Culinary Product of India Notes

Culinary Product of India Notes

Religious sweets of India
– Indian food encompasses wide variety of religious cuisines native to India.
– Due to range of diversity in soil, climate, occupation these cuisines vary.
– It is also influenced by religious & cultural choices and tradition.
– It consists of thousands of religious cuisines and was influenced by U.K.
– Each family includes wide variety of dishes and techniques.
– It has been influenced by 5000-year history of various groups and cultures.
– Religious is a social- cultural system.
– It is a social cultural system of designated behaviours and practices.
– It relates to Humanity.
– System who belief in God.
– Worship of something.
– A set of values, beliefs, practices based on teachings of a spiritual leader.
– Hinduism
– Buddhism
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– Jainism
– Sikhism
Religious Importance of Sweets.
– It talks about the religious dishes; it means cuisines or sweets related to sweets.
– Indian sweets are synonymous with festive occasions.
– No festival or ceremony is complete without sweets.
– Diwali is one of the examples.
– There is no particular time of having sweets in India.
– Every good news is always accompanied with sweets
– Sweets and religious ceremonies ‘go hand in hand’.
For ex: Modak are commonly known as lord Ganesh as favourite sweet made on Ganesh Chaturthi. Religious Festive Sweets.
(1.) LOHRI: Lohri is a Punjabi folk festival celebrated by Sikhs and Hindus in every year of January.
It is a celebration of winter solstice.
Many sweets are as:
* Kheer
* Revari
* Til gajak
(2.) HOLI: Holi is a festival of colours.
It starts on nights before Holi with Holika dahan.
Some religious sweets are as:
* Gujia
* Puran Poli
* Malpua
(3.) NEW YEAR: New year is celebrated in India under different names. Following are as:
* Vishnu in Kerala: It is celebrated with payasam.
* It is made on all Hindu festivals.
* It is a ‘prasad’ offered in temples.
(4.) JANAMASTHMI: It is the birthplace/ anniversary of Lord Krishna.
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* Also known as Gokulashami.
* Various celebrations are Dahi handi.
* Religious dishes are as:
* Kheer
* Nariyal ka ladoo
* Khus or gond ki panjeeri
(5.) GANESH CHATURTHI: It is the anniversary of Lord ganesha and is celebrated with great gusto in Maharashtra.
* One of famous religious dessert is MODAK.
* It is Indian sweet made with filling of grated coconut and jaggery and outside is rice flour.
* It can be fried or steamed.
Indian Food Rituals
Start with spice and end with sweet
Spices activates the digestive juices which are acidic in nature whereas sweets are basic and helps in cutting down spices.
Sitting on the floor and eating
Helps in improving digestion so that circulatory system can focus solely on digestion.
Eating with hands
Said to be sensory.
Evokes emotions.
Thumb – space
Index finger – air
Middle finger – fire
Ring finger – water
Little finger – earth
Serving food on banana leaf
Leaf contains large number of polyphenols – natural antioxidant.
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Offering food to god
– Respect
– Devotion
– Considered as a sacrifice
Use of copper vessels
Copper destroys undesirable viruses.
Kills E- coli bacteria.
Indian thali system
A wholesome meal.
– Balanced meal.
– E.g. South Indian thali, Rajasthani Thali, Gujrati Thali, North- Indian Thali.
– Ancient Indian medical practice.
– Regular cleansing of toxic materials in the body.
Historical Description of Food
Fusion and Food
Today every very well-known Indian dish is the product of a long history of invasion and the fusion of different food traditions.
The food that we Indians have been eating has been, over the millennia, steadily evolving both in variety and taste.
The food habits and preferences of Indians have changed in stages over the last 4000 years, from the Indus Valley days through the Vedic times and after the influence of Buddhist and Jain thought, and their impact on the Dharma Sutras and Arthasastra of around 300 BC, to Mughals, Europeans and British.
Indus Valley Civilization:
At the various sites in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa we have found wheat and barley.
They were also familiar with chickpea, Masur dal and horsegram, Chana.
They were also familiar with fruits like pomegranate, coconuts and banana.
Wheat was used by making into stew, soup or flat bread called chappati.
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Food in Indus Valley Around 7000 BCE, sesame, eggplant and humped cattle had been domesticated in the Indus Valley.
By 3000 BCE, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper and mustard were harvested in India.
Coming of Aryans
Coming of Aryans also did not change the food structure of India.
Whereas the Harappan civilization was an essentially urban one, the Vedic was agricultural, pastoral and Philosophical, keenly alive to the forces within and without that effect human equanimity and comfort.
A prayer from the Yajurveda, composed about 800 B.C. reads like this, “May for me prosper, through the sacrifice, milk, sap, ghee, honey, eating and drinking at the common table, ploughing, rains, conquest, victory, wealth, riches. May for me prosper, through the sacrifice, low grade food, freedom from hunger, rice, barley sesame, kidney beans, vetches, wheat, lentils, millets, panicum grains and wild rice. May for me prosper, through the sacrifice, trees, plants that which grows in ploughed land and that which grows in unploughed land”
The Rig Veda mentions neither rice, nor wheat but only barley.
The Yajurveda mentions all the three besides panicum cereal, oil seed and pulses such asmasha (urad), masura (masoor), mudga (mung) and Kalya (matar).
Milk and Milk products
Cattle were an integral part of the Vedic culture. There is a lot of reference to the milk of cows, though that of the buffalo and goat also finds mention.
Dadhi (present dahi) or curds was eaten with rice, barley or Soma Juice. Curd folded into fresh milk constituted a popular drink, the solid portion being termed as amishka and the liquid portion as vajina.
Shikarini, the modern Shrikhand, using strained curds, crystal sugar and fragrant herbas was used. The solid part of the cow ghee was called manda.
Butter milk was in wide use and it was turned into seasoned dish called saga.
The Aryans
– Ancient Indians were good farmers.
– They cultivated barley wheat rice, melons and cotton and kept their crops in a central storage in each city.
– They kept cow, pigs, buffalo and sheep.
– They lived in banks of rivers and fish were caught from river with fish hooks.
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Food till the period of Aryans
They ate both vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Their main food was products of wheat served with barley or rice along with fish or meat.
Vegetarian food (strictly excluding animal and fish meat) became the norm for as much as half of the population after the coming of Buddhism.
Food Ethos
Food to the Aryans was not simply a means of bodily sustenance, it was part of a cosmic moral cycle.
The Taitttiriya Upanishad states, From earth sprang herbs, from herbs food, from food seed, from seed man……..Man thus consists of the essence of food….from food are all creatures produced, by food do they grow…The self consists of food, of breath, of mind, of understanding , of bliss.”
The Bhagvad Gita also states, from food do all creatures come into being. Hence in the great Aryan cosmic cycle, the eater, the food he eats and the Universe must all be in harmony.
Eating and cooking practices and rules of pollution
It was during this period that the concept of pollution became intimately woven to the cooking and eating practice.
It would be unthinkable for a cook or house wife to taste any dish during the course of its preparation.
Water must never be sipped from a tumbler but poured into the mouth from above since one’s own saliva is polluting.
Water used for rinsing the mouth must be caste out never swallowed.
In many rituals sprinkling of water has a strong connotation of purification on the leaf before eating.
The Buddhist Period
Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism crystallized out of a Hindu matrix. In terms of food and food practices they had many features in common with the Hindu ethos but also some distinct elements.
In the Lankavatra Sutra, Buddha is recorded as saying, I enjoy the taking of food made out of rice, barley, wheat, mudga, maha, masura and other grains, ghee,oil of seasum, honey, molassess, sugar, fish, eggs and others which are full of soul qualities but devoid of faults, they were consumed by the Aryans and by the rishis of yore”.
Monks were advised to eat solid foods only between sunrise and noon and nothing between noon and sunrise the next day as this would subdue passion and lead to spiritual strength.
Buddha himself favoured non injury and was strongly opposed to ritual sacrifice, yet even he permitted his followers animal flesh on occasions if the killing had been unintentional.
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By 300 B.c. with the coming of Mauryan, many people became vegetarians though eating of meat not given up completely.
Strong philosophy that animal sacrifices added to your karma and did not relieve you from cycle of reincarnation.
The emperor Ashoka in his edicts not only preached non killing powerfully but himself practiced it. The Girnar stones in Gujarat state, no living being may be slaughtered for sacrifice, no festive gathering may be held. Formerly slaughtering in the Kings kitchen was great, now it has almost been stopped”.
By 650 A.D. worship of mother goddess came into prevalence.
Cow came to be worshipped.
Hindus stopped eating beef completely.
In the Gupta Empire, they mostly ate vegetables, cereals, fruits, breads, and drank milk. Philosophy of food
According to the traditional Indian medical system Ayurveda, food is of three kinds.
• satvic,
• rajasic
• tamasic depending on its character and effect upon the body and the mind.
Satvic food
Satvic food is most simple and easiest to digest type of food.
The food contains most of its nutritional values as it is cooked by using minimal heat and modest processing.
It provides the necessary energy to the body without taxing it.
It is also considered as a foundation of higher states of consciousness, that is why saints and seers survive on satvic foods.
Satvic food should be taken fresh or immediately after it is prepared.
Fresh juicy fruits, vegetables (that are easily digestible), milk and milk products, whole soaked or also sprouted beans, grains and nuts, many herbs and spices consumed in their natural and near-natural forms are good examples of satvik food.
Common spices like ginger, turmeric, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, and aniseed are highly recommended in Satvic diet
Rajasik food
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Rajasik food is rich in flavour but heavy to digest.
It is suitable for people who do arduous physical work.
Vegetables cooked in excess butter, with spicy and strong flavouring agents, are typical example of rajasic preparation. Cooked fresh, rajasic food is rich in nutrients with minimum dilution with water.
Such food is heavy on salt and sugar and takes longer period to digest than sattvic food.
It calls for extended sleeping hours and is sexually stimulating. Satvic foods that have been fried in oil or cooked too much or eaten in excess, specific foods and spices that are strongly exciting, bitter, pungent, hot and dry are examples of rajasic food.
A rajasic food eater is usually aggressive and overflowing with energy as the rajasic food increase the speed and excitement of the human organism
Tamasic food
Tamasic food is considered the worst among all types of food.
Dry, unnatural, overcooked, stale, decaying and processed food makes for a Tamasic diet. Tamasic diet consumes a large amount of energy while being digested.
