  • Classical and Contemporary hors d’oeuvre
  • Hors d’oeuvre Singulaire and Compound hors d’oeuvre

However, a more comprehensive classification would include:

  • Meat based hors d’oeuvre: Pate, Terrines, Sausages (salami and mortadella), Ham
  • Fish based hors d’oeuvre: Oysters, Caviar, Roll mops, Snails, Prawn cocktail
  • Egg based hors d’oeuvre: Egg mayonnaise, stuffed eggs, devilled eggs, Gulls/Plovers eggs

–    Vegetable based hors d’oeuvre: Asparagus, Artichokes, Corn-on-the-cob

–     Fruit based hors d’oeuvre: Melon, Grapefruit, Florida cocktail

Hot Hors D’oeuvres e.g.

Lasagna Cupcakes: Wonton wrappers filled with marinara sauce, ricotta cheese, mozzarella cheese and seasoned ground beef or chicken

Chipotle-Lime Shrimp Tosdaditas: Spicy marinated Mexican shrimp served on a mini tostada shell with guacamole, creme and pico de gallo

Lamb and Mint Pesto Lollipops: Skewered lamb tenderloin medallions with a fresh mint pesto dipping sauce

Cauliflower and Brie Soup Cups: Roasted cauliflower and triple cream brie cheese, garnished with walnut dust and chives.

Spinach, Bacon and Artichoke Stuffed Mushrooms: Crimini mushrooms stuffed with fresh spinach, bacon and artichoke dip topped with mascarpone cheese and breadcrumbs

Tuscan Chicken Skewers: Crispy seared prosciutto wrapped chicken breast, marinated with rosemary, lemon, garlic and olive oil

Chicken Meatball Caesar Salad Cups: Romaine lettuce cups with grilled chicken meatballs, signature Caesar dressing, parmesan cheese and breadcrumble

White Cheddar and Virginia Ham Croquettes: Panko crusted mashed potato, white cheddar, scallions and artisanal ham. Served with a Tabasco aioli dipping sauce

Shepards Pie Bites: Shortbread pastry cups filled with classic beef stew and topped with mashed potatoes

Cold Hors D’ oeuvres e.g.

Pickled Shrimp Cocktail: Marinated and brined Mexican shrimp served with a chipotle cocktail sauce

Crab Stuffed Deviled Eggs: Hardboiled eggs filled with classic style egg mousse, lump crab meat and crispy shallots

Phyllo Caprese Cups: Crisp phyllo cups filled with cherry tomatoes, fresh mozzerella and basil pesto

Egg Salad Stuffed Potatoes: Egg salad with fresh dill, mustard, scallions and garlic aioli served in a roasted red bliss potato cups

Watermelon and Brie Wedges: Watermelon slices topped with brie, arugula leaves and balsamic reduction

Antipasto Bites: Baked salami cups filled with fresh mozzarella, roasted red bell peppers, grilled artichoke hearts and fresh basil.

Boursin Cheese Cake Bites: Boursin and cream cheese fondue baked with a panko and parmesan crust. Topped with a tomato jam and micro greens

Ham & Cheese Palmiers: Puff pastry wrapped black forest ham, gruyere cheese and mustard. Baked until golden brown

Fresh Fruit Skewers: Melon balled  cantaloupe, honeydew and watermelon served with a mango-mascarpone dipping sauce

Cold Hors d’oeuvre is of two categories:

  1. The ready to serve variety, available in the market off the shelves, like smoked salmon, pate, sausages.
  2. Those which require culinary preparation and that, when made properly have the advantage of being freshly prepared from fresh ingredients with maximum flavor and appeal. This is where fine cuisine can make a contribution to eating pleasure.

Hors d’oeuvre varies are often served at lunch and consist of many items served in a container called raviers. Various items can qualify to be called a part of hors d’oeuvre varies such as olives, pickled onions, cornichons (pickled gherkins), sliced salami, ham and even items like smoked salmon and gulls/plovers eggs

Hot hors d’oeuvre could generally be served at a cocktail party or before a dinner but seldom at lunch. Although there are some hot hors d’oeuvre that are classical, there are many others that are strictly prototype and serve as a basis for many different preparations. As a matter of fact, every branch of cookery that is reduced to a smaller portion is or could be used in the preparation of hot hors d’oeuvre. Paillettes, allumettes, beignets, frittes, bouchees, croustades, rissoles, ramequins and even the classsic quiche can all be served as hot hors d’oeuvre when reduced in size.

Zakuski, or hors d’oeuvre a la russe or canapés a la russe became very popular. These cold hors d’oeuvre are considered to be classical and made up of certain specified ingredients. Chefs in Russia were patronized by the Czars and reached the pinnacle of their profession.  It consists of a base of Blinis; the famous Russian pancake made out of buckwheat flour. This was topped with a topping that would be meat, fish, vegetable or combination of these. A characteristic of the topping is that it would most often be flavored with a smoked fish or meat. The surface would be decorated elaborately; and here is where the chef had the chance to demonstrate his imagination and his skill. Intricate garnishes of exquisite designs would decorate the zakuski. This would then be finished off with a glaze of aspic. The zakuski is a dinner hors d’oeuvre and are larger in size than the canapé. They are presented to the guest individually, without an accompaniment or sauce.

Canapés– 1 to 2 bites; open faced (composed hors d’ oeuvres).

These are tiny open-faced snacks, which are cut into a variety of shapes – round, rectangular, oval, triangle or other shapes. The size and thickness will depend upon the nature of the ingredients used.

A canapé will have three parts:

The base – which would normally be bread – toasted or plain, white or brown? However, a variety of other base ingredients could also be used – puff pastry, flaky pastry, short crust, pizza dough, choux pastry, are examples of the variety that can be used. Sometimes, a spread would be applied to the base to prevent it from soaking up the moisture of the topping.

The topping – almost anything could be used to top the base. However, it should be suitable and must complement the base. It should be fairy dry and must hold shape. A slice of cheese, hardboiled egg, ham, salami, mushrooms or chicken coated with a thick cream sauce, marinated mushrooms and prawns could all be used as topping. The list is limitless and can only be contained by the imagination.

The garnish – this is done more to increase the visual appeal and the appearance than for any functional value. A slice of olive, a sprig of parsley, a dice of capsicum or even a green pea can all be used to increase the presentation of the platter of canapés.

Canapés are usually served as snacks at cocktail parties and are never featured on the regular menu. Some classical canapés are served as the savoury course. Here are some popular canapés:

Canapé Rigoletto: Butter a canapé with cayenne butter. Sprinkle with a mixture of finely chopped whites and yolks of egg, ham, tongue, fine herbs and truffles.

Canapés a la danoise: Butter rye bread with horseradish butter, arrange slices of smoked salmon and filets of marinated herrings on top.

Canapés cancalaise: Butter a canapé with tuna fish butter, top with a poached mussel and decorate with a sprig of parsley.

Canapé rejane: Butter a slice of bread with lobster butter, top with a mound of chopped egg and mayonnaise and decorate with lobster coral.

Canapés a la nicoise: Butter the bread with anchovy butter. Pile stuffed olives on top and fill the gaps with anchovy butter.

Canapés poulette: Butter round canapés with anchovy butter, sprinkle sieved boiled egg yolks and top with a shrimp.

Canapés vie vile: cover a canapé with tarragon butter, top with a slice of ham and decorate with tarragon leaves.

Assignment: make a list of innovative canapés breaking them into the base, the topping and the garnish.

Difference between Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

The definitions of hor d’oeurves and appetizers are often interchangeable, however, there is a difference…

Hors d’Oeurves are the small, savory bites, typically finger foods, served before a meal usually in a buffet style or passed on trays by waiters.

Appetizers appear as the first course that is served at the table.  They are usually served with beverages, either alcoholic or otherwise.

General Rules for Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

  • If you are serving a dinner after the appetizers or hor d’oeurves, two to three different types are usually sufficient.
  • If preparing food for a cocktail party only, meaning that there will not be a dinner to follow, you should typically prepare five to seven different appetizers.  Some of these foods should be more substantial and filling if a meal is not served afterward.
  • As a general rule, figure two pieces per person for each of the appetizers or hor d’oeurves that you will be serving. 
  • If you are preparing food for a cocktail party, make sure that your appetizers or hor d’oeurves are finger foods only. You do not want to serve food that needs to be eaten with utensils, as that will become difficult for your standing guests to eat.  If your guest has to put their plate down to cut the food, that would also not be considered appropriate or polite.
  • If you are serving appetizers and hor d’oeurves before a meal, you may only want to offer one or two options.  However, if the appetizers or hor d’oeurves are the only food option, then you may want to offer your guests a variety of choices.
  • It is important to remember that the appetizers of hor d’oeurves should not clash with the main meal to follow.  For example, if you are serving pickled beets or deviled eggs as an appetizer, beets or eggs should not be served in the main meal.

Presentation of Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

  • Location is a vital part of the presentation of appetizers and hor d’oeurves.  Arrange your platters and bowls throughout the room, otherwise your guests will be crowded around the buffet table.  This will discourage conversation and encourage an uncomfortable setting.
  • In addition, you should make sure that you have enough napkins on hand for your guests.  Appetizers and hor d’oeurves tend to get quite messy, especially if they are “finger food.”

Hor d’Oeurves Prepartion

  • Complete all mise en place
  • Store at proper temperatures
  • Adhere to a production schedule

Hor d’Oeurves Presentation

  • Eye appealing and creative
  • Harmonizing flavors and colors
  • Simplicity/ elegance

Unit-3: Butchery of Meat: Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton, Poultry,Quality characteristics, Retail cuts, Traditional methods of preserving meat, Cold Cuts and Cured Foods, Fish Mongery – Classification, cuts, Commissary – SPS of different vegetables, Grades, Care, 


Introduction to meat cookery

Meat can be defined as the flesh of an animal used as food . It can also be defined as the whole or part of the carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs. Meat as high energy type of food is considered to be the food of choice due largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent protein and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides excellent nutrients. Famous across the world as a popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many cuisines. Liver is considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but is also a power house for toxin storage. Livers from mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be baked, boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst.


Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for breeding. Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.

Introduction to meat cookery

Meat can be defined as the flesh of an animal used as food (Hedrick et al, 1994). It can also be defined as the whole or part of the carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs (Williams, 2007). Meat as high energy type of food is considered to be the food of choice due largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent protein and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides excellent nutrients (Chang and Huang, 1991). Famous across the world as a popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many cuisines. Liver is considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but is also a power house for toxin storage (Mandora, 2010). Livers from mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be baked, boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst (Myhre, 2003).

  1. Quality characteristics of various butchered meats and their various retail cuts (With menu examples of each)
    1. Veal
  2. Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for breeding.Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.
  • Pork

Pork is the most widely consumed and versatile protein in the world; it’s easy to cook, adaptable to just about any recipe and very tender and juicy. Learn the best basic cooking tips for those familiar primal pork cuts like pork chops and pork loin, to how to master new-to-you pork cuts like pork belly or a pork rib roast. Whether you’re cooking for one or a holiday dinner for twelve, there are pork cuts for every occasion.

British Pork Cuts

American cuts of pork

Mutton, Goat, Lamb and kid.

Pork is a high-protein food and contains varying amounts of fat.

100-gram serving of cooked, ground pork provides the following nutrients.

Calories: 297, Water: 53%. Protein: 25.7 grams. Carbs: 0 grams. Sugar: 0 grams, Fiber: 0 grams, Fat: 20.8 grams

Mutton, Lamb

Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear

Mutton — the meat of a female (ewe) or castrated male (wether) sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear.

Variety offal

Offal, also referred to as variety meats, is the name for internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible organs, which varies by culture and region, but includes most internal organs excluding muscle and bone. Most common types of offal from the various species.

Species Common Offal Uses/Notes
Veal Heart  
  Liver Veal offal is more commonly served in restaurants than other types.
  Sweetbreads Thymus gland
Pork Liver Pork offal is stronger in flavour; the liver is most commonly used in pâté.
  Intestines Used for sausage casings
  Skin Used to make cracklings or chicharron
  Blood Used for blood sausage and black pudding
Lamb Liver Lamb offal is milder in flavour
  Intestines Used for sausage casings
Chicken Heart, Liver, Gizzard These three are often referred to as giblets as a whole.
Duck/Goose Liver fatty livers.


Poultry also includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons (known as squabs) but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game. The word “poultry” comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal.

Types of Poultry

Chicken, duck, turkey, Goose and Squad birds come under the poultry types.

Composition of Meat

Meat muscle, which is what we eat, is made of fibres, bound together with connective tissue, that are mainly linked to other groups of muscles or directly to the animal’s bone structure. Muscle contains 60% to 70% moisture, 10% to 20% protein, 2% to 22% fat, and 1% ash, depending on type and species.

On larger bones (such as the shanks of larger animals), it is easy to see the muscle groups in bundles (if cut on the cross-section) surrounded by collagen fibres and a much heavier connective tissue (elastin) that forms a thin covering (called silverskin) separating muscle groups or a tendon at the ends of the muscle group. The tendon is attached to the bone at or near a bone joint

The muscle fibres are known as myofibrils, which are composed of thick and thin filaments arranged in a repeating pattern alongside the other myofibrils (Figure 3). One unit of a bundle is called a sarcomere, or little muscle. The thick filaments are the contractile protein myosin. The thin filaments, known as actin, contain two other proteins called troponin and tropomyosin that help regulate muscle contraction.

Processing of Meat (Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton, Poultry)

After proper post-mortem inspection of carcasses and found fit for human consumption, the carcasses are washed and sanitized with chlorine labelled “inspected and passed”. They are then kept in the chillers at 0-4°C for 24 hours. In chilling, the pH of the meat becomes acidic and comes below 6 where FMD virus is


After chilling, the meat is deboned in the deboning hall where all the lymph glands and connective tissues are removed. The temperature of deboning hall is maintained at 12°C – 15°C. After deboning the meat is packed in the cartons as per the requirement of the consumers. The cartons are then sealed with polyethylene and passed through the shrinkage machine. After sealing, the meat is passed through the metal detector and put in the freezer.

Packaging and labelling

Proper cuts are packaged in cartons which has labels indicating the product, date of manufacturing, shelf life, brand name, etc to provide the consumer the information about the contents. Thereafter, the packed cartons are passed through the metal detector before freezing the meat either in plate freezer/blast freezer.

Freezing of the Meat

The meat is frozen in the plate freezer / blast freezer at -40°C for 10 hours where deep bone temperature is brought down to -18°C. Thereafter, the meat is kept in the cold storage.

Cold Storage

The frozen meat is kept in cold storage maintained at -18°C to -20°C till it is cleared for loading from the in-house laboratory.

Loading of Refrigerated Container

While loading the refrigerated container, the temperature in the container has to be brought to –18°C so that there is no thawing of the frozen meat cartons while they are loaded. The reefer container has to be clean and disinfected before loading. After proper loading it is sealed taken to port either by rail /road. The temperature has to be maintained at -18°C at all times.

Meat Receival & Inspection

• Check meat for physical contamination (dirt, hide, hair, etc).

• Check and record meat temperature with digital thermometer, chilled cuts ≤ 5C chilled bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C, frozen ≤ -10C.

• Meat with unacceptable levels of visible contamination or outside temperature parameters is returned to the supplier. Meat is transferred to active refrigeration immediately after inspection.


• Frozen meat is stored in a freezer and maintained at ≤ -10C. Chilled meat is stored in a chiller and maintained at: chilled cuts ≤ 5C, chilled bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C.

Thaw Frozen Meat

• Air temperature during thawing shall not exceed 10 C and product ≤ 5C

Meat Preparation

• Work surfaces and equipment (saws, mincers and knives etc) are cleaned and sanitised prior to contact with meat.

• Meat is processed to documented specifications.

• Meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during processing (fresh meat



• Only new food grade packaging materials (styrofoam trays, poly wraps and bags,

and fibreboard outer cartons) are used for the packaging of meat products.

• Each package is labeled with the product type and species of animal from which they are derived; the date of packaging; the identity of the meat business at which they are packaged and the refrigeration requirements or storage recommendations.


• Chilled meat product is stored in chillers that ensure that meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during storage.

• Frozen meat product is stored in freezers that ensure that meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 10C at all times during storage.


• Delivery vehicles are refrigerated and capable of maintaining chilled meat at ≤ 5 C and frozen meat at ≤ 10C during delivery; are in good repair and display a current registration label.

• Delivery vehicles are cleaned and sanitised prior to loading.

Sea Food

Technically anything edible which is obtained from sea or any other water body (even fresh water) is termed as Sea food. There are many things such as Fish, Shellfish, Seaweed, which are edible and are obtained from sea, but here we will be discussing only about Fish and Shellfish. The difference between fish and shellfish is that fish have internal skeleton (endoskeleton) and shellfish have external skeleton (exoskeleton).

Fish and Shell Fish

As well as naming types of fish they could be grouped according to their characteristics or habitat:

Flat Fish or demersal species living on the sea bed, for example: plaice, dab, sole.

Freshwater fish that spend all or some of their life in rivers or lakes e.g. salmon, trout, eels, pike, perch, river cobbler/ basa, tilapia, catfish

Round fish (cylindrical in shape) some are demersal living near sea beds e.g. cod, gurnard & some are

pelagic living towards the top of the sea, for example mackerel, sardines

Shellfish crustaceans like crab and prawns, molluscs like mussels, clams, whelks, cephalopods like squid and octopus.

Types of Fish

Salt Water Fish, Flat Fish, Round Fish, Fresh Water Fish, Anadromus, Lean Fish, Catadromus, Oily Fish, Shellfish

Composition of Fish

The flesh of fish is similar to any other meat in terms of composition, only difference is in the ratio. Fish has high amount of protein, water and in case of oily fish high fat contents, other than this there are some vitamins and minerals also which is present in fish. When compared to any meat, fish is very tender and is cooked fast even on low heat as it has less connective tissue. The toughness of the meat is result of protein coagulation due to heat, that’s why fish should be handled very carefully after cooking as it tends to fall apart.

Selection of Fish

  • Check the eyes for clarity: check the eyes. They should be crystal-clear, plump, wet, and shiny, with no sunken features. Cloudy eyes = sad fish
  • Check the fins: The tail and dorsal fins of the fish should be healthy-looking, wet, and intact. A fish that’s been mishandled will have torn or ragged fins, Torn and ragged fins = mishandled fish
  • Torn and ragged fins probably belong to a fish that was netted or held for too long.
  • Poke the flesh: If the fish monger allows it, try touching the fish for further signs of health and freshness. It should feel cold, wet, and slippery, but not sticky. When pressed, it should spring back to its natural shape. Soft flesh = old fish. Fish that has lost its firm shape is no longer fresh.

Check the gills: Check the gills for vitality and color. When first caught, a fish’s gills appear bright red, and slowly darken over time. Brown-red gills = old fish

Touch the scales: Scales are designed to protect the fish from a harsh watery environment. When a fish is fresh, the scales will be shiny and firm, a veritable armor against the elements. Less-fresh fish will often shed scales as you run your hand over them, and they may appear dry and flaky.

Review Questions

  1. Explain briefly cut of Veal with diagram.
    1. Briefly described the various characteristics of poultry and their various retail cuts.
    1. Processing of poultry
    1. Types Fish and Shell fish
    1. Selection and storage process of Shell fish.
    1. Cuts of Pork/Pig and Types

Unit-4: Cheese and Sandwiches – Processing, classification, National cheeses, Parts of sandwiches, Types


Cheese is one of the most used ingredients for breakfast around the world. It is a milk based solid food. Cheese can be prepared from cow, sheep, goat and other mammal milk. The basic procedure of preparing cheese is by curdling milk and further acidification. Rennet or other rennet substitutes are used for the curdling of milk.

Hundreds of types of cheese exist all over the world. The types of cheese exist due to the usage of the milk from different mammals, specific species of molds and bacteria and also varying the aging length. Other processes are also used to prepare different types of cheese. Other factors which determine the type of cheese is the diet of the animal the milk is taken from. The diet can include herbs, spices and wood smoke.

Cheese cannot be categorized on a single categorization concept. Therefore, there various systems used for the categorization of cheese. Some factors taken into consideration while classifying cheese are the length of aging, the methods of making it, the curd and the various processes relating to the curd, the kind of milk, the fat content and the whether the texture of the cheese is hard or soft.

The most common type of cheese is Fresh Cheese. To prepare fresh cheese, milk is curdled and drained. There is little other processing involved in preparing Fresh Cheese. Some examples of Fresh Cheese are chevre, Cas and cottage cheese. Cheese is also classified according to its firmness. The various classifications are soft, semisoft, semihard and hard. However, this type of categorization is not exact. Cheddar is a type of hard or semi hard cheese.

Semi hard cheese is created with the cutting of the curd, heating gently, piling and then stirred before pressed into forms. The most common semi hard cheese are the cheddar cheese like Gloucester and Chesire.

Milder cheese, like the Colby and Monterey Jack are prepared by having curd rinsed and then pressed. This washes away the acidity and calcium in the cheese. This procedure is also used to create the Edam and Gouda cheese.

Gruyere and Emmetal, swiss type of cheese are quite firm. They have a texture of holes, which add to their sharp flavors and aroma. Parmesan, Romano and Pecorino are the hardest cheese, also known as grating cheese.Some cheese are prepared by allowing Penicillin Candida to grow on the outside ot the soft cheese for a preset time. THe mold adds to the runny and gooey textures of the cheese and also intensifies the flavors of these cheese. The mold forms a white crust on the cheese.

Molds are of two types, blue and white. The white molds are generally used while preparing cheese from goat’s milk. Blue mold cheese is commonly called blue cheese. Stilton, Gorgonzola and Roquefort are some of these types of cheese. They are prepared by injecting Penicillum roqueforti molds into the cheese. This mold then grows within the cheese, as opposed to Brie and Carmembert, where the mold is allowed to grow on the outside of the cheese. Blue cheese can be of soft or firm texture and have assertive flavours.

Processed cheese is another type of cheese. Processed cheese is prepared by adding emulsifying agents, milk, preservatives, more salt and food coloring to traditional cheese. Velveeta and yellow American cheese are the most popular types of processed cheese.

Washing Rind is also a major type pf cheese. These cheese are bathed in saltwater brine while they age. This makes their surface available for bacteria. These bacteria are responsible for the flavors and odors of washing rind cheese. Other than these major types, there are hundred if not thousands of types of cheese created in all parts of the world. Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America and Australia have various ways of preparing cheese.

Serving and Storage Tips

  • Unpasteurised cheese with a range of flavours should not be sliced until purchase otherwise it will start to lose its subtlety and aroma.
  • Keep the cheese in conditions in which it matures. Hard, semi-hard and semi-soft cheeses are stored in the temperatures from around 8 – 13 C.
  • Keep the cheese wrapped in the waxed paper and place it in a loose-fitting food-bag not to lose humidity and maintain the circulation of air.
  • Wrap blue cheeses all over as mould spores spread readily not only to other cheeses but also to everything near.
  • Chilled cheeses should be taken out of the refrigerator one and a half or two hours before serving.
  • Cheeses contain living organisms that must not be cut off from air, yet it is important not to let a cheese dry out.
  • Do not store cheese with other strong-smelling foods. As a cheese breathes it will absorb other aromas and may spoil.
  • Wrap soft cheeses loosely. Use waxed or greaseproof paper rather than cling film.
  • Let cold cheese warm up for about half an hour before eating to allow the flavour and aroma to develop.

Categorisation of cheese

  1. Soft cheese
  2. Semi-hard cheese
  3. Hard cheese
  4. Blue cheese

In Cheese following things you should know

  • Source of milk, pasteurised or not
  • Butterfat content
  • Species of bacteria
  • Length of ageing
  • Making process
  • Flavouring agents (herbs, spices, wood smoke)
  • Country/Region of origin


  • The plastic, spun-curd buffalo milk cheese Mozzarella, originated from southern Italy.
  • Extra time in the vat is allowed so that the curd can sink to the bottom and so that the lactic acids can soften the curd to make it easier to knead.


  • Other names: Danish Blue
  • Country of origin: Denmark
  • Source of milk: Cows
  • Texture: Semi-soft
  • Aging time: 8–12 weeks


  • Traditional, creamery, whey cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a basin-shaped cheese, pure white and wet but not sticky.
  • Good Ricotta should be firm, not solid and consist of a mass of fine, moist, delicate grains, neither salted nor ripened.
  • There are three distinct varieties of ricotta: ricotta salata moliterna (ewe’s milk whey), ricotta piemontese (cow’s milk whey + 10% milk) and ricotta romana (a byproduct of Romano cheese production).
    Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine:Muscadet Sauvignon Blanc
  • Country: Italy

Bel Paese  

  • Bel Paese is from the Lombardy region of Italy.
  • It is a modern, creamery, semi soft cheese and has a light, milky aroma.
  • The name means “beautiful land” and was inspired by the title of a book by Stoppani.
  • Bel Paese is very similar to French St. Paulin. It can also be used instead of mozzarella.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Brie is the best known French cheese and has a nickname “The Queen of Cheeses”.
  • “Real” French Brie is unstabilized and the flavor is complex when the surface turns slightly brown. When the cheese is still pure-white, it is not matured.
  • Brie, one of the great dessert cheeses, comes as either a 1 or 2 kilogram wheel and is packed in a wooden box. In order to enjoy the taste fully, Brie must be served at room temperature.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Bourgogne

Camembert de Normandie  

  • A very famous French cheese, Camembert dates back to the 18th century and is named for a Norman village in which there is a statue of the creator of this particular variety (Marie Harel).
  • Originally, this cheese was dry and yellow-brown, but after a few modifications it became softer and more earthy.
  • Camembert is crumbly and soft and gets creamier over time (usually 2-3 weeks). A genuine Camembert has a delicate salty taste.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine:St. Emilion, St Estephe
  • Fat content:45 %

Carre de l’Est  

  • This cheese has a moist rind that sticks to the fingers and feels elastic. It usually has a square shape with either an orange-red, washed rind or a penicillin mould crust.
  • It has a smoky-bacon flavor and the taste has a hint of mushrooms.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content: 45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Coteaux Champenois, Sancerre, Pinot Noir d’Alsace


  • Feta is one of the most famous cheeses in Greece. It is made in various sizes, often as a loaf-shape.
  • Feta was originally made with either ewe’s milk or a mixture of ewe’s and goat’s milk, but today most feta is made with pasteurized milk and tastes of little besides salt.
  • Feta can be soaked in fresh, cold water or milk for a few minutes or longer, if necessary, to make it less salty.
  • Milk: cow ewe and goat milk


  • It is Hungarian spiced, white cheese made from the mixture of sheep’s and cow’s milk.
  • The cheese has its name according to sheep’s milk called Liptoi. As Hungarians are great lovers of spicy food, Liptauer is very popular in the country as the taste is a mixture of onion, caraway seeds, capers, paprika and salt.
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Fat content:50 % 


  • Munster is a creamery, washed-rind cheese made from cow’s milk. It has a round shape with sticky, orange, washed skin.
  • The cheese is very smooth, fairly soft and has a mildly piquant flavor that can become quite pungent with regular washings. Munster is dark yellow with a strong flavor. It should be served with dark bread and beer.
  • French Munster is one of the few cheeses which ripen from the inside out. French Munster has nothing in common with Domestic Munster which is a white, mild cheese.
  • In The U.S.A this cheese is known as Muenster.
  • Fat content:45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Gewurztraminer, Tokay Pinot Gris d’Alsace


  • There are two types of Appenzell: common (made with skim milk and brine-cured for 12 months and festive (full milk cured with brine as well as pepper and the sediment from the white wine-making process).
  • The cheese originates in the north-eastern Swiss canton of the Appenzell near the Liechtenstein border but, today is also made in the canton of St Gallen (which is a siege of a special authority protecting a genuity of Appenzell).
  • Country: Switzerland
  • Milk: cow milk


  • The most widely purchased and eaten cheese in the world. Cheddar cheeses were originally made in England, however today they are manufactured in many countries all over the world.
  • Cheddar is always made from cow’s milk and has a slightly crumbly texture if properly cured. If the cheese is too young, the texture is smooth.
  • Unlike other well known cheeses, Cheddar’s name is not protected so it has been used and abused by many producers around the world.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:48 %


  • One of the oldest English cheeses, invented during the 12th century.
  • There are three types of Cheshire: White, Red (colored with annatto) and Blue which is punctured during the curing process, resulting in blue veins.
  • Cheshire is firm in texture and a bit more crumbly than Cheddar. It is rich, mellow and slightly salty with an excellent aftertaste.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:48 %


  • These cheeses are made from goat’s milk.
  • Chevres are excellent dessert cheeses, often served as snacks or before dinner drinks. Goat cheese is often served as an ingredient in many fine dishes.
  • Milk: goat milk
  • Fat content:45 %


  • The cheese has a shape of cylinder with natural rind.
  • It is the first cheese in Britain to be made in factory.
  • This cheese is very similar to Cheddar, but has a softer, flakier curd and a butter taste.
  • A herb-flavored version is called Sage Derby.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:45 %  