Refined food – be it cereals, oils or hydrogenated butter, stimulants and beverages like tea, coffee and soft drinks, fast and ready-to-cook food, canned or frozen food, precooked and warmed food items like burgers, pizzas, pastries, and chocolates, incompatible food as well as intoxicants like tobacco and alcohol are tamasic examples of tamasic food.
Tamasic diet is foundation of ignorance, doubt, pessimism and leads a person to sick and painful life.
A tamasic person always at serious discomfort with himself and forgets to lead healthy a happy life
Food of Royalty
We get a lot of information on food served to the royalty in the Sanskrit and regional literature from 1000 to 1500 A.D.
King Somswara III the Western Chalukya king ruled from 1126 to 1138 A.D.
To him is attributed the Sanskrit work, Abhla-sahitartha-chintamani better known as Manasollasa, meaning the refresher of mind.
It consists of 100 chapters grouped in to 5 equal books.
In the chapter on Annabhoga, it gives recipes, some fairly detailed others less for the preparation of a variety of dishes that are even now current in Kannada, Marathi and Tamil areas, such as idli, disai, vadai, dahi vada, poli, wadia, shrikhand, pheni and Laddu.
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However, the king pays much more attention to non vegetarian food preparation. He says even though food preparation served in earthen vessel tastes well, kings must be served in vessels made of gold.
Meat Items
In King Someswara’s book, meat items have a pride of place.
Liver was carved in to a globular shape of beetle nuts, which were then roasted on charcoal and then fried with spices, eventually to be placed in curds, on a decoction of black mustard.
Roasted tortoise, seasoned fish and fried crabs were other dishes relished.
In one recipe pieces of meat are mixed with a paste of gram pounded with spics and fried. To this were added tender hyacinth beans, certain berries, onions and garlic and the whole mass was taken up in some sour juice and flavoured.
Tastes of a Royal meal
Many tastes in a royal meal.
These are madhura (sweet), amla (sour), lavana (salty), kata (pungent), tikta (bitter) and kasaya (astringent), as prescribed earlier on by Sushruta (around 600 AD).
The Bhavissayattakaha (of AD 1000) describes the royal meal of King Shrenika thus. First were served fruits that could be chewed (grape, pomegranate, ber), then fruits to be sucked (sugarcane, oranges, mangoes).
Food that could be licked came next and in the fourth course came solid sweet items such as sevaka, modaka and phenaka. Rice followed next and the sixth was of broths. Curd preparation made the seventh course and the eighth ended with thickened milk flavoured with saffron. Items such as parpata (papad) and vataka (vadam) were common.
Coming of Islam
By 1100 A.D. many people stopped eating Pork because it was not allowed by the Koran.
This had an adverse effect on environment because Pigs do not destroy the forest in which they live but sheep and goats do.
Roti in thali
Roti, dhal and cereals are easily grown in the dry arid atmosphere where there is less of green vegetables.
This food continued from this period to the present.
Diversity in Indian Food
Indian food is as diverse as its culture, its religions, geography, climatic conditions and traditions.
All of these combine to influence the preparation of Indian food.
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Essentially spicy, the cuisine is, however, not always hot.
It is the different combination of a handful of spices that produce the most delectable dishes in the world.
Use of fruits
With coming of Islam people started eating more fruits.
Citrus fruits like lemons and oranges grown from now onwards and eaten.
Firoz Tughluq laid a large number of mango gardens.
Persian influence on Food
• The food from North India also traces its descent from Persian ancestors and then more definitely from the 16th century Mughals.
• The Mughals brought with them Persian and Afghan cooks who started North Indians on the rich and fragrant Persian rice dishes, such as pilafs and biryanis (meat-based pilafs).
• Garnished with pounded silver (vark), these dishes along with spicy kormas (braised meat in creamy sauces), koftas (grilled spicy meatballs) and kababs used to grace the tables of emperors.
Mughlai influence
Central Asian nomadic influence is apparent in meat dishes and communal eating due to tent life of the warriors
Kulfi the Mughal way
The delicious cold kulfi was made at court by freezing a mixture of khoa, pista nuts and zafran essence in a metal cone after sealing the open top with dough. (The only modification today is to use aluminium or plastic cones with their own caps).
Jahangir, unlike his father, enjoyed meat, but will be remembered for popularizing falooda (a jelly made from boiled wheat strainings mixed with fruit juices and cream).
Food from 16th century
The Mughals were great patrons of cooking.
Introduced rich gravies, pilafs and non-vegetarian fare such as kebabs, resulting in Mughalai Cuisine as well as such fruits as apricots, melons, peaches and plums.
Lavish dishes were prepared during the reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
The Nizams of Hyderabad state meanwhile developed and perfected their own style of cooking with the most notable dish being the Biryani, often considered by many connoisseurs to be the finest of the main dishes in India.
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During this period the Portuguese introduced foods from the New World.
They brought potato, tomato, tapioca, groundnuts, corn, papaya, pineapple, guava, avocado, rajma (kidney bean), cashew, sapota (chiku), and of course capsicum and chilli in all its forms.
Perhaps the cauliflower and cabbage came from Europe or Latin America too, but certainly a particular form of cottage cheese did come from the Portuguese.
It was this that became the chhana of Bengal and Orissa — the base for many Bengali sweets (Sandesh in its modern form, and of course inventions called Rasogolla, Khirmohan, Mouchak, Pantua, Sitabhog, Chhena Puda, and so forth).
The Portuguese word for grain, grao, was taken up to describe Indian pulses as Bengal gram, horse gram and other grams.
While the Arabs and Central Asians brought bajra, jowar, lobia and forms of bread (roti) into India, the Portuguese enriched Indian food through their diverse introductions.
When we eat Aloo-poori, we partake of the richness of the produce of people from West Asia and Latin America!
Early European officials
Early European Officials in India had lavish tables. Mandelslo in 1638 noted, 15 or 16 dishes of meat, besides the dessert in the home of the President of the English merchants of Surat.
In 1780, Mrs. Eliza fay, a lawyers wife and herself a dressmaker wrote, “We dine at 2, 0, clock in the very heat of the day, a soup, a roast fowl, curry, rice, a mutton pie, four quarter of lamb, a rice pudding, tarts, very good cheese, fresh churned butter, excellent Madeira( that is very expensive but eatables are very cheap).
To prepare and serve these arrays of dishes a whole array of servants and Kedmutgars were in attendance. This was followed by a siesta, evening visits and a light dinner at night.
By the turn of the twentieth century eating habits had changed. The mid-day meal had become lighter. By 1910, a lunch consisted of pea soup, roast chicken and tongue, breadsauce, potatoes, cheese macroni and lemon pudding.
The main meal had moved to seven or eight in the evening and in 1909, Maud Divers declared, India is the land of dinners and England is the land of five o, clock tea all India is in a chronic state of giving and receiving this form of hospitality.
British attitude to Indian food
Indian food, whether the robust fare of Punjab and the North East Frontier or the delicate, light flavours of the South Indian cuisine, remained essentially the “food of the natives” who, according to the foreign rulers, ate pungent, chilli-spiked curries and rice or rotis like some uncivilised pagans.
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The British were not in India to learn. They, as well as other Europeans, were here to “civilise” the backward masses of India and their looking down on the food of India was but a natural corollary.
The memsahibs, whether they were British, French or Portuguese, employed Indian khansamas, cooks and bearers but taught them their own cuisines rather than eat Indian meals at their innumerable parties or in their family meals.
Most British officers and civil administrators who came to India, looked upon the native cuisines of India as unhygienic and unpalatable because of the high content of spices and herbs.
British contribution to Indian food
British made little contribution to Indian food.
Fish and chips or Yorkshire pudding pale in comparison to what we got from the Arabs, Portuguese and Moghuls, but the British did sensitise us to at least one fruit, namely the apple.
Local varieties of apple are recorded to have occured in Kashmir (called amri, tarehli and maharaji), and Dalhara in 1100 AD talked about a “ber as big as a fist and very sweet, grown in North Kashmir”, which is likely an apple.
But it was the colourful Britisher Frederick “Pahari” Wilson who established a flourishing apple farm in Garhwal, where they grow red and juicy Wilson apples to this day.
Apples in Himanchal
In these days of American imports into India such as Pizza, Burgers, French fries and colas, it is well to remember the best import we have had from these, namely apples and express our gratitude to the American Mr. Stokes.
He settled in Kotgarh near Simla in the 1920s and started apple orchards there, and helped in the proper grading, packing and marketing of the fruit.
Word related to food in British Vocabulary
Colonial rulers have never been known for their linguistic accuracy and no one knows for sure where the British got this one. “Kari” is a South Indian word for sauce and “tarkari” is a North Indian dish.
Shiqar festivals
The only concession they made was when they attended the shikar feasts of the maharajas or ceremonial royal meals in the opulent, chandeliered dining halls of the riyasatis where food was served by turbaned waiters from gem-studded gold or silver vessels.
Throughout the colonial period too many new, hybrid cuisines developed because the khansamas of the memsahibs innovated food which combined some of the flavours of India with those of Britain, France or Portugal.
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Thus, as a legacy of the Raj era, we have the remnants of an Anglo-Indian, Indo-French or Indo-Portuguese cuisine.
These flourish in parts of India and in Britain or Europe where nostalgic memories of the Raj linger on.
When the British left
Clearly the sahibs and memsahibs fell in love with the flavors of India. When they returned to the homeland, they had their cooks grind up a mix of spices to sprinkle on their staid British staples.
The world now knows this as “curry powder” and whatever is cooked with it is “curry.”
Changes in eating habits
In the British Raj, mini revolutions occurred in food and eating habits in the higher echelons of Indian society.
Affluent, Westernised Indian families ate at dining tables with forks and knives and added to their menus, at least some western goodies such as baked dishes, cakes, puddings and ice cream.
Their food, though cooked in their own style, also included a few acceptable western items in their daily diet.
Chines influence on Food
The Chinese had their influence too, though not to the extent of the Portuguese and the Moghuls. Mulberry, blackberry and the litchi fruit came to us through them. Of Chinese origin are also the sweet cherry and the peach.
China also developed the leafy variety of Brassica juncea (rai), which we in India use as a vegetable.
Camphor is a Chinese import and introduction (it is even today called chinakarpura).
The soybean was imported from China into India in 1908 for cultivation, though it caught on widely only after the U.S. variety was introduced in 1970s.