  • This is a pressed, semi-hard to hard cheese, made from cow’s milk.
  • It comes in a shape of ball covered with distinctive red wax.
  • Edam is produced from skimmed or semi-skimmed milk.
  • It is usually consumed young, when the texture is elastic and supple and the flavor is smooth, sweet and nutty.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Country: Holland
  • Recommended Wine: Pinot Noir
  • Fat content: 40 %


  • This cheese is produced in the central cantons of Switzerland.
  • It is a traditional, unpasteurized, hard cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • It’s hard, thin rind is covered by paper with producer’s name on it.
  • The aroma is sweet with tones of fresh-cut hay.
  • The flavor is very fruity, not without a tone of acidity.
  • It is considered to be one of the most difficult cheeses to be produced because of it’s complicated hole-forming fermentation process.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine: Vin de Savoie Givry rully Mercurey

Double Gloucester  

  • It is a traditional, unpasteurized, semi-hard cheese which has been made in Gloucestershire since the sixteenth century.
  • The cheese has a flavor of cheese and onions. Not as firm as Cheddar, it has a mellow, nutty character with an orange-zest tang.
  • Fat content: 48 %
  • Milk:  cow milk


  • Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam.
  • Gouda is a traditional, creamery, hard cheese. It is round with very smooth, yellow, waxed rind.
  • The flavor is sweet and fruity.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:40 %


  • Gruyere is named after a Swiss village. It is traditional, creamery, unpasteurized, semi-soft cheese.
  • Slightly grainy, the cheese has a wonderful complexity of flavors – at first fruity, later becomes more earthy and nutty.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Jarlsberg is a traditional, creamery Norwegian cheese.
  • The world’s most famous “Baby Swiss”, Jarlsberg has the consistency texture and hole formation of Swiss Emmental but its flavor is more nut-like and sweeter.
  • Jarlsberg can be used as a table cheese, dessert cheese or sandwich cheese.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Limburger is creamery, washed-rind cheese. The smooth, sticky, washed rind is reddish-brown with corrugated ridges.
  • The yellow interior hints at sweetness but the taste is spicy and aromatic, almost meaty.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Country: Belgium


  • The bright, orange-red rind has fine, powdery moulds. Raspy, moist-textured, Leicester is made in a similar fashion to Cheddar and comes covered in a hard, dry rind.
  • Leicester has a rich, mild flavor with a flaky texture and a deep orange color.
  • This cheese is excellent with fruit and beer.
  • Milk: cow milk

Monterey Jack  

  • The Monterey Jack was developed by a Californian Scot, David Jacks in 1882 (some sources state 1916). Monterey Jack’s consistency depends on its maturity; most softer varieties (common in American supermarkets) is aged for one month, while grating Jack is aged for upwards of 6 months.
  • Older Jacks are smeared with oil and pepper to maintain softer rinds. Monterey Jack has a buttery, bland taste and melts easily.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:25 %


  • Creamery, semi-hard cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • The aroma is mildly pungent while the taste is buttery and fruity with a spicy tinge. It is generally made with whole milk.
  • Tilsit is an excellent sandwich cheese, good with robust wine or beer. It has a fat content of 20 per cent and water content of 50 per cent.
  • Country:Germany


  • Traditional, hard cheese made from cow’s milk. It has a shape of cylinder with natural rind. Wensleydale can be used as table cheese and is very tasty with apple pie.
  • The flavor suggests wild honey balanced with a fresh acidity.
  • It matures in two to four months and has a fat content of 45 per cent.
  • Country:England
  • Milk: cow milk


  • This cheese originates from Southern Italy. It’s a traditional, stretched curd cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • There are also smoked versions of this cheese. Cavallo means “horse” in Italian and it is said that this cheese was originally made from mare’s milk.
  • In Italian language the expression “to end up like Caciocavallo” means to be hanged.


  • Kefalotyri was already well known and respected by the time of Byzantine era. The name comes probably from Greek word “kefalo” that means hat.
  • Kefalotyri is generally served grated over cooked dishes. The color varies from white to yellow, depending on the mixture of milk.
  • Kefalotyri is described as a “male” or “first” cheese to indicate that it is made with full-cream milk.
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Country:Greece
  • Fat content:55 %

Parmesan (Parmigiano)  

  • Named after an area in Italy, Parma Parmesan is one of the world’s most popular and widely-enjoyed cheeses.
  • Milk used for Parmesan is heated and curdled in copper containers but not before most of the milk’s cream has been separated and removed.
  • After two days, the cheeses are removed and salted in brine for a month, then allowed to mature for up to two years in very humid conditions.
  • Milk:cow milk
  • Recommended Wine: Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot Noir


  • Wheel-shaped cheese with sharp edges made from cow’s milk.
  • This cheese is very similar to Gruyere and has a strong fruity taste.
  • The natural rind is smooth, dark brown and very hard.
  • Country:Ireland

Blue Vein   

  • Blue Vein Cheeses have a strong tangy taste and pungent aroma with a smooth and creamy texture.
  • They are characterized by a network of green-blue veins of mould throughout the body of the cheese.
  • Country:Australia

Blue Castello  

  • Modern, creamery, blue cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a half-moon-shaped cheese.
  • The moist, natural rind may develop some gray, brown or white moulds.
  • Blue Castello has a Brie-like texture, with the blue in fairly thick, horizontal lines. Enriched with cream.
  • The aroma is of mushrooms and the taste is mildly spicy.
  • Country:Denmark
  • Fat content:70 %


  • It is a wheel shaped, creamery, blue cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • Dolcelatte means “sweet milk”.
  • This cheese is very soft and melts in the mouth like ice-cream.
  • Country:Italy


  • Gorgonzola is a traditional, creamery and co-operative, blue cheese.
  • The greenish-blue penicillin mould imparts a sharp, spicy flavor and provides an excellent contrast to the rich.
  • The cheese is usually wrapped in foil to keep it moist. Its color ranges from white to straw-yellow.
  • The taste ranges from mild to sharp, depending on age. Gorgonzola is also excellent in salads and dips.
  • Country:Italy
  • Milk:cow milk 


  • Historically referred to as “The King of Cheeses” Stilton is a blue-mould cheese with a rich and mellow flavor and a piquant aftertaste.
  • Excellent for crumbling over salads or as a dessert cheese, served with a Port Wine.
  • Country:England
  • Milk:cow milk
  • Fat content:55 %


  • It has a tingly pungent taste and ranks among blue cheeses. Only the milk of specially bred sheep is used and is ripened in limestone caverns.
  • This cheese has a distinct bouquet and a flavor that combines the sweet burnt-caramel taste of sheep’s milk with the sharp, metallic tang of the blue mould. Also frequently added in dressings and salads.
  • Country: France
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Recommended Wine: Zinfandel Port

Processing of Cheese

Total five steps in the chesses making these are:

Preparing the milk

1 Small cheese factories accept either morning milk (which is richer), evening milk, or both. Because it is generally purchased from small dairies which don’t pasteurize, this milk contains the bacteria necessary to produce lactic acid, one of the agents that triggers curdling. The cheese makers let the milk sit until enough lactic acid has formed to begin producing the particular type of cheese they’re making. Depending on the type of cheese being produced, the cheese makers may then heat the ripening milk. This process differs slightly at large cheese factories, which purchase pasteurized milk and must consequently add a culture of bacteria to produce lactic acid.

Separating the curds from the whey

2 The next step is to add animal or vegetable rennet to the milk, furthering its separation into curds and whey. Once formed, the curds are cut both vertically and horizontally with knives. In large factories, huge vats of curdled milk are cut vertically using sharp, multi-bladed, wire knives reminiscent of oven racks. The same machine then agitates the curds and slices them horizontally. If the cutting is done manually, the curds are cut both ways using a large, two-handled knife. Soft cheeses are cut into big chunks, while hard cheeses are cut into tiny chunks. (For cheddar, for instance, the space between the knives is about one-twentieth of an inch [half a centimeter].) After cutting, the curds may be heated to hasten the separation  In a typical cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the milk. Although smaller factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has the bacteria present to produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger factories purchase pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce the lactic acid. Next, the curds must be separated from the whey. Animal or vegetable rennet is added, and then the curds are agitated and cut using large knives. As the whey separates, it is drained. The curds are then pressed into molds, if necessary, to facilitate further moisture drainage, and aged for the proper amount of time. Some cheeses are aged for a month, others for several years.

In a typical cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the milk. Although smaller factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has the bacteria present to produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger factories purchase pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce the lactic acid.

Next, the curds must be separated from the whey. Animal or vegetable rennet is added, and then the curds are agitated and cut using large knives. As the whey separates, it is drained. The curds are then pressed into molds, if necessary, to facilitate further moisture drainage, and aged for the proper amount of time. Some cheeses are aged for a month, others for several years.

from the whey, but they are more typically left alone. When separation is complete, the whey is drained.

Pressing the curds

3 Moisture must then be removed from the curds, although the amount removed depends on the type of cheese. For some types with high moisture contents, the whey-draining process removes sufficient moisture. Other types require the curds to be cut, heated, and/or filtered to get rid of excess moisture. To make cheddar cheese, for example, cheese makers cheddar, or finely chop, the curd. To make hard, dry cheeses such as parmesan, cheese makers first cheddar and then cook the curd. Regardless, if the curds are to be aged, they are then put into molds. Here, they are pressed to give the proper shape and size. Soft cheeses such as cottage cheese are not aged.

Ageing the cheese

4 At this stage the cheese may be inoculated with a flavoring mold, bathed in brine, or wrapped in cloth or hay before being deposited in a place of the proper temperature and humidity to age. Some cheeses are aged for a month, some for up to several years. Ageing sharpens the flavor of the cheese; for example, cheddar aged more than two years is appropriately labeled extra sharp.