And the most precious introduction of China to India (and to the world at large) is of course their cha or teh, namely tea. Just imagine what we do first thing in the morning — we pay obeisance to the Arabs with a cup of coffee (they brought it to us in the 1600s) or to the Chinese with our steaming cuppa.
Caste based food
However, the large mass of the highly caste and-religion-riddled Indian society continued to maintain its original food barriers and ate community or regional food which was their legacy for generations.
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Caste and religion were the main dividing partitions of society and food and eating habits reflected these divisions clearly.
After Independence
Only when Independence came, did Indians realise that they were one nation and that they would have to work above all towards a homogenous culture, lifestyle and national awareness.
The divide and rule days of the British were at last over.
The French had vacated Pondicherry, Mahe and Karaikal and the Portuguese were soon to be forced out of Goa, Diu and Daman.
Food Revolution
The first signs of the imminent, massive food revolution were visible when Mumbai, the most cosmopolitan city of India, welcomed hordes of Sindhi and Punjabi refugees who migrated to the city.
They entered the building and film industries and began to assert their culture in the metropolis. Punjabi dhaba food from the North West Frontier became popular in Mumbai in the Sixties. Mumbaites, who had hitherto relished non-vegetarian food in the many street-corner Irani restaurants and khanawals serving the fish and meat dishes of the Konkan coast and Goa, pounced on the luscious kebab and tandoori cuisine which was new and exciting.
Food Today
In addition to the pronounced use of spices, common culinary threads unifying local cuisines include the prominence of flatbreads and a far greater use of dairy products than anywhere else in Asia.
Breads are made with wheat, rice and ground legumes depending on the part of the country while dairy products include milk, cream, yogurt, buttermilk, sour cream and cheese.
Geographical Differences in Food
Beyond that, the differences take over. Northern Indians tend to use their spices ground while Southerners start out with them whole and grind them to a paste with cooked onions and other ingredients. The South is the land of rice while Northerners rely on wheat and other grains — except for Kashmir, high in the Himalayas, which produces some of the best rice in the world. Cooks of the tropical South make heavy use of coconut milk, an ingredient rarely seen in the North. Areas with access to waterways rely more heavily on seafood. Thus, Bengal is a region of fish-lovers, preferably the fresh water variety
Impact of religion on food
Undoubtedly the strongest influence defining Indian food is religion. Centuries of Hindu practice and the profound belief in reincarnation have resulted in the most delicious vegetarian cuisine to
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be found in the world. For protein, vegetarians rely on a wide range of legumes, both whole and split. Mixed with grain, boosted by vegetables and dairy products, and spiced to the max, they provide a wholesome, varied diet.
Just as Japanese sushi relies on the freshness of the meat and Chinese food relies on the various sauces to impart the right flavor and taste, Indian food relies on the spices in which it is cooked. Spices have always been considered to be India’s prime commodity
Spices for medicines
Most of the spices used in Indian food have been used for their medicinal properties in addition to the flavor and taste they impart.
Ginger is believed to have originated in India and was introduced to China over 3000 years ago. In India, a knob of fresh ginger added to tea is believed to relieve sore throats and head colds, not to mention its aphrodisiacal properties! Turmeric is splendid against skin diseases and neem leaves are used to guard against small pox.
Indian Food Festivals
1.National Street Food Festival
Where: – Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi
When: – December-January
2.Mei Ram – we
Where: – Sacred grove, Mawphlang, Mghalaya
When: – December
3.Great Indian Food Festival
Where: – Dilli Haat, Delhi
When: – January
4.The Grub Festival
Where: – New Delhi, Pune, Mumbai
When: – March
5.Goa Food and Cultural Festival
Where: – DB Bandodkar Ground, Campal Panaji, Goa
When: – April
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6.Palate Fest
Where: – Nehru Park, Delhi
When: – Februrary
7.Bhukkad Flea
Where: – Corona Garden, Bandra West, Mumbai
When: – October Importance of Food Fest
Provides an excellent platform to market goods and display their best offerings to an enormous crowd.
Exposure to Relevant Crowd
Staying in touch with your competitors
Customer Connect
Initiating Boosts
Also Helps in Finding Potential Investors
Publicity, etc.
It is the harvest festival
of Northern India. Observed
on 13th or 14th of every year.
Delicacies: – Chole Bhature, Coconut Ladoo, Kheer, Makki ki roti, Sarson ka saag, Pindi Chana (dried preparation of white chick peas, served with lemon juice and onion rinngs), Puri, Til ke ladoo, Til ka gajak.
This festival celebrated
To offer thanks to the Gods
for the harvest and to ake
Their blessings. Celebrated
During 12th -15th January,
in South India.
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Delicacies:- Avial, Coconut Rice, Lemon Rice, Puli
Pongal, Ariselu (made from rice flour, ghee, and jaggery), Masala Vada, Til Polis (made by stuffing sesame seed mixture inn wheat dough and then shallow frying it.
Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti is a widely celebrated festival in India. In South India, it is called Pongal, in North India it is called Lohri, while in western India, it is celebrated by flying colourful kites.
Delicacies: – Bajra Khichdi, Til Gajak, Til Chikki, Murmure Ladoo, Payesh (Bengali version of kheer, made by boiling rice/brokeen wheat with milk, sugar and flavoured with cardamom, pistachios,
almonds, rasinns, etc),
Aate ki Pinni (wheat flour,
sugar and dry fruits), Bandaru
Ladoo (gramfour mixed with sugar),
Pesarattu (It is made with batter of
Green gram dal,served with
tamarind and ginger chutney),
People believe that Shivratri
was the day when Lord Shiva
and goddess Parvati tied the
Nuptial knot. It falls in the
month of February or March.
Delicacies :-
Singhade ki Roti
Singhade ki Kadhi
Aloo Chaat (cubes of potatoes fried and sautéed with spices and chhutney)
Badaam Halwa (soaked almonds grounded and then cooked in desi ghee )
The celebrations begin with a bonfire
and organizing Holi get together and
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playing with coloring dyes.
Delicacies: –
Gujiya (has a distinct shape, filled with a mixture of grated and roasted dry fruits, khoya, coconut and a little suji)
Kanji ke Vade (freid rounds of lentil batter fermented in water, mustard seeds, and asafoietida.
Thandai (prepared by squeezing the buds and leaves of cannabis into a green paste, and adding mixture of milk, ghee, almond, sugar, etc.
Onion Bhajiya
Eid is celebrated all across the world, after seeing the moon at the end of holy month Ramzan in which the muslims keep fast. It is celebrated for three consecutive days.
Delicacies: –
Sheer khurma (a dessert made using
Milk, rice, sewain, dates, coconut,etc)
Kebabs (kebabs made from a mixture of boiled meat, channa dal
Mint leaves and onions)
Biryani and Pulao
Dahi Bhalla
Ayurvedic Food of India…
Ayurveda is as old as mankind. According to Indian society origin of Ayurveda is given by the God Vishnu (Dhanvantri).
But the morden ayurveda father is acharya Charaka Samhita in indus valley.
Fact- national medical award name is dhanvantri award.
Ayurveda or ayur-vigyan is a 6000-year-old health care system that asserts that science, philosophy and spirituality are necessary aspects for a healthy living. Ayurveda is considered not only a comprehensive medical system but also a way of life.
Ayurveda Works on:
• Body
• Mind
• Sole (Emotions)
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Ayurvedic Diet: An ayurvedic diet is an eating plan that provides guidelines for when you eat, what you eat, and how you eat to boost your health.
Ayurvedic approach to designing balanced foods for optimal nutrition absorption of essential nutrients.
Classification of food in Ayurveda: 1. Hot and Cold nature (after effect on body).
2. Satva or Light food, Rajas or Rich food, Tamas or Dull and sluggish.
3.Food Source (plant base, animal base, other).
4. Medicinal, chemical and Genral.
Common food items used in Ayurveda:
Cow products.
Animal products.
Plants products.
Crystals and stones.
Matel and matel ash.
Acids and alkaline.
Variety of aushidi and khadas.
Use for:
1. Strengthen immune system.
2. Efficient detoxification system.
3. Responsive inflammatory system.
4. Optimal metabolic system.
5. Balanced regulatory system.
6. Enhanced regenerative system.
7. Harmonize the life force.
8. Freeradical scavenging or antioxidant.
Indian sciences in Ayurvedic health care practices and related to:
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• Yoga
• Cosmetology, Aesthetics & beauty concepts (Saundarya Vigyana)
• Cookery in view of dietetics (Paaka shastra)
• Sexology (Kamashastra)
• Meditation, Spiritual Practices (Dhyana Yoga)
• Music therapy
• Astrology
• Vaastu
• In appropriate en-effective, unresponsive educational system.
• Halfhearted Government support so other country take patent for ayurvedic product.
• Substandard condition of Ayurvedic teaching Institutions.
• Poor status of Government run Ayurvedic Institutions.
• Loss of faith of Ayurvedic physicians in their own system.
• Misconception among public regarding delayed effect of Ayurvedic drugs.
• Media creation of toxic effects of TMs due the use of minerals and metals.
• No linkage/ understanding / collaboration between the patron countries of Ayurveda to counter the negative market strategies.
Vedic Food
Introduction: Vedic period
Vedic Period is the age of new culture, several developments occurred during that period in the society
In India, a completely new culture and civilisation emerged during the 1500 BC-600 BC.
The Vedic Religion is the predecessor to modern Hinduism.
A method of Ashram system prevailed in the Vedic Period
There are four Vedas- Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda which form the main literary sources for this Vedic era.
Food in Vedic period begins with cereals like rice and barley which formed a major part of food in Vedic period. The Vedic literature throws considerable light on the food and drink habits of the people of the ancient India. Among the food grains, the Rig Veda repeatedly mentions barley, particularly fried barley. These were used in preparing sweet cakes which were either dipped in ghee before eating or consumed with “Somarasa” prepared with curd and butter which formed a major part of Vedic meal. Along with this the food of the Vedic period include large varieties of pulses, dairy products, meat, salts and spices, sweets and a variety of beverages which reflect the culture of Vedic period that came through the food habits of the Indian people.
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Different Food Products in Vedic Period
Vedic period included both vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian food items.
Vedic people cultivated a number of pulses like masura, masa, arahar, grams, peas and kulattha along with rice, wheat and barley.
Generally cow’s milk was consumed after boiling it.
Milk was used for preparing some more items in which milk was milked with either with soma juice or messed with grains to create a whole meal of barley.
Along with various forms of milk goat milk also formed a major part of Indian society that is mentioned in the Rig Vedas.
Beverages in Vedic Period:
❖ Food in Vedic period also gave special importance to beverages particularly Soma Juice which has been mentioned in all the rituals.
❖ The Vedic literature lays down a list of intoxicating beverages which are largely prepared by fermenting the fruit extracts.
❖ Most important among them was Soma Ras that was sweet and delicious in taste.
Cooking Methods in Vedic Period
❖ Utensils the Vedic people largely used utensils made up of clay, wood and stone while other metals are also included for making other utensils.
❖ Also leather vessels were also included.
❖ Various rules and etiquettes which were compulsory for a Vedic family while serving the meal. The Golden Principles of Vedic Food Culture
Good eating according to Vedic food culture emphasizes that:
❖ One should eat warm, unctuous and fluid food, served in an elegant manner to create the congenial and aesthetic atmosphere for its consumption.
❖ Food should be prepared with a variety of ingredients, to balance the different rasa (taste) and enriched with herbs and spices. The preparation of food should take place with a peaceful mental state.
❖ Never consume food under stressful circumstances or under any emotional restraint.
❖ Before your meal, bring your mind to your food, which is the fundamental basis of body’s energy. Look at your food and make a wish that the five elements of the food may provide you with equilibrium, vigour and good health.
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❖ Drinking water, either before or one hour after the food is recommended and not with food.
History of Indian Food
❖ The history of Indian food can be traced back to the ancient daysand introduced by the ancient Indian civilizations – The Harappa and the Mohenjo-Daro.
❖ The first preparation of food included a number of cereals and pulses.
❖ Gradually, the ancient Indian civilization moved towards perfection and this was noticed during the Vedic period.
❖ In this period of time, a regular diet consisted of vegetables, fruits, grains, meat, honey, dairy products, beverages and special kind of spices
Ancient cooking equipment of India Introduction of Cooking Utensils ▪ Small hand held tools. ▪ Used for food preparation. ▪ Varies with time and style of cooking.
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▪ Can be categorized with use as: – ➢ Kitchen ware ➢ Oven ware ➢ Bake ware ➢ Cook ware COOKING EQUIPMENTS CAN BE MADE UP OF: – ▪ COPPER ▪ IRON ▪ STAINLESS STEEL ▪ EARTHENWARE & ENAMEL WARE ▪ ALUMINIUM ▪ CLAY ▪ PLASTIC ▪ GLASS Etc. HISTORY OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT: – ▪ Historic utensils can be named as culinary antiques and vintage kitchen Lia. ▪ Introduced in early 19th century. ▪ Started in 3600 BC the bronze age. ▪ Followed by iron age. ▪ Results into more sophisticated form of tool making. ▪ Stoneware were also very common in 19th century. HISTORY OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT: – ▪ Equipment’s were used as per nutritional purpose. ▪ The style of cooking also affects the use of utensils. ▪ Some utensils popularized by Romans in 8th century is: – ➢ Meat mincer ➢ Strainers ➢ Ladle (made of iron)
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➢ Kettles and pots (made of terracotta & bronze) ▪ 20th century equipment’s includes: ▪ Utensils made with tinned or enameled iron. ▪ Steel, nickel, silver utensils were used. ▪ Coppers were not used because it reacts with acidic food. ▪ Mud, cow dung, clays were commonly used. ▪ The middle east household use: – ➢ Measuring cups (stone made) ➢ Meyham (wide neck vessel) ➢ Kederah (a bellied cooking pot) ➢ Yorah and kumkum. ➢ Two types of Teganon (frying pan) ➢ Iskutla (glass serving platter) ▪ The equipments were made more famous in late 19th century. Growth of kitchen equipments: – ▪ In late 19th century enormous growth in kitchen equipment was seen. ▪ Various machine was introduced in the market to save labour and time. ▪ The equipment’s include: – ➢ Copper saucepans (well lined) ➢ Gridiron (flat bottom soup pot) ➢ Double broiler, rolling pin, cleaver etc. ▪ Styles of Equipment’s used in different parts of India East ▪ Bonthi (vegetable cutter) ▪ Khunti (flat metal spatula) ▪ Hatha (round spoon) ▪ Jhanjri (perforated spoon) ▪ Ghutni (wood hand blender)
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▪ Sharashi (pincer) ▪ Styles of Equipments used in different parts of India West ▪ Sadha nu vasan (steamer) ▪ Lohri (kadhai & tawa) ▪ Kuth (jugs without handle) ▪ Modak patra (copper vessel used for making modak. ▪ Veeli (vegetable chopper) ▪ Chool (cooking stove made of mud) ▪ Styles of Equipments used in different parts of India North ▪ Chakla belan ▪ Pauni (perforated spoon) ▪ Patila (same as lagan) ▪ Khoncha (flat metal spoon) ▪ Bhatti (used for grilling kebabs) ▪ Tikra (clay pot) ▪ Chulah (mud stove) ▪ Styles of Equipments used in different parts of India South ▪ Kalchatti (stone ware used for tempering) ▪ Dosa thiruuppi (flat slicer) ▪ Idli panai (making bulk idli ) ▪ Uruli (heavy pot) ▪ Thurvammi (coconut scraper) ▪ Eyya chombu ▪ Thhaavi ladles (bamboo ladles)
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SPICES Sophistication and subtle use of some herbs & spices characterize Indian food and Indian cuisine. These spices play a very important role in Indian cooking. If there are no spices, it’s not Indian food. We Indians have a habit of spicing up our food to make it more hot and tasty. Some of the spices are required for the aroma, some for flavor and some for complimenting other spices. . In ancient times majority of the spices were produced in India and exported worldwide. It was then, the Spices of India attracted people across the borders are defined as “a strongly flavored or aromatic substance of vegetable origin, obtained from tropical plants, commonly used as a condiment”. Spices were once as precious as Gold. India plays a very important role in the spice market of the world ices and forced them to come to India for Spice trade. • Masala is a word very commonly used in Indian cooking and is simply the Hindi word for “spice.” So, whenever a combination of spices, herbs and other condiments are ground or blended together, it is called masala The Indian spices can be categorized into three main categories: 1. The basic spices 2. Complimentary spices 3. Aromatic or secondary spices 1. The Basic Spices There are a few basic spices in Indian cuisine that go into most dishes. Often a very basic vegetable dish is made by adding cumin or mustard seeds and asafetida in some hot ghee (clarified butter) or oil until they sizzle and pop. Then the vegetables are added and steamed. 1a. Cumin Seed: Other Names: Jeera, jeeragam, jilakara, black cumin, kala jeera, royal cumin, shah jeera, Comino, cumin-A basic Indian spice. Used mainly in North Indian food and is used for its strong distinctive taste. When roasted, whole cumin seeds release more aroma and gives the dish a sweet flavor. Cumin can be used as a whole spice or in the powdered form. Cumin seed powder lends a sweet and mild flavor to a dish and is one of the main ingredients in the popular mixed Indian spice called Garam Masala. 1b. Coriander Seeds: Other Names: Dhania Mainly used for its fresh, soothing and cooling taste, coriander seeds are very light weight and have a mild flavor. Although they come from the same plant, they should not be mixed up with cilantro. Coriander seeds like cumin is used as a whole spice and in a powdered form. In a powder form it is an indispensable spice in the spice box of Indians. The aromatic fragrance of the roasted coriander powder enhances the taste of any dish.
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1c. Black Mustard Seeds: Other Names: Mohri In India the black mustard seeds are preferred over the larger yellow ones found in the western world. It has a strong but pleasing flavor and known for its digestive qualities. It is spluttered in oil or Ghee (clarified butter) and used as a tempering. Mustard seeds are used in India to flavor vegetables, pulses and pickles. 1d. Turmeric: Other Names: Haldi Looks similar to a ginger root but when cut has a gorgeous orange-yellow color. Turmeric is mainly used in Indian dishes for its medicinal properties and for the gorgeous intensive color it gives to the dishes. It is mildly aromatic and has a delicate scent of ginger. Turmeric is a wonder spice and is used throughout Asia to treat cases of stomach and liver ailments. It is also used externally to heal sores and in cosmetics. 1e. Chilli Powder: Other Names: Lal Mirch The Indian chili powder is made from spicy ground chilies and is often hotter that the chili powder available in the US/European stores. It has a pungent, hot aroma with a strong bite to it. 1f. Asafetida: Other Names: Hing, asafetida powder, asafetida, devil’s dung, ferula, foetida, heeng This is often used as a digestive. It has a strong odor and a slight garlicky flavor. Do not taste this raw – it is NOT a pleasant experience. Using it in the recommended recipe however, works wonders. Just a pinch is used for cooking in dishes with lentils and beans. 1g. Garam Masala: Other Names: Mixed Spice powder Garam Masala is powdered blend/mix of spices (aromatic spices, see below) that may include cloves, cardamom, cinnamon, black peppercorns, nutmeg, mace. Garam means “hot”, but not chili hot, hot in the sense that these spices are said to increase body temperature. It can be used a mix of whole spices as well. A whole garam masala could include whole cinnamon sticks, bay leaves, cloves, cardamom (black or green), whole mace, and black peppercorns. Powdered garam masala is often added at the end of cooking in small quantities so that the full aroma is not lost whereas, whole garam masala is used in north Indian cooking, especially meat dishes and as aromatics for rice dishes. Often these are fried in hot oil before other wet ingredients such as meat, onions, garlic, and/or ginger are added. Different regions use different mixtures and proportions of the spices. A garam masala will vary from household to household. 2. Complementary Spices Spices like fennel or nigella seeds are sometimes added along with some of the basic spices to add to flavours. These are used in combination with the basic spices and aromatics mentioned below according to the dish being prepared. 2a. Fennel Seeds: Other Names: Saunf Although this is a basic Indian spice, it is not essential. It is mainly used in North Indian cuisine and possess digestive qualities. If you often visit Indian restaurants you will find these
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coated with colored sugar and offered after meals as a mouth freshener. Fennel seeds are also often used to spice up teas and drinks. 2b. Fenugreek Seeds: Other Names: Methi, halba This spice, which is actually a lentil, is used throughout India for its distinctive flavor (it has a slight bitter taste) it gives the dish and for its wonderful healthful properties. Fenugreek is used in small quantities and is used throughout India – both in North and South Indian Cooking. As a matter of fact, after turmeric, fenugreek seeds are the most medically useful item in an Indian kitchen. 2c. Nigella Seeds: Other Names: Kalonji, onion seeds, calonji, hasbasoda, ketza, black caraway Small black seed, sometimes called onion seeds, although they are not really seeding from onions. these are often used in North India to enhance vegetable dishes. Toasting the seeds briefly brings out the flavor. 2d. Carom Seeds: Other Names: Ajwain These have a strong peppery-thyme flavor. This poppy seed like plant comes from the lovage plant. It is very popular in North Indian cooking. It is used in preparing many Indian vegetables and pulses. 3. Aromatics or Secondary Spices To the above spices we would add chopped onions, tomatoes, herbs and any of the following secondary spices and create a curry. We go light with the Aromatics and added them in small quantities or in the form of garam masala. When you require cardamom in the powdered form, the best way is to crack open the pods using the back of a spoon and powder the small brown/black seeds inside in a mortar or it is recommended to grind small quantities at home using a coffee mill. When a recipe calls for whole cardamom, the pods can be cracked open slightly to release the full.