Wrapping natural cheese

5 Some cheeses may develop a rind naturally, as their surfaces dry. Other rinds may form from the growth of bacteria that has been sprayed on the surface of the cheese. Still other cheeses are washed, and this process encourages bacterial growth. In place of or in addition to rinds, cheeses can be sealed in cloth or wax. For local eating, this may be all the packaging that is necessary. However, large quantities of cheese are packaged for sale in distant countries. Such cheeses may be heavily salted for export (such as Roquefort) or sealed in impermeable plastic or foil.


A sandwich may be many things – it can be a delicious bit of nonsense that makes you ask for more!  It can be prim and proper and just a bit stodgy – or staunch and hearty – or it might just be an empty promise!!!! It is difficult to actually pin point when the sandwich actually appeared as a form of food presentation. We do know that the concept of wrapping bread around a filling for portability is ancient. It parallels the invention of bread. The sandwich involves bread in one way or the other. There is a universal chain of food items worldwide which all have a connection of a filling enclosed in a starchy casing. In China there is the Spring roll or the Egg roll; in Italy there is the Calzone; in Mexico, the Burrito; in Spain, the Empanada and Greece has the Pita.

Field workers in France have long had the custom of eating meat enclosed in two slices of bread. In southern France, it is customary to provide those setting out on a long journey with slices of cooked meat, sandwiched between two slices of bread. The Pain–Bagnat of Nice is a definite example of a sandwich that has been around for centuries.

The term SANDWICH came into being about 200 years ago. There lived a notorious gambler in the court of George III His name was John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792). The Earls gambling affliction was such, that he would enter into 24 hours marathons at the gaming tables. Any eating that had to be done had to be quick and not to detract from the task at hand. The Earl’s butler, who knew his master’s intensity, would place pieces of bread with cheese or meat for his sustenance. The rest is …..Well, not just history…..But the history of the Sandwich. Today, it is difficult to imagine a full-scale food service operation without the sandwich being a part of it.


The four parts of a sandwich can be listed as:

  • Bread                                – Filling
  • Spread                               – Garnish

I   Bread  

Various types of bread can be used to make sandwiches

  1. The Pullman loaf or the sandwich bread is the most popular. This may be white or brown
  2. Rolls – including hard and soft rolls, burger rolls, hot dog rolls, croissants and vienna rolls are all popular.
  3. French bread and baguettes for foot longs and submarine sandwiches
  4. Bread made of various flours such as  rye, whole wheat, maize, multigrain
  5. Unleavened bread like pita
  6. Flavored bread like cinnamon bread, raisin bread, fruit and nut bread.

II   Spread

The main function of the spread is to hold the filling and the bread together. It also forms a protective layer on the bread and prevents it from getting soggy from the moisture in the filling. Moreover, it adds to the taste of the sandwich and in case of children, contributes to the nutritive value

Plain and compound butter like anchovy, herb, parsley butter

Mayonnaise and its derivatives

Low fat spreads like margarine

Cheese spreads and cheese paste

A combination of the above.

III Filling

Could be a variety of limitless items. The filling gives the sandwich its name.

Fillings could include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, and vegetables. Salami, cooked roast chicken, ox tongue, sliced cucumber and tomato are all popular fillings.

The filling could be a single item, or a combination of several. Ham and cheese, Cucumber and chutney, Bacon and tomato. It is important that the combinations are complementary to each other.

IV Garnish

To enhance the appearance and the presentation of the sandwich, it is necessary to create eye appeal. The garnish is not absolutely essential and can be avoided in an informal setting. The sandwich may be a simple unadorned bit of bread with a filling or a masterpiece fit for a king. Various garnishes will include a stuffed olive, a pickled onion, capers, gherkins or parsley. The garnish should be delicate and dainty and not cumbersome and ugly.

The sandwich is no doubt the favourite lunch time food. For a typical customer, one who is in a rush, one who is hungry, the sandwich is the ideal food. It is quickly made and served, convenient to eat, easily adaptable to many variations. It can satisfy almost any palate and nutritional requirement. Properly made, it can be a very wholesome meal. Sandwich has long been the domain of the pantry department, along with salads and other cold snacks. Preparing sandwiches to order is one of the fundamental skills required in modern food production techniques.


1 Conventional, Closed or Lunchbox Sandwich    

These consist of two slices of bread with any filling such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs and vegetables. They may be served whole or cut into neat triangles, with or without the crust removed. White or whole meal bread can be used or any other similar bread. They are served in bars, cafes, coffee-shops and snack counters. They are the ideal item for the lunchbox that school children and office-goers carry. The filling is usually heavy and hearty, as the objective is to provide a wholesome and nutritious meal. Or, it could be light and fancy ….the perfect food for the weight watcher.

2. Tea Sandwiches

These are similar to the above but are cut into smaller triangles or in fingers. They are served at afternoon tea, usually with a very light filling. The crust is normally removed so that they look prim and proper like the high society ladies who usually eat them!!!! They will be suitably garnished for service.

3. The Buffet Sandwich

These are similar to the conventional sandwich but are cut into fancy shapes like hearts, diamonds, and ovals, with sandwich cutters. Obviously, there will be a lot of wastage and can only be used when cost permits.

4. Continental or French Sandwiches

Consists of crusty French baguettes slit horizontally, well buttered with a savory filling. It can be garnished with lettuce, slices of cucumber and tomatoes. It can be served whole or cut into pieces so that they can be lifted easily. If left whole, they are referred to as foot longs. In America, they are called submarine sandwiches.

5. Double Decker / Triple Decker and Club Sandwiches

These are extremely popular these days. If you top an ordinary sandwich with another filling and close that with a third slice of bread you get a double –  decker (two fillings, three slices of bread). Similarly, a triple – decker will have three fillings and four slices of bread. A club sandwich will have multiple fillings and multiple slices, all piled up one over the other. The fillings must be substantial and complement each other. There must be a balance in the fillings. The bread in a club sandwich may be toasted or grilled but in a double decker or a triple decker, plain bread may be used as well. These sandwiches are cut diagonally into half for service so that they can be eaten easily.

6. Open Sandwiches

Are technically not sandwiches, as a sandwich needs two slices of bread? But for convenience, they are classified as sandwiches. If the top slice of a sandwich is missing….what do you call it? Half a sandwich a garnished piece of bread. Until a better name is found, we can call it an open sandwich. Open sandwiches are slices of buttered bread on top of which is arranged a variety of toppings. The bread is then trimmed and garnished. They may even be cut into fancy shapes. The bread may be white or brown, toasted or plain. They should not be confused with canapés, which have a variety of different bases. Please remember that sandwiches are not made only to please the eye and look pretty on the platter. They must please the eye….yes, but they must also satisfy the palate.

7. Fancy Sandwiches

Ribbon sandwiches

Checker Board sandwich

Pinwheel Sandwich

Rolled sandwich

Mosaic sandwich

These are a variety of fancy sandwiches which look good when put on exhibition and display. They add a new dimension to a cold buffet presentation.

8. Hot Sandwiches

These are hot snacks but are really a hot sandwich. These include:

  • Book Maker  (England)
  • Strammer Max (Germany)
  • Lindstrom (Sweeden)
  • Croque Monsieur/Madame (France)

General Rules for Sandwich Making

1. Soften the butter before spreading.

2. Smooth fillings like fish paste and cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature.

3. Use a palette knife for easy spreading

4. Ideally, the bread should be 12 to 18 hours old. This ensures easy slicing.

5. Butter both slices of the bread being used for the sandwich. It helps to hold the sandwich together

6. Use sliced bread….it is neater and more convenient.

7. If cutting the bread yourself, arrange the bread slices in the order they have been cut.

8. Use sufficient filling. The label should not be the only means of identification of the sandwich.

9. Wrap prepared sandwiches in cling film or in a moist duster in separate batches for easy identification.

Unit-5: Sausages, Cold cuts and Cured Foods – Components, Ingredients, Types SAUSAGES, COLD CUTS AND CURED FOODS


Sausage is any meat that has been comminuted and seasoned. Comminuted means diced, ground, chopped, emulsified or otherwise reduced to minute particles by mechanical means.

A simple definition of sausage would be ‘the coarse or finely comminuted meat product prepared from one or more kind of meat or meat by-products, containing various amounts of water, usually seasoned and frequently cured.’ In simplest terms, sausage is ground meat that has been salted for preservation and seasoned to taste. Sausage is one of the oldest forms of charcuterie, and is made almost all over the world in some form or the other. Many sausage recipes and concepts have brought fame to cities and their people. Frankfurters from Frankfurt in Germany, Weiner from Vienna in Austria and Bologna from the town of Bologna in Italy are all very famous. There are over 1200 varieties world wide

Sausage consists of two parts:

  • the casing
  • the filling


Casings are of vital importance in sausage making. Their primary function is that of a holder for the meat mixture. They also have a major effect on the mouth feel (if edible) and appearance. The variety of casings available is broad. 

These include: natural, collagen, fibrous cellulose and protein lined fibrous cellulose.  Some casings are edible and are meant to be eaten with the sausage. Other casings are non edible and are peeled away before eating.


These are made from the intestines of animals such as hogs, pigs, wild boar, cattle and sheep. The intestine is a very long organ and is ideal for a casing of the sausage. The intestines are flushed clean, especially from the inside and soaked in a solution of KMNO4 for a period of 2 hours at 10°C. Sinews, blood vessels and fat clinging to the insides of the casing must be removed. Natural casings should not be over handled as they may puncture. They should be refrigerated at all times. Natural casings are available in Australia, New Zealand, and South America where cattle are reared on a very large scale. Casings are a by-product of the meat industry that is what these countries specialize in.

Use of natural casings is considered by many professional sausage makers to have many advantages:

  • They are semi porous and permit deeper smoke penetration.
  • Natural casings absorb flavors and release fats better
  • Generally, they hold their shape better and do not burst during cooking.
  • Natural casings are edible and need not be peeled before eating.
  • They have a natural color and have a better appearance.