Andhra Pradesh Must eat’ lists are always a tricky proposition. We’re bound to leave out iconic dishes especially in a large state like Andhra Pradesh where each region offers a cornucopia of culinary treasures. And then there is that standard myth about Andhra cuisine that almost every dish is guaranteed to drill a hole in your tongue because of their fiery spice levels. While that might hold good for some dishes, there’s enough Andhra cuisine where subtle flavours come to the fore.
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My earliest references of Andhra cuisine go back to my paternal village in West Godavari district (not far from Rajahmundry). Add to that is North Chennai’s long list of Andhra restaurants with culinary traditions that date back to a time when large parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu were part of the same region – Madras Presidency. We therefore pick ten dishes that are a great starting point for you to explore Andhra cuisine:
1. Kandhi Podi It’s true that the podis (powders) are one of the best known elements of Andhra cuisine. The pale orange Kandhi Podi (Red gram powder) combines split red gram, Bengal gram and roasted gram and can be stored for months. Restaurants like National Lodge in Chennai have acquired a hallowed reputation for their Kandhi Podi. Add some of this powder to piping hot rice and a dollop of ghee, and there’s probably no better way to start your Andhra meal. 2. Gongura Pachadi
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Just like the podis, the pachadis (chutneys) are a quintessential element in Andhra cuisine and can either be mixed with rice or served as an accompaniment for dosas or idlis. There’s a variety of interesting chutneyslike the Vankaya (brinjal) Pachadi or my favourite Allam (ginger) Pachadi that is terrific with dosas or pesaratu. But nothing is more unique than the spicy Gongura Pachadi that’s crafted with spinach (sorrel leaves). I remember looking forward to a large porcelain jar of this pachadi every summer along with a jar of avakkai (mango pickle). 3. Ulava Charu This is among the state’s most popular dishes and halfway between a rasam and a traditional soup. The Ulava (horse gram) Charu might be associated with the Guntur and Krishna districts but is a delicacy that is savoured across the state on special occasions. It’s usually served with rice and with a dollop of cream – Andhra’s outstanding dairy produce (from set curd to home-made ghee) doesn’t quite get the national attention it truly deserves. 4. Pesarattu At a time when carb-free diets are officially a thing, the pesarattu makes a compelling case for a breakfast or anytime snack. While this dosa variant does use a small amount of rice flour, it’s almost entirely dominated by moong dal. There’s also an interesting version (often called MLA Pesarattu) where the pesarattu is stuffed with Rava Upama.
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5. Ragi Sangati with Natu Kodi Pulusu It’s tough to pick Andhra’s most popular Chicken dish. There’s the Guntur-style Kodi Vepudu that gets its rich flavours from the dry Guntur chilli, garlic and coconut. And then there’s Ragi Sangati (Ragi Balls) served with the Rayalseema-style chicken gravy made with free range chicken. This gravy features a medley of spices including star anise and poppy seeds and tastes equally delicious with steamed rice. 6. Akura Pappu The Akura Pappu combines the goodness of spinach with the protein content of a conventional dal. The Pappus (dals) bust the myth that all Andhra cuisine is fiery and boast of a tangy flavour from the tamarind in the mix.. 7. Royyala Veppudu It is strongly associated with the Nellore region in the Southern tip of coastal Andhra Pradesh, a region known for high quality shrimps. Royyala Veppudu (prawn fry) is relatively easy to fix and doesn’t go overboard with the spice mix allowing you to enjoy the flavours of the prawn.
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8. Gongura Mamsam One of the state’s most popular lamb dishes that tastes delicious with steamed rice but works well with chapatti or dosa. The dish is an explosion of flavours that combines the sour taste of the gongura (sorrel) leaves with red chilli and mutton. It’s not uncommon for this dish to feature potatoes and also coconut milk that lends a rich texture to the gravy. 9. Gutti Vankaya Koora It is arguably Andhra’s best known brinjal dish and quite similar to the Bagara Baingan that is a popular accompaniment for biryani. This flavoursome dish combines peanut with red chillies and the wonderful flavours and textures of brinjal equally scrumptious with steamed rice and bajra or jowar rotis. 10. Poothareku
Andhra cuisine has its share of payasams (kheer) and semolina-based desserts (ladoos and pudding) but nothing quite matches the unique appeal of this sweet dish that can be traced back to the East Godavari district. Derived from the words ‘pootha’ (coating) and ‘reku’ (sheet), you can be forgiven for mistaking this sweet for paper rolls in terms of appearance and texture. Rice flour and ghee combine to create the thin film (it requires great skill) that is usually stuffed with powdered sugar or jaggery (some modern versions even feature chocolate!)
Assam Assam is a state in northeastern India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the
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east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometers strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India. Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state was the first site for oil drilling in Asia. Assam has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, look green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.
GEOGRAPHY A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India – The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month.
CLIMATE With the tropical monsoon climate, Assam experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity. The climate is characterized by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (March–April) and autumn (September–October) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature.
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FAUNA Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests, deciduous forests, riverine grasslands, bamboo orchards and numerous wetland ecosystems; Many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests. Assam has wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage sites – the Kaziranga National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan. The Kaziranga is a refuge for the fast-disappearing Indian one-horned rhinoceros, white-winged wood duck, rufous-necked hornbill, Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, pygmy hog, wild water buffalo, Burmese python, and Assam roofed turtle. Threatened species that are extinct in Assam include the gharial, a critically endangered fish-eating crocodilian, and the pink-headed duck. For the state bird, the white-winged wood duck, Assam is a globally important area. In addition to the above, there are three other National Parks in Assam namely Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Nameri National Park and the Orang National Park. The state has the largest population of the wild water buffalo in the world. The state has the highest diversity of birds in India with around 820 species. With subspecies the number is as high as 946.The mammal diversity in the state is around 190 species.
FLORA Assam is remarkably rich in Orchid species and the Foxtail orchid is the state flower of Assam. The recently established Kaziranga National Orchid and Biodiversity Park boasts more than 500 of the estimated 1,314 orchid species found in India.
GEOLOGY Assam has petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite, kaolin, sillimanites, clay and feldspar. A small quantity of iron ore is available in western districts.Discovered in 1889, all the major petroleum-gas reserves are in Upper parts. A recent USGS estimate shows 399 million barrels (63,400,000 m3) of oil, 1,178 billion cubic feet
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(3.34×1010 m3) of gas and 67 million barrels (10,700,000 m3) of natural gas liquids in the Assam Geologic Province. The region is prone to natural disasters like annual floods and frequent mild earthquakes. Strong earthquakes were recorded in 1869, 1897, and 1950.
LANGUAGE Assamese is the official language of the state. Additional official languages include Bengali and Bodo languages.
Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. Bihu is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non-religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator’s life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu songs and Bihu dance are associated to rongali bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as ‘uruka’. The first day of ‘rongali bihu’ is called ‘Goru bihu’ (the bihu of the cows), when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres. Bihu is a set of three important non-religious festivals in the Indian state of Assam—Rongali or Bohag Bihu observed in April, Kongali or Kati Bihu observed in October, and Bhogali or Magh Bihu observed in January.The Rongali Bihu is the most important of the three, celebrating spring festival. The Bhogali Bihu or the Magh Bihu is a harvest festival, with community feasts. The Kongali Bihu or the Kati Bihu is the sombre, thrifty one reflecting a season of short supplies and is an animistic festival.
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The Rongali Bihu coincides the Assamese New Year and with the Indian New Year festivals like Baisakhi, Bishu, etc. as well as with other regions of East and South-East Asia which follow the Buddhist calendar. The other two Bihu festivals every year are unique to Assamese people. Like some other Indian festivals, Bihu is associated with agriculture, and rice in particular. Bohag Bihu is a sowing festival, Kati Bihu is associated with crop protection and worship of plants and crops and is an animistic form of the festival, while Bhogali Bihu is a harvest festival.Assamese celebrate the Rongali Bihu with feasts, music and dancing. Some hang brass, copper or silver pots on poles in front of their house, while children wear flower garlands then greet the new year as they pass through the rural streets. The three Bihu are Assamese festivals with reverence for Krishna, cattle (Goru Bihu), elders in family, fertility and mother goddess, but the celebrations and rituals reflect influences from aborigine, southeast Asia and Sino-Tibetan cultures. In contemporary times, the Bihus are celebrated by all Assamese people irrespective of religion, caste or creed. It is also celebrated overseas by the Assamese diaspora community living worldwide. The term Bihu is also used to imply Bihu dance otherwise called Bihu Naas and Bihu folk songs also called Bihu Geet.
Assam has a rich tradition of crafts, Cane and bamboo craft, bell metal and brass craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, and musical instruments making have remained as major traditions. Cane and bamboo craft provide the most commonly used utilities in daily life, ranging from household utilities, weaving accessories, fishing accessories, furniture, musical instruments, construction materials, etc. Assam is the home of several types of silks, the most prestigious are: Muga – the natural golden silk, Pat – a creamy-bright-silver coloured silk and Eri – a variety used for manufacturing warm clothes for winter. Apart from Sualkuchi (Xualkuchi), the centre for the traditional silk industry, in almost every parts of the Brahmaputra Valley, rural households produce silk and silk garments with excellent embroidery designs. Moreover, various ethno-cultural groups in Assam make different types of cotton garments with unique embroidery designs and wonderful colour combinations.
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Moreover, Assam possesses unique crafts of toy and mask making mostly concentrated in the Vaishnav Monasteries, pottery and terracotta work in western Assam districts and wood craft, iron craft, jewellery, etc. in many places across the region.
1.KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK Home to two-thirds of the world’s one horned rhinoceros’ population, this national park has been declared as a World Heritage Site.
2. MAJULI Majuli is a lush green environment friendly, pristine and pollution free fresh water island in the river Brahmaputra, just 20 km from the city of Jorhat.
3. GUWAHATI A sprawling city located beside the mighty Brahmaputra, Guwahati is the epitome of an amalgamation of ancient history and modernization. The largest city in all of Assam, Guwahati stands as the gateway to the Seven Sisters of North East India. A city shaped by time itself, Guwahati is home to age-old temples that take you centuries back to the pages of ancient history, but it also boasts of a cutthroat lifestyle and an electric nightlife, keeping up with the modern era of urbanization and commercialization. The gushing Brahmaputra river carries with it untold tales from thousands of years past, and the peaceful ambience lingering in the city despite its modern lifestyle is one of the main reasons you should visit Guwahati if only to get a slice-of-life experience of the vivacious juxtaposition of the old and the new. Guwahati is home to a huge number of old temples, all of which have interesting stories and legends behind them. The Kamakhya temple, arguably the most visited temple in the city, is a temple dedicated to the goddess Kamakhya, who was also known as the goddess of desire.
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4. HAJO The ancient pilgrim centre of Hajo is a unique place for being an attraction for three religions – Hindu, Muslims and Buddhists.
5. MANAS NATIONAL PARK Manas National Park is a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam.
6. ORANG NATIONAL PARK One of the oldest game reserves of the state, The Orang National park located on the shores of river Brahmaputra, is home to various animals, birds, fishes and is one of the more popular tourist destinations of Assam.
7. UMANANDA TEMPLE The smallest river island in the world, Umananda Island is a place with legends aplenty, a place where man and the wilderness co-habit in peace and serenity. Umananda Island lies at the heart of the Mighty Brahmaputra River which flows through the middle of the city of Guwahati. An island with many legends associated with it, it’s pristine and calm environ has not been destroyed by the presence of human beings as yet. It was known as Peacock Island among the British Colonists who named it so based on its shape. The Island is home to a very rare and endangered species called _ãÄGolden Langurs_ã_ who are considered to be highly sacred among the people of the Himalayas. The legend goes that it is the very same place where Lord Kamdev (Lord of Love) was burnt into ashes by the third-eye of Lord Shiva when the former tried to disrupt his meditation thereby giving it its alternative name _ãÄBhasmchal_ã_. The major attraction of the island is the Umananda Devi
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Temple which is dedicated to Lord Shiv and sees a large influx of devotees during religious festivals.
8. KAMAKHYA TEMPLE A heavenly abode in the laps of Nilachal hills brings you to Kamakhya Devi temple. And you have got to believe, this place has a totally amazing old story at its back having Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati as main leads. It was built in the old 10th century and located at a distance of mere 7km from the city of Guwahati, which can be easily reached by well-connected roads. The temple is dedicated to Goddess Kamakhya and is one of the prominent Shaktipeeth of the country. The culture of the temple is well imbibed in local people and they celebrate Ambubachi festival in the month of June every year to commemorate the annual mensuration of the Goddess Kamakhya.
The ancient temple is built in an elongated manner with a circular mandapa at the top, surrounded by lush green zones. Tourists, as well as devotees, usually come in the early morning to pay their respect to the temple and Goddess and keep their spiritual energy high in the sky.
9. TOKLAI TEA RESEARCH CENTRE Assam and Tea are both inseparable in literal terms. Set up in times of British rule and following the legacy with the developed state, this place is standing high in tea research facility. Tocklai institute is located in Jorhat city and easy to reach by roads.
10.TEZPUR Another city that is on the edges of river Brahmaputra and is a neighbor of Guwahati by the distance of 175 km, is the city Tezpur. Tezpur has a history with mythology but the actual ruins of medieval age could be seen in Bamuni hills. Modern Tezpur has a connectivity with the British
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era and composes of a subtle calm climate. Tezpur has a rich culture from where Bihu and Bagurumba dance is the most catching performance. A concoction of places like Bhairabi temple, Hanuman Mandir, Mahabhairav temple, Cole Park, Padam pukhuri, Rudra Path and many more makes this place best places to visit in Assam. Nature gets an extra gist of Kolia Bhomora Setu that connects Tezpur to Nagaon and the view of the bridge as well as from it makes one fall in love with river Brahmaputra again and again. Don’t miss a chance to be in Tezpur when the tickets to Assam are booked and lying on your table.
11. DIPORBIL Lake, also known as Bil in Assamese is an evergreen feature of the land of the North East. The list of tourist places in Assam never completes without including Dipor Bil in it. The mighty Brahmaputra has an extension into the plains which resulted into this enchanting lake. Located 13 km in South West direction from Guwahati, Dipor Bil is perfect to watch beautiful birds basking in the sun and swinging on the tunes of the lake’s ripples. The surface of the lake is flared by flora like Waterlily, water hyacinth, aquatic grass and believe us, it is adding an extra grace to blue clean waters. Along with a boat ride, one can feel the difference with migratory birds while taking a tour here. Moreover, you can notice Storks, Ducks, Kingfishers, and Pelicans enjoying in the glory of the climate and making it an attraction for thousands.
Assam Culinary Delight
APONG is a rice beer, which is traditionally prepared by some tribes of North-East India. Apong is an integral part of the life of the Mising (or Mishing) people of Assam. It is brewed in every Mising household. Adi people of Arunachal Pradesh also prepares Apong. Apong is prepared by fermenting rice. The Mishing Apong comes in two types – Nogin Apong and Poro Apong. The Nogin
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Apong is whitish in colour, while Poro Apong has a dark greenish colour. The method of preparation is different. So, the two apongs also differ in their taste and colour.
The rice wine which can ward off evil.
KHAR This unique dish is prepared with raw papaya, pulses and a main ingredient. All these ingredients are then filtered in water through dried banana ashes for a flavour that is most unusual and refreshing. It is a rich dish generally consumed with lunch.
Pitha is the most popular snack from Assam; usually had for breakfast or with an evening cuppa. There are many types of pitha. They may be can be either sweet or savoury, fried, roasted or barbequed inside a hollow bamboo stem. The sweet Pitha is preferred over the salty one.This finger licking Assamese snack tastes best with Doi (curd) and gur.
BAMBOO STEAMED FISH This dish is a speciality from Nagaland. The first bite might taste plain, but eventually you can savour the subtle hint of bamboo flavour. Fresh spices include Raja Mirchi. used in the dish enhances its flavour. Bamboo Steamed Fish is best enjoyed with steamed rice.
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It is a mashed potato dish, and we all know that there’s nothing quite like mashed potatoes, especially when it is teamed with chopped onions, green chillies, fresh coriander leaves, salt and a drizzle of mustard oil. It is usually served with steam rice, dal and lemon wedges on the side.
MASOR TENGA Fish forms an integral part of the Assamese cuisine, thanks to the mighty Brahmaputra that runs through the state. There are different varieties of big and small fish that are available throughout the year, which are then prepared in various ways using regional vegetables and greens, and without turning to spices and masala mixes to build flavour. The most quintessential Assamese fish dish is called Masor Tenga, ‘tenga’ meaning sour. Several kinds of souring agents are used to make the curry, such as lemon, kokum, tomatoes, herbs, elephant wood apple, etc and it is served along with steamed rice. MANGSHO Mutton curry is another favourite dish in Assamese cuisine. In fact, people take it as an offense if they are not served mutton curry and luchi or pulao when they visit neighbours, friends or relatives on invitation. This is one of the few dishes that witness the use of multiple spices to build flavour. Pork dishes are also popular in Assam, but traditionally they were a speciality among the tribal lot. Pork is prepared using herbs, bamboo shoot, bhoot jolokia, and veggies, among other ingredients.
GHILA PITHA This sweet called the “ghila pitha”, is a savory made during the festivals like Magh Bihu and Bohag Bihu in Assam and relished with friends and families.
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West Bengal Culinary Delight
Kolkata, the City of Joy, has many things to offer to locals and tourists alike. Food is of course one of the major highlights of this metropolitan city. Like most other cities in India, Kolkata offers a wide variety of food options. But, Kolkata is best known for its local Bengali cuisine and why not? Where else can you have Sorshe Ilish ! How about a Food Crawl through the streets of Kolkata? Street Food Jhal Muri .Jhal Muri is made of puffed rice, chili powder, raw mustard oil and other ingredients like chopped boiled potatoes, coriander leaves and more. This spicy mixture served in paper packets . It is Kolkata’s most popular street food and can be found at railway stations, bus stops, busy market places, outside office complexes and almost everywhere. Puchka Pani Puris of Mumbai and Golgappas of Delhi become Puchkas in Kolkata. Puchakas are round fried hollow puris filled with a mixture of tamrind water, mashed potatoes, chaat masalas, chilis, onions, chickpeas and more. You will barely find any restaurant serving Puchkas, you have to hit the streets for it.
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Tele Bhaja Tele Bhajas are yet another specialty of Kolkata. You can literally find hundreds and hundreds of street side stalls offering these fried delicacies. They aren’t just simple fries. The ingredients are boiled, smashed, dipped in slurry of gram flour and then fried. Stop being conscious about your waistline for at least once and sample Aalur Chop (uses smashed boiled potato), Peyaji (uses chopped onion), Beguni (uses sliced brinjal) and more! Rolls (Mutton, Chicken and Egg) Though they are not really traditional Bengali fare, these are quite popular in the evenings. The meat rolls are parathas (breads made of maida, the all purpose flour) fried in oil and rolled with chicken or mutton pieces inside it. Egg rolls are slightly different with egg on one side of the paratha and then rolled with chopped onion, cucumber and green chilies. Churmur – A crunchy blend Much like Phuchka, this street food of Kolkata is a mix of crushed puchka, mixed with mashed potatoes, onions, spices, and of course tetul gola – pulp of tamarind. Though it tastes similar to Phuchka, Churmur is easier to eat. Your Kolkata street food tour is incomplete if you don’t try Churmur.