Hogs casings are the most commonly used. Sheep casings are the highest quality available. Beef casings are also popular. Almost all casings are salted before they are packed. Natural casings need to be protected from extreme variations in temperature. The ideal storage temperature is 40-45°F


These are edible and are not synthetic casings. They are made from the hide of cattle. Collagen is obtained from the corium layer that is situated just under the skin of the animal. The fat, flesh and hair are removed from the hide and it is split into two layers by special equipment. The hair side of the hide is used in the leather industry. The flesh side (corium) is used to make collagen casings. The material is first ground, and then swelled in an acidic medium. It is then sieved, filtered and finally extruded into casings.

The advantages of collagen casings are that they can be manufactured in the sizes that you require both diameter and length. Their consistent diameter means that they are uniform and aid portion control. They are also stronger and are preferred while using machines in the commercial manufacture of sausages. They are ideal for smoking of sausages and require no special pre preparation and storage. Moreover, they are clean and sanitary.


These are by – products of the food processing industry. Cellulose and fiber is extracted from the husk, skin, peels, pips and seeds of the fruit and vegetables during the processing stage. These are processed further to make casings. These types of casings are also referred to as peel-able cellulose. The fiber adds to the strength of the casing and enables them to handle high temperatures.


A protein lining is often added to the inside of the above type of casing. These casings are ideal for the dried sausages. The protein lining causes the casing to shrink as the meat is cooked or dried so that it retains the shape of the sausage. Used mainly for dry or semi-dry sausages, they come in a red color (salami) or clear. They need to be soaked in water before stuffing, as the protein tends to stiffen during storage. Sometimes, the casing needs to be soaked in vinegar or even liquid smoke. This makes it easier to peel off the casing when the finished product is sliced.

Besides these, there some other types of casings that are also used in the sausage making industry. Plastic casings have recently become popular. They are cheaper, stronger and uniform in size. However, they need to be removed before the product is served. Caul fat, a membrane like lining of the stomach, is also used as a casing to make the flat sausages, crepinette. The membrane is networked like a spider web, with streaks of fat. Caul fat is ideal to wrap items of uneven sizes like the loukanika (patty like Greek sausage) and the crepinette.


The filling of the sausage is made up of two parts:

–   The meat component

  • the non meat component

Meat Component:

A variety of meats are used in the sausage making industry. Each type provides a particular flavor, texture and color in the product.

 Lean meats make up the largest proportion of the meat component providing the dominant character of the product. The color, flavor, texture and appearance of the product are determined by these meats. Pork is by far the most common and popular meat used in sausage making.  Beef is also becoming popular of late, because of its excellent binding properties as well as its deep red color. Veal, lamb and poultry are also being used in certain products of late.

Pork fat adds to the taste, flavor and the texture of the forcemeat.   Jowl fat is the most commonly used product in charcuterie. It is obtained from the cheek of the animal.  Normally, not more than 30% of the forcemeat is fat.

Variety meats are the offal of the carcass and can be added into the forcemeat in the production of sausage.  Variety meats used include heart, kidney, tripe, liver and tongue. These meats have a low binding power and if a lot of them are added into the forcemeat, you would require additional binders in the mixture.


Non meat ingredients are food item, which are added to the filling before stuffing. They enhance the flavor and the color, slow or prevent bacteria growth, act as a preservative and increase the volume and bulk of the mixture.  There are six types of these additives: water, curing agents, curing accelerators, sensory enhancers, stability enhancers, and extenders and binders.

WATER is usually added to the sausage mixture during the blending stage. It improved the mixing and helps to extract the proteins from the meat. It is used in all sausage mixtures.

CURING AGENTS are necessary to inhibit the growth of bacteria (especially clostridium botulinum – an anaerobic bacteria which can cause death) and improve the shelf life. They also help to improve, fix and retain the color of the forcemeat. The two common curing agents are sodium nitrate and nitrite. Nitrite is used in cured, cooked or smoked products. Nitrate is used in dried sausages.

CURING ACCELERATORS such as ascorbic acid, sodium erythorbate and citric acid are used in cured, cooked and fermented products. As their name suggests, they speed up the curing process.

SENSORY ENHANCERS are a variety of items that are used to enhance the flavor, smell, color, feel and mouthfeel.

Salt is used in all sausage products for the enhancement of flavor and as an aid in the extraction of protein from the meats.

Sweeteners (both nutritive and non-nutritive) are often added to the forcemeat. Non nutritive sweeteners such as saccharin and sorbitol add sweetness and aid in peeling. Nutritive sweeteners such as cane or beet sugar, dextrose and corn syrup are also used. 

Flavorings for sausage include spices, plant, vegetable and milk protein, yeast extract and even mustard flour. These add flavor, taste, increase the volume and act as binders. Colorings for sausage meat can be natural as well as artificial. Artificial colors are used a lot in sausage production. Chefs do not recommend these. Natural colors can be obtained from red peppers, saffron, turmeric and caramel. These will add not only color but also flavor. The use of natural colors is recommended wherever possible.

Smoke, both natural and liquid smoke contributes to the taste and flavor of the product. Use of too much liquid smoke will tend to make the product bitter. Liquid smoke also tends to fade on storage.

Flavor enhancers are products, which bring out the flavor of the other ingredients, yet have no flavor of their own. The one most commonly used in the kitchen is MSG, mono sodium glutamate. This is a natural product but must be used sparingly. MSG and nucleotides and other flavor enhancers are often used in mass production of sausage but are not widely used or common.

Other sensory enhancers include bacterial cultures, enzymes, phosphates and acidulants. They serve a variety of purposes including flavoring, softening of the tissues, juice retention and are used only in the mass commercial production of sausages and not in the hotel kitchens.

STABILITY ENHANCERS are used in sausage making to protect the flavor of the product, to slow down mold growth and to extend and bind the product.

EXTENDERS AND BINDERS are usually either animal based, fermentation based and cereal grain based. Gelatin, stock and non – fat dry milk are the animal based ones used most often in the kitchen. Fermentation based extenders and binders involve the introduction of specified types of microorganisms into the forcemeat. As these grow, they create favorable changes in the sausage. Cereal grain based ones include oats, wheat, barley, corn and rye. These products are also used to extend the volume – this is often termed as the filler. These items are far more popular in the commercial mass production of sausage rather than in specialized kitchen preparations.


There are primarily four types of fillings that are used in the production of sausages.

  1. Coarse minced forcemeat – This forcemeat contains tender and lean meat as well as fat in the mixture. The ratio is normally 3 parts of meat to one part of fat. The mixture is coarsely ground and the proportion gives optimum quality. Only good grade of meat and fat is used, as the mixture is easily identifiable. Salami is a good example of this type of a filling.
  2. Cutter pulverized forcemeat – All types of sausage containing finely ground forcemeat including frankfurters and cocktail sausages come under this group. 5 parts of meat and 3 parts of fat are the normal ratio. Second grades of meat can be utilized, as they are not identifiable, being ground into a fine mixture. Meats from older carcasses can also be used.
  3. Combination forcemeats – are a mixture of the above two types. One part of coarse forcemeat and two parts of cutter pulverized forcemeat are normally use. Pepperoni and chippolatas are examples of sausages that use this type of forcemeat. Both good and inferior quality of meat can be used. This makes it more commercially viable as well.
  4. Chunky forcemeat – In this type of a filling, the meat and fat are left in chunks. Three parts of meat to 1 part of fat are used. This type of a filling is used for the spicy South American sausages like the chorizo, which have predominant Portuguese and Spanish influence. The meat and the fat are dried before they are filled into the casing.

Once the forcemeat is prepared, it is ready for filling into the casing. It may be done manually or, sausage filler may be used. Sausage filler is a machine something like a mincing machine, which has a nozzle with changeable diameters. The rolled up casing is fitted onto the nozzle and the machine is started. The casing then un – rolls as it fills up. A stapling machine cum stapler then separates the sausages into links and seals the ends. Heat treatment is used in the sealing process.

Besides meat, which is the traditional filling, nowadays a host of other ingredients are also used. Poultry seafood, vegetables, lentils and soybean are being introduced.

There are five varieties of sausages that are available in the commercial market.

  • Fresh sausage  (e.g.: Brokwurst)
  • Cooked sausage (Mortadella)
  • Cooked-smoked sausage (Bologna, Frankfurters, Berliners)
  • Uncooked-smoked sausage (Kielbasa – the Polish sausage, Mettwurst)
  • Dry/semi dry sausage (Salami)

International Cold Cut

  • Dstreaky Bacon
  • Chicken Paprica Lyoner
  • Salami: Salami is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork.


The term Forcemeat or farce is used to describe the basic mixture that needs to be prepared in order to produce charcuterie products.

The word farce comes from the Latin farcire. A farce or forcemeat is a ground seasoned mixture of meat, game, poultry, fish or vegetables, prepared as a dish on its own or used to stuff other numerous other items such as eggs, meat, fish and poultry, pastry shells and perhaps even pasta. Such dishes are prepared in the Garde Manger.

Forcemeats are used in the preparation of a various cold dishes such as pate, terrines, galantines, ballotines, quenelle, roulade, mousse and mousseline.

  • Pate: from the old French paste, meaning paste.
  • Terrine: from the Latin Terra, meaning earth.
  • Galantine:  from the old French galant,   meaning gorgeous or showy Also from the old French term galine, meaning chicken.   
  • Ballotine: from the Italian Balla, meaning ball.
  • Quenelle: from the Alcascian French knodel, meaning dumpling
  • Roulade: from the French rouler, meaning to roll
  • Mousse/Mousseline: from the French, meaning froth.
  • Timbale: from the English Thimble


Traditional forcemeat/farce is made up of four parts:

1. The Meat   (Primary Ingredient)

2. The Binder

3. Seasoning, Flavoring and Garnish

4. The Additives

The Meat:

Consists of three elements:

–  The Dominant Meat (basic meat) which could include veal, game, poultry, rabbit, duck, or even fish. This will provide the dominant flavor and will also name the dish. E.g. chicken liver in a Chicken Liver Pate. These ingredientsshould be fresh and of prime quality. All bones, skin, sinews and gristle must be removed and the flesh cut up into ½” pieces for grinding. The dominant meat normally accounts for 40% of the meat component.