Ghugni Chaat If you’ve ever tasted Mumbai’s Ragda, you somewhat know what we’re talking about. Ghugni is made mainly of boiled yellow and white peas – mixed with onions, coriander, chillis, tomatoes, spices, and topped with tamarind pulp. This is a popular street food in Kolkata, and deserves all the popularity!
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Keemar Doi Bora
Keemar Doi Bora is meat Dahi Bada dropped in sweet dahi sprinkled with panch phoron, that is – cinnamon, a pinch of red chilli powder, cumin, black mustard seeds and fenugreek. For north Indians, this is a unique dish to try – definitely one of the best street food of Kolkata.
Chhanar Jilipi
For those with a sweet tooth, relishing this street food in Kolkata is sheer delight; it is juicy, soft, and chewy. Chanar Jilipi is a Kolkatan jalebi made of cottage cheese. It is thicker than a normal jalebi and the texture is similar to Gulab Jamun. That’s basically goodness of two sweets in one.
Aloo Kabli
One of the best forms of potato, Aloo Kabli is a spicy and hot dish you mustn’t miss when you crave for something flavorsome in Kolkata. Boiled potatoes are tossed with tamarind pulp, onions, tomatoes, chilies, chickpeas, and a magical combination of masalas.
MAIN COURSE Luchi Luchi is a deep fried bread that resembles a poori .The only difference is that it is made with refined flour and fried without any colour .Luchi is made on special occasions and is usually accompanied by cholar dal that is usually accompanied by cholar dal that is tempered with small pieces of coconut.
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Radha balhobi Radha balhobi is eaten mostly for breakfast and is quite similar to a kachori made in Uttar Pradesh.It is stuffed with urad dal and served with potato curry known as aloor dum. Bhaja The word bhaja mainly refers to fried items. One could have a range of bhajas that accompany a special meal. The most common and famous is baigun bhaja , which is a thick roundel of eggplant marinated and shallow fried in mustard oil .Similarly,fine juliennes of potato are fried in the same way to make topsey mach bhaja and are served during festive occasion. Shorshe bata ilish The hilsa fish braised in mustard pasteand slit green chillies is an important dish of both West Bengal and Bangladesh. It is commonly known as shorsho bata ilish. It can be cooked for everyday meals or even during festivals and occasions. Macher paturi This is quite a unique preparation where the darnes or steaks are marinated in freshly grounded mustard paste and wrapped in banana leaves .These are then steamed and eaten with steamed rice. Chitol macher muitha Chitol is a special fish typically eaten during Durga Puja . The meat from the back part after removing the bones is shaped into koftas and simmered in gravy.
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Pabda macher jhalThis dish made from the pabda fish and is a speciality made during durga puja .The whole fish is stewed in gravy predominant of red chili powder. Chingri malai curry This preparation is cooked on festive occasions and on marriages.Small sized prawns are stewed in a gravy made with boiled onion paste, thickened with coconut milk. Kosha mangsho This is a semi dry preparation of lmb that gets its unique dark colour from the iron kadhai that it is cooked in and the caramelized sugar .This preparation is eaten with deep fried bread such as luchi Potoler dolma Baby oval gourd are stuffed with a mixture of cottage cheese,potatoes,raisins and spices and simmered in an onion based gravy .This is again a festive dish and made on special occasions. Dhokar dalna This unique dish is again made on special occasions a gram flour batter is cooked with spices and then spread on a tray and steamed .It is then cut into small pieces in the shape of a diamond and deep fried .The fried dumplings are now stewed in a gravy of boiled onion paste ,thickened with gram flour and whole spices.
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Kabiraji cutlet Kabaraji cutlet is made from chicken breast .The chicken breast is marinated in turmeric ,salt,ginger and garlic paste , onion paste and spices such as green chillies and red chilli powder .The marinated chicken is coated with a light batter of rice flour and eggs deep fried until golden brown. Aloo posto Potatoes are cooked with freshly grounded poppy seeds paste and flavored with spices and turmeric. Aloo posto can be eaten with deep fried bread or whole wheat paratha.
A famous sweet meat seller Nabin Chandra Das of Kolkata invented rosogulla.It is pepared from cottage cheese (chenna) which is first kneaded and then rolled into smart balls .Theses cheese balls are then cooked in thin sugar syrup.The rosogulla did not get any fame until his son K.C. Das popularized the same by canning it and marketing it all over the world.Rosogulla are made in various sizes and flavours and are named differently .Some of the most common once are as follows:-
• Nolen Gurer rosogulla:-These rosogulla are poached in nolen gur .This are the only rosogula that are served hot ,otherwise rosogulla are served chilled.
• Raj Bhog:-This rosogulla are large in size and the diameter can be 3-4 inches
• Kamala bhog:-This is the large size rasagulla that are coloured yellow and is flavoured
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with oranges.
This is a variation of rasgulla.It is prepared like a rasgulla ,but the chenna dumplings are flattened and poached in syrup until cooked .These are then soaked in saffron flavoured sweetened milk and served chilled with chopped pistachios.
This is the dessert that is made to celebrate the end of Bengali new year. Pank cakes are made from the batter of refined flour and milk.This are then stuffed with cooked mixture of grated coconut sugar or jaggery and cardamom powder.These pan cakes are garnished with same stuffing in the middle .
Misti Doi
Misti doi is the delicacy is prepared like a regular curd but with the addition of jiggery to it.Only palm jiggery is used to get that the peculiar colour and taste It gives creamy texture to the curd with a layer of fat at top , is a skill that is passed down from one generation to generation.
Sandesh is one of the famous Bengal dessert made from palm jaggery ,reduced milk and chenna.All the three ingredients are cooked in a thick bottom pan until they stop sticking .Balls od the mixture are then pressed into moulds of various shapes to give the characteristics shape to sandesh.Variation of sandesh are prepared by altering the shape and flavour of sandesh.
Payesh is commonly made at homes by cooking short grain rice known as gobind bhog along with milk until creamy. Jaggery is used to sweeten payesh and broken cashewnuts and rasins are added for texture.
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These are deep fried dumplings of khoya and flour symbolizes the jamun and the rose ,honey and saffron flavoured syrup symbolizes the dessert.It is traditionally made of chikna khoya and maida ,which gives the dough the correct consistency and prevents it from cracking while it is being fried.These are two inch long rod shaped ,fried in ghee and poached I sugar syrup.
Chenna poda
Chenna poda is a very famous dessert baked and probably influenced by the baked cheese cake of the western world .To make this sweet a paste of soaked rice and urad dal is made .Water is added to this paste and a batter of pouring consistency is made.Usually ,crushed aniseed is used for flavouring the batter.Another mixture is made by cooking grated jaggery until jaggery melts .Chenna is added and the mixture is cooked until it begins to leave the sides of the pan .Now the mould is prepared by linning with banana leaves and alternativey the rice and lentil batter are cooked cottage cheese mixture is poured into and the same is baked until the cake is cooked and slightly brown.
Kancha Gola
Kancha gola is a soft sandesh from Bengal .It is used by cooking fresh curd ,milk ,and condensed milk .boiling curd along with results in a curdled texture .The mixture is cooked until it becomes sticky.It is then removed from fire and green cardamom powder is added .It is shaped into round dumplings .This sandesh is slightly granular in texture.
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Culinary Delights of Chhattisgarh
Introduction Chhattisgarh, state of east-central India. It is bounded by the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand to the north and northeast, Odisha(Orissa) to the east, Telangana (formerly part of Andhra Pradesh) to the south, and Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to the west. Its capital is Raipur. Area 52,199 square miles (135,194 square km). The history of the Chhattisgarh regions dates back to about the 4th century CE, when it was known as southern kosala . The Name Chhattisgarh Meaning “thirty-six forts,” was Formerly applied to the territory of Haihaya Dynasty of Ratanpur , founded about 750. Under British rule the present region of Chhattisgarh consisted of a division comprising 14 feudatory princely kingdoms under the Eastern states agency .Raipur was the headquarter of that region. With in the republic of india , Chhattisgarh the part of Madhya Pradesh until Nov. 1, 2000. At present the state has 27 administrative districts and 5 divisions.
Cuisine of Chhattisgarh – The ‘rice bowl of India’ is Chhattisgarh, as rice is widely eaten and relished. The staple diet of people of the territory consists of wheat, maize and Jowar. The Cuisine of Chhattisgarh serves a wide range of mouth-watering dishes and they are enriched with the qualities of protein , vitamins, minerals and irons . The rich Divergent Culture, Palate and traditions of the Nation is imbibed in the soil of Chhattisgarh. Although the Savor and Savory has been blending and evolving with the confluence of immigrants from the north and south, yet the essence still remains. The major dishes and savouries here are mostly made of rice and assorted ingredients. Not much of spice, a Pinch of salt and mostly oil less. The people of the state have an inclination towards tangy recipes and sweet delectable. Maize, wheat and Jowar are the basic diet of the inhabitants of Chhattisgarh. Since the state is quite opulent with an abundance of crops such as rice and oilseeds, so the people of the place are never short of their staple food. The food of Chhattisgarh is categorized under two different heads – tribal recipes and non-tribal menus. The tribes of Chhattisgarh primarily add the various types of fruits that are commonly found in the forest areas of Chhattisgarh. Rakhia Badi and Petha are the two distinctive food items that are prepared by the tribal population of Chhattisgarh during major festivals.
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The tribal food includes fish, pork, red ants, flying ants, squirrels, field rats and wild mushrooms and plants. The fruit got from the Mahuwa tree is very famous in Chhattisgarh. The fruit is small, white and creamy which is further fermented into a strong brew and consumed by the people. The meal of these people are complete only with a sweet after their food and so jalebi has become an integral part of the food menu of the state. Bafauri a special recipe made of Chana dal is also a favourite among the people of the state. The people of the state have a liking towards tangy recipes and sweet dishes. Most of the traditional foods are made of rice and rice flour, curd and a variety of green leafy vegetables like Lal Bhaaji, Chowlai Bhaaji, Chech Bhaji, Kaanda Bhaaji, Kheksi,Katha,Kochai Patta, Kohda and Bohar Bhaji. Badi and Bijori are optional food categories; Gulgul (bobra), Dhoodh Fara, Bafauli, Kusli, Balooshahi, Singhara, Tikhur ,Anarsa and Khurmi fall in sweet categories. Some well-known breakfast dishes made out of Rice & rice flour include Fara/Muthiya (rice rolls in white sauce), cheela (Dosa like dish made with rice batter), Angakar roti, Chousela roti (rice Puris), etc. One of the common meal had during the scorching summer is Bore Baasi ( literally means dipped rice from last cooked meal) which mainly consists of cooked rice dipped water/Curd/buttermilk. It is mostly accompanied by pickle and raw onion. It helps maintain the water levels in the body, keeping it cool and hydrated during the hot and arid summer days. Most of the traditional and tribal foods are made of rice and rice flour, curd and a variety of green leafy vegetables like lal bhaaji, chowlai bhaaji, chech bhaji, kaanda bhaaji, kheksi,kathal,kochai patta, kohda and bohar bhaji (Blossom of Lesuaa or Rasaulaa in Hindi, mostly used for making Achaar). Badi and Bijori are optional food categories; gulgula (bobra), bidiya, dhoodh fara, bafauli, kusli, balooshahi,singhara, tikhur ,anarsa and khurmi fall in sweet categories. Some well known breakfast dishes made out of Rice & rice flour include fara/muthiya (rice rolls in white sauce), cheela (dosa like dish made with rice batter), angakar roti, chousela roti (rice puris), etc. One of the common meal had during the scorching summer is Bore Baasi ( literally means dipped rice from last cooked meal) which mainly consists of cooked rice dipped water/dahi/buttermilk. It is mostly accompanied by pickle and raw onion. It helps maintain the water levels in the body, keeping it cool and hydrated during the hot and arid summer days. One of the well known traditional dishes of Chhattisgarh is Iddhar. It is made with ground Urad dal and kochai patta. Both are arranged in alternate layers 2-3 time and then rolled. This roll is then cooked in steam and cut into pieces. After that it is prepared with curd like curry. Some people
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also make it with gram flour (besan) instead of urad dal. Tribal and village populations drink a brew made of the small, creamy white flower of a local tree called Mahuwa Dishes like Chila and Phara are favourites.They are made with rice flour and eaten with spicy or tangy chutnees of tomato,chilli and coriander.Chila is made by making a thick mixture of water and rice flour and then made like a plain dosa.On the therapy side phara is made by left over rice and rice flour by making a dough and then make cylindrical shapes and giving tadka with jeera,mustard,curry leaves,tomato,turmeric,salt and chilly.People of Chhattisgarh do not waste food.People eat Baasi here.It is left over rice dipped in water and curd and eaten with chutney. Bhajis of Chhattisgarh In Chhattisgarh 36 varieties of Bhaji cultivated and consumed locally in different – different region of Chhattisgarh like – 1. Amaari bhaaji (Ambadi leaves) 2. Chench bhaaji 3. Tiwra bhaji (Tinwara leaves) 4. Chana bhaji (Gram leaves) 5. Laal bhaaji (Red amaranthus leaves) 6. Khendaha bhaaji 7. Gondali bhaaji 8. Bohaar bhaaji 9. Muskeni bhaaji 10. Patwa bhaaji 11. Kajra bhaaji 12. Macheriya bhaaji 13. Chanauri bhaaji 14. Tinpaniya bhaaji 15. Kurma bhaaji 16. Murai bhaaji 17. Chaulai bhaaji 18. Karmata bhaaji 19. Kaanda bhaaji
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20. Makhna bhaaji 21. Chunchuniya bhaaji 22. Putka bhaaji 23. Paalak bhaaji (Spinach leaves ) 24. Barre bhaaji 25. Ghobhi bhaaji (Cauliflower leaves) 26. Lahsuva bhaaji (Garlic leaves) 27. Sarson bhaaji (Mustard leaves) 28. Kusum bhaaji 29. Charota bhaaji 30. Chirchira bhaaji 31. Urla bhaaji 32. Gudru bhaaji 33. Munga bhaaji (Drumstick leaves) 34. Aalu bhaaji (Potato leaves) 35. Bhathava bhaaji
Delights of the Chhattisgarh-
1. Chila – It is a Chhattisgarhi pancake which is made of Rice flour and mixed it with chopped coriander leave and seasoned with salt.
Figure 1(Chila) 2. Fara – The dish which is shaped of Croquette and made of rice flour and the Tempered with sesame seeds, Curry Leaves and Green Chilies.
Figure 2 (Fara) 3. Bafauri – It is a simple and light snacks made from chana dal , onion and mix of spice and served along with chutney.
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Figure 3 (Bafauri)
4. Chausela – It is basically a Puffed Poori Which is made of rice flour and Deep fried in a oil.
Figure 4 (Chausela)
5. Urad Bada – It is like an Savoury south indian Fritters which is not having any hole in the centre .It is made from Split Black Lentil , Onions and green chilies and seasoned with salt. It is accompanied with Crushed tomato chutney.
Figure 5 (Urad bada) 6. Moong bada – It is round shaped bada which is made of Pigeon Peas , Ginger , Green chilies, Onion and cumin. Its deep fried in a oil and accompanied with Crushed tomato chutney.
Figure 6 (Moong bada)
7. Majha pitha – Pitha is a combination of rice and Split Black lentil ( Urad Dal ). It is Prepared with Split Black gram , Garlic, Mustard seed and Sesame seeds It is generally served as a snack with Crushed tomato chutney.
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8. Bhajiya – It is a crisp fritters are prepared mainly with onion and gram flour (besan).
Figure 7 (Bhajiya)
9. Bel Sharbat – It is the one of the Most Popular beverages of Chhattisgarh Which is extracted from the Bel fruit and it’s served chilled.
Figure 8 (Bel Sharbat)
10. Gulgula – Gulgulas are like lightly sweetened mini donuts. It is made up of wheat flour , sugar and fennel seeds and which is generally deep fried in a oil.
Figure 9 (Gulgula)
11. Bobra – It is the one of the most popular Chhattisgarhi desserts . It is a sweet savory type of a pancake which is made of rice, Jaggery & Cardamom Powder .
Figure 10 (Bobra)
12. Arsa – Arsa is a sweet delicacy that is prepared from simple ingredients like cane sugar, rice and mustard oil.
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Figure 11 (Arsa) 13. Khaja – Khaja is a traditional recipe that is served as a part of Chhattisgarhi Cuisine. It is a layered fritters dunked in sugar syrup which is made up of essentially Refined flour , Ghee, cardamom powder and Cinnamom powder.
Figure 12 (Khaja)
14. Kari Ladoo – It is the one of the most popular desserts of Chhattisgarhi cuisine. It is prepared from Gram flour, Jaggery or sugar, milk & oil which is served Occasionally on with Chhattisgarhi meal.
Figure 13 (Kari ladoo)
Muthia – Muthia are dumplings cooked in the traditional style of the Chhattisgarh state. Muthia is prepared with the rice batter which is seasoned with various spices. The dish is not fried but is steamed and hence it retains the original flavor of its ingredients. Muthia is a famous dish of the state which is usually enjoyed in the breakfast. This dish is also famous among the rural people of the state.
Figure 14 (Muthia)
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Fresh and thick slices of bread, smothered in butter served with a delicious mix of moderately spices vegetables . Basically eaten as a street food in all over Maharashtra .The dish originated in the 1850s as a fast lunchtime dish for textile mill workers in Mumbai
Vada Pav is believed to have been devised by Ashok Vaidya who sold street food from a stall beside Dadar rail station in Mumbai in 1971, Now a Thela next to Platform No.1 of Dadar Station, is operated by his son Narendra Vaidya and his partner Abhijeet Samel. VADA PAV- (There are 290 calories in a one serving of VADA PAV. Calorie breakdown: 60% fat, 33% carbs, 7% protein). Also known as “Indian burger or poor man’s burger.”
Ravyachi Puranpoli which is made from Rava. Instead of wheat flour, rava is mixed with milk and is used for outside covering and stuffing is made like usual puran poli. A recipe (as Bakshyam) is mentioned in Manucharitra, a 14th-century Telugu encyclopedia compiled by Allasani Peddana, who lives from present-day Andhra Pradesh. It is also the special dish of Maharashtra which is prepared in every occasion at every house especially during festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi and Holi. It is eaten with Basundi, Aamras, Kadhi, Amti, etc. In Pune, Puran Poli is eaten with a variant of
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Amti (flavoured sour water) known as Katachi Amti is prepared with remaining water of Chana Dal used to make Puran.
Misal pav is a popular dish from Maharashtra, India.It consists of misal (a spicy curry usually made moth beans) and pav (a type of Indian bread roll).The final dish is topped with farsan or sev, onions, lemon and coriander (cilantro).It is usually served with bread or rolls toasted with butter and buttermilk or curd and papad. It is served as a breakfast dish, as a snack and also as a full meal .The curry is made from mixed sprouts and lentils that are rich in proteins .The spice content can be altered based on choice. Misal pav from Maharashtra is known for its high spice content.There are different versions of misal pav such as Kolhapuri misal, Nashik misal, Khandeshi misal, Nagpuri misal and Puneri misal; the first part indicates the regional origin. Other types are kalya masalyachi misal, shev misal, and dahi (yoghurt) missal.
Modak is an Indian sweet popular in many parts of India. The sweet filling on the inside of a modak consists of freshly grated coconut and jaggery while the outer soft shell is made from rice flour or wheat flour mixed with khava or maida flour .The modak can be fried or steamed. The steamed version (called ukdiche modak) is often eaten hot with ghee.
Classic Modak.
Ukadiche Modak: These modaks are made of Coconuts and Sugar/Jaggery. This variation is especially prepared during the time of Ganesh Festival. They are hand madeand cooked in a steamer. They are perishable and need to be consumed immediately.
Fried Modak: This modak is deep fried in oil instead of steaming. Frying makes the modak last longer and have different taste.
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Delhi Food Delights
Old Delhi
Fun Fact: All our favourite chat items, from Papri Chaat and Dahi Bhalla to Jalebi, originated in Old Delhi. Old Delhi is a popular hub for street food, authentic Mughlai cuisine, and sweets. If you really want an authentic experience with typical north Indian street food, Old Delhi is a must-visit.
Some of our recommendations are Khemchand Adesh Kumar’s Daulat Ki Chaat, Lotan Chole Wala, Jung Bahadur Kachori Wala, and Shree Balaji Chaat Bhandar and Bishan Swaroop for the best chaat you will ever have.
Gali Paranthe Wali
If there’s one place you’ve got to visit, particularly if you’re vegetarian, it’s Paranthe Wali Galli. Several tiny shops serving delicious paranthe, fresh, hot and in a variety of styles. In