  • Lean Pork which contributes to the bulk as well as the flavor. This will be about 30% of the meat component. Nowadays, when preparing forcemeat using other varieties of meat, the lean pork can be substituted with another subsidiary meat. For example, in a Lobster Mousse, the lean pork will be substituted with shrimp or some other cheap white fish. The important thing to remember is that the  subsidiary meat should complement the dominant meat
  • Pork fat which gives richness and smoothness to the product as well as for its binding qualities. This too will be 30% of the meat component. Again, other fats such as butter and cream can be substituted in order that the meat and fat complement each other. In the Lobster mousse, cream would be better suited as a fat instead of pork fat.

The Binding Agent:

To lighten the farce and to give it a finer texture, binding agents are needed. These are typically used in the making of poultry, fish and vegetable farce. Game, veal and pork do have their own binding qualities, with the protein from the meat acting as binding agents. Binding could consist of egg yolks and/or egg whites; fresh bread soaked in milk, cream or stock; thickened béchamel sauce (panada); beurre manié (uncooked butter/flour mixture), blood or even cooked rice.

Seasoning Flavoring and Garnish:

Salt is an important part of the forcemeat. It helps to bring out the natural flavors of the other elements. 20 gm of salt / kilo of the mixture are a rough guideline to use. The salt must be evenly mixed to ensure equal distribution. Seasoning should not be extravagant to cover up for inferior quality ingredient. One mistake is to use excessive MSG for this purpose. Flavorings such as herbs and spices give character to the product. The garnish is related to the farce to which it is added. A central garnish – lamb fillet in a lamb farce, strips of ham in a pork farce, or a piece of goose liver I a game farce – provides a visual focal point when the farce is sliced. Garnishes could also be dispersed or interspersed throughout the farce and would include pistachio, crushed peppercorns, diced truffle, capers, gherkins, stuffed olives, mushrooms and similar ingredients which will provide contrast and relief in the mass of the forcemeat.

The Additives:

Many additives are included in the forcemeat. These include Nitrates and Nitrites of Sodium and Potassium, MSG, Sodium Erythorbate, BHT and BHA, Salt Petre.

These additives will enhance the color, increase shelf life, contribute to the taste and flavor and prevent/delay the fat from going rancid.


The meat being used to make the farce as well as the equipment to grind it like the buffalo chopper or the food processor must be absolutely chilled before use. Such chilling is essential as it facilitates clean grinding of the farce, as opposed to tearing which inhibits the release of the protein which in turn later binds the farce and gives it the correct texture. A sharp cutting blade is also essential.

The process of grinding involves three stages:

  • First the ingredients are coarsely ground through a medium holed plate
  • It is then passed through a small holed plate
  • If the farce is to be ground to a fine textured paste it can be emulsified in a food processor a small amount of crushed ice can be added during the emulsifying stage. This helps to maintain the temperature of the farce during the grinding.
  • Finally, the farce is passed through a sieve to remove any trace of sinew, gristle or skin that might have remained during the grinding.

Remember, that the process may not require all the stages mentioned. For a coarse farce, like that required for a salami sausage, only the first two stages are required.

There are times when the food grinder is not available. In that case, the meat can be placed in the freezer for 30 to 60 minutes, rendering it partially frozen. This is done so that when it is placed in the food processor, the interaction of the blade against the partially frozen meat poultry or fish results in it being cut up, much the way it would if put through a meat grinder.

Herb and Spice Seasoning & Flavoring Blends:

Garde Manger chefs will develop their own blend of seasoning mix for the different products they make. The degree of strength will vary from a mild, light blend for fish and seafood roulade to a medium blend for pork and veal terrine to a heavy blend for a game pate. Ideally, the herb and spice blend should be of a dry nature and finely powdered so that it blends in well with the farce. However, some chefs prefer to use the fresh variety, especially of herbs. If the herbs are fresh, they need to be chopped very finely.  Spice blends are a matter of personal choice.


There are five primary types of forcemeat:

Campagne (Country Style)

Straight Method

Gratin Style

Mousseline Style           

5/4/3 Emulsion forcemeat

Campagne is also called the country style forcemeat. It is the earliest style that was used and is the precursor of all modern versions. It is generally made out of pork. This is probably due to the historically low expense and small amount of land required to raise pigs. Pork fat is also incorporated. The farce has a dense, coarse texture, a characteristic which resulted from the lack of sophisticated equipment in the early days when it was first developed. The earliest forcemeats were chopped with two knives giving the coarse texture that is associated with country style forcemeat today. Another character resulting from the time it was developed is that of being highly seasoned. Due to the virtual non – existence of refrigeration techniques or other preservation methods, the heavy seasoning covered both the flavor of the tainted meat and acted as a preservative for the forcemeat. The seasonings commonly used include onion, garlic, black pepper, juniper berries, bay leaf and nutmeg. Country style forcemeat is usually a combination of coarsely ground farce and a smooth ground farce so that chunks of meat are visible in the mass of the mixture.

Straight Method forcemeat is more refined, having a finer, less dense texture. As culinary preparations and equipment improved, the capability of producing a more refined style of forcemeat was possible. Here, any type of dominant meat can be used. It is normally, veal, duck, rabbit plus pork. White poultry and fish are rarely used here. Ideally pork fat especially jowl fat is used.

The finer lighter texture and more delicate seasoning of this forcemeat are indicative of the refinement of many culinary preparations as technological advances were made. It was no longer necessary to mask the flavors of the meats. It was possible to simply enhance it. The common flavors used are shallots, wine, brandy and all spice. Better grinding techniques meant that the meats were binding better on their own and additional binding was not required.

In some cases a panada can be used to achieve a lighter texture and color in the farce.

Gratin Style is the name given to the forcemeat that is obtained from pre cooked meats. This style is used extensively to make pates. In some cases the cooking will entail only lightly searing and browning of the meats (hence the term gratin), at other times, the meat may be completely cooked before grinding and pureeing. The contemporary interpretation of gratin style is an expansion of the definition of farce given by Escoffier. His definition refers to any forcemeat based on liver, needed to be pre cooked before grinding. Most types of meat can be used in gratin style forcemeats. However, as in the case of the straight method, poultry and fish is normally not use. Often, the liver of veal and pork are used. Pork back fat and jowl fat are also incorporated. The texture of this type of forcemeat is very fine and should be properly ground till smooth.  The density of this type of farce is slightly lighter than a straight method due to the varying degree of binding power that is lost because of the pre cooking. Panada is avoided it will soften the already delicate texture. To compensate the loss of binding power, extra eggs are added. A different flavor is achieved here as a result of the browning and pre cooking. A nutty flavor develops. The result is very smooth, delicately flavored forcemeat.

Mousseline style is the fourth type of farce. The most distinctive characteristic of this method is the type of fat that is used in its preparation. The use of cream as the source of fat, combined with the processing of the components to an ultra fine consistency, results in an extremely light and smooth product. This product is in sharp contrast to that produced using the harder types of fat. Mousseline –style forcemeats are made using lean white or light meats and fish. Chicken, rabbit, shellfish, sole and trimmed lean pork fillet is ideal to use. Although a panada is not needed for additional binding for this type of forcemeat, one is occasionally added to achieve a lighter consistency. Due to the delicate nature of the meats and the cream, the seasoning to should be very delicate. Care must be taken not to overpower the flavors of the components of the forcemeat.  Shallots, ground white pepper and white wine can be used.

Note: The term mousseline forcemeat is often improperly abbreviated as mousse in everyday use. This is a source of much confusion. A mousse is a mixture of fully cooked and pureed basic ingredients bound with gelatin and fat and lightened with an aerator like egg white.

5/4/3 Emulsion Forcemeat is used extensively in making sausages like frankfurters, bologna and knockwurst. It I a commercial mixture and hardly ever used in a hotel kitchen. Its name is derived from the ratio of the components of the forcemeat:  5 parts of meat, 4 parts of fat and 3 parts of ice.  5/4/3 emulsion forcemeat can be made with almost any kind of meat. Fish is not considered suitable for this kind of forcemeat. Pork jowl fat is the common fat used; the term emulsion automatically indicates the texture, which should be a perfectly smooth paste. Processing of the components of the forcemeat with ice, results in a very strong emulsion of the meat and the fat when it is cooked. The resulting blend has a moderate density. A variety of binders can be used to assist in the binding and water retention. Panada is not capable of providing the type of binding required. Therefore, non-fat milk powder is preferred. Sodium caseinate and phosphates can also be used. Since this is used commercially, the seasoning and flavoring will vary from one manufacturer to the other.


Perfumed with freshly chopped herbs and aromatic spices, a melange of succulent ingredients distinguishes pates and terrines, as some of the most delectable of food preparations. They can be basic or fancy, inexpensive or costly, they can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes – small, large, oval, round, rectangular and even cylindrical. Terrines are cooked, stored and even served in the same container which may be crafted iron, enamel, porcelain and glass but which originally was pottery or earthen ware from which the terrine got its name (terre meaning earth in French).


The term pate refers to forcemeat baked in a crust, usually in a rectangular mould, something like a loaf tin. In French it is called pate en croute. Simply defined, a pate is a paste of finely chopped or pounded or pureed seasoned meat, which generally is liver. There are a few classical dishes like the pate campagne from France that is not baked and really should be referred to as terrines.

Among the wide variety of ingredients used in the making of a pate are liver, a variety of meats, truffle and of course seasoning. Goose and duck liver, bring a characteristic flavor to the pate. Chicken livers are the most common these days but sheep and calf liver are often used as well. Truffle will make the pate special. Pates can be prepared in advance, stored and then used as and when required. The meats used in a pate are first marinated and at times pre cooked. The livers must be handled carefully and the gall bladder, veins and blood clots if any must be removed. Ideally, the livers must be soaked in milk for 24 hours (refrigerated). They are then drained and seasoned. Sometimes, a small quantity of bread crumbs is added to the farce to lighten the mixture. Non fat dry milk (powder) could also be used. It adds a creamy texture to the mixture. A meat glaze or aspic could also be substituted as a binder and will contribute a rich gelatinous quality to the farce. For that extra fragrance, a small quantity of wine or brandy could be added at the last minute before combining and processing.

For the crust, dough must be prepared and the following recipe has proved to be good


Flour           1 kg

Butter          150 gm

Margarine    200 gm

Baking powder 15 gm

Water 250 ml (approx.)

Vinegar       25 ml

Eggs            3

Salt             2 tsp

Sift the flour and the baking powder.

Rub the shortening and the butter into the flour

Combine and add the remaining ingredients into the flour.

Mix until the dough is formed and knead till smooth.

Shape the dough into a flat rectangle. Refrigerate overnight.

Note: pate dough can also be made out of yeast and brioche dough

Assembling the pate:

Lightly oil the mould.

Roll the dough and line the mould leaving an overhang on the four sides.

Carefully press the dough into the corners of the mould.

Refrigerate the lined mould for at least an hour.

Fill the mould with the prepared farce ½ inch short of the top edge.

(The forcemeat should be placed in the mould in several layers. Use a palette knife to press into place. This will reduce the risk of air pockets in the finished product. There may be a central or dispersed garnish)

Fold the overhanging dough over the top of the mould and the seal.

Carefully cut two small holes from the top and provide chimneys for the excess steam to escape during the cooking.

Cooking the Pate:

The cooking takes place in two stages

Browning stage:  Cover the surface with foil and place the mould in a pre heated 475°F oven for approximately 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and allow to rest for 15 minutes. The surface should show hints of brown.

Cooking stage:  Uncover the pate and lightly egg wash the top of the pate

Place in a pre heated 375°F oven until an internal temperature of 170°F has been reached. Temperature can be taken through the chimney. Make sure the thermometer reaches the center of the pate.

Finishing the Pate:

The pate is not complete when removed from the oven. It must now be filled with aspic. First, allow the pate to cool to room temperature. This will allow for the fat and the juices to be re absorbed into the meat. Through the chimneys, carefully pour in good quality aspic. The aspic will slowly be absorbed into the meat and will fill the sides (where the meat has shrunk), and any crevice and air pockets that might have formed. Allow the pate to chill overnight before removal and slicing.


Terrines are the closet cousins of the pate. The terrine vessel is an oblong earthern ware mould. As mentioned earlier, this was the original vessel that was use and this is how terrine got its name.  However, nowadays, enamel, cast iron, clay, porcelain and china vessels are common. Since the terrine takes its name from the vessel and not the mixture used, the variety of types is limitless. The forcemeat used in a terrine is usually uncooked and is slightly coarser compared to a pate. Various force Meats can be used and layered one over the other. Care should be taken that the variety of forcemeats used complement each other. The binding used in forcemeat for a terrine is normally eggs or gelatin.

Pre preparation of a Terrine:

 The forcemeat for the terrine must first be prepared. This may be more than one type and can be layered. The garnish which can be chopped herbs is also prepared. Line the mold with strips of pork fat or bacon.

Assembling the Terrine:

Fill the terrine half full and ensure that there are no air pockets. If a central garnish is being used, place this in the middle and top with the other half of the forcemeat. If several types of forcemeat are being used, then layer them one over the other. Top with additional layers of pork fat or streaky bacon. The fat/bacon keeps the terrine moist during the ensuing cooking process. Small bunches of fresh herbs may also be placed on the top of the terrine.  Bayleaf, rosemary and thyme are ideal for this purpose.

Cooking the Terrine:

Assemble a water bath to cook the terrine. A wire rack can be placed at the bottom of the pan on which the mould can rest. Place in a preheated 325°F oven. The temperature of the water should be 190°f before placing in the oven. The water should come up to ½ inch below the level of the forcemeat in the mould.

The temperature of the water should be maintained at 170-175°F throughout the cooking process. The terrine is done when the internal temperature reaches 140°F. remove from the water bath and cool at room temperature for 30 minutes.

Pressing Terrines:

A cooked terrine is pressed or weighted after it is cooked. This involves placing a weight on the surface of the terrine. A metal plate that fits into the top of the terrine is placed on top and a medium weight is placed on the plate. This is then refrigerated overnight. It helps to compact the terrine and thereby improve the texture and facilitates easy slicing of the terrine.

Storing Pates and Terrines:

Refrigerate meat pates and terrines to ripen their flavor. Covered and refrigerated, they will keep for a week. Terrines will actually keep much longer if a layer of melted fat/butter is poured over the surface. Avoid the freezing of meat pates and terrines. It alters the texture of the meat and also the pastry. Well-chilled pates and terrines will slice the best. However, they taste best closer to room temperature. After slicing, allow to stand a while. This allows the subtleties of the flavor to emerge.

Serving Pates and Terrines:

Pate in pastry is sliced and served as a starter along with a plate salad.

Terrine can be served sliced or scooped out with a spoon. Terrines and pates can both be featured on a cold buffet presentation.

Foie Gras

Foie Gras, if literally translated, means fat liver. But the liver is no ordinary liver, nor is it just fat!!! Pate de Foie Gras is the resulting product of an extremely complicated process involving the liver of goose and its recipe dates back to the 17th Century.

The geese is placed in pens and given plenty to eat. The feed consists of beetroot, artichokes, carrots, corn, cooked potatoes, maize, oats and beans along with plenty of fresh water. This specially crafted diet contains a high quantity of vitamins and at times the bird needs to be forcefed. After 2 to 3 weeks, the goose liver swells slowly and when the farmer/breeder thinks it is sufficiently ready, the bird is killed and the liver removed.

Once the goose livers have been selected, they are sent to the manufacturers of foie gras and in some special cases, directly to chefs who make their own foie gras. Generally, foie gras can be bought either fresh or tinned/canned.

In the processing of foie gras, the bile is first removed and the livers are then carefully sorted and graded. Some livers may be ideal for steaming and others for baking. Those which are suitable for light steaming would quickly become dry if they are cooked in the oven. The color, texture and firmness are also important.

The network of nerves are removed from the livers which are then put to soak in water and are then drained and seasoned. The livers are stuffed with truffle and then steamed or baked in the oven. Livers of lesser quality or the wrong color (the right color is shell pink) are pulverised into a mousse and can be used as a meat spread for sandwiches. The livers can be packed in tins or in earthen jars.

The delicate nature of Foie Gras necessitates particular care in serving. It should be served cold and at the beginning of the meal with a crisp white wine. Reisling, Champagne, White Burgundy or even Bordeaux of good vintage is ideal. Red wine should definitely be avoided as it will detract from the taste instead of sharpening it.

Foie gras can be garnished with aspic jelly and with nothing else. Foie gras is best presented on the plate in the shape of shells, scooped out of the jar/can/terrine with a teaspoon. It can also be served in slices. Certain types of foie gras are surrounded by a layer of white fat. The connoisseur will remove this, knowing that it has been used only to ensure its perfection and to preserve it.

Foie gras has been around for ages and has been consumed for centuries. It was made traditionally in the region of Alcase in the town of Strasbourg in Eastern France. In fact, the correct name should read Pate de Foie Gras de Strasbourg.  Legally, all foie gras from the region must contain a maximum 75% goose liver and a minimum 5% truffle, to be accorded the name. Like Champagne and other wines, an appellation or controlling body governs the production, manufacture, sales, pricing and marketing of the Foie Gras.

From 1762, the Marechal de Conrades who resided in Strasbourg had a head chef Jean Pierre Clause whose ability in the culinary arts was gratefully acknowledged by the guests of the Marechal. One day, in order to please his master, he put before him Pate Marechal, a dish he had just invented. Marechal thought it so magnificent that he ordered another one to be made and sent it to Versailles to the Kings palace. The court liked it so much that the Marechal was granted an estate.

Nowadays, it is chiefly the French cities of Strasbourg and Toulouse which are renowned for their Foie gras



Truffle is known by several names such as Black Diamond and Children of the Gods. The truffle is a fungus fruit that matures underground. However, not all underground fungi are truffle. The real story of the growth of truffle is a strange one. The truffle is the fruit of a widely spreading system of colorless, microscopic branching threads that penetrate the soil for distances that are measurable in yards. These threads known as hyphae, touch the furtherest tips of the roots of trees and shrubs. The interaction of roots and hyphae forms a compound structure part plant and part fungus. However, this cannot further develop without vitamins and minerals. When the hyphae have absorbed enough material from the soil and plant, they proceed to develop fruit. The fruit which develops from a knot of hyphae is called a truffle. Nowadays, specially trained dogs and hogs are used to detect truffle. Truffles vary in color from a smooth white surface to a dark brown or black. They are usually rounded, although some may resemble ginger. The interior of the truffle has elaborate rolds or chambers. The flavor of the truffle can vary considerably. Some have a touch of garlic in its flavor.

In France, the region of Perigord less than 50 miles from the Bordeaux region is well known for its crop of truffle. In Italy, Piedmont in the Umbria region produces almost the entire crop of Italian white truffle. Geographically, truffle will occur near the wine growing regions. Surprisingly, a good year for wine means a bad year for truffle and vice verca.

The composition of truffle is 72% water, 8-10% protein, 4% fat, 13-15% carbohydrates and 2-5% mineral traces.

Contrary to popular belief, the white truffle, unlike its black cousin should never be cooked as it may loose its fragrance if subjected to heat. Fresh truffle should be firm to touch and not spongy. They impart a distinct aroma when fresh. Because of their exorbitant prices, their usage in the kitchen and the garde manger is fairly limited

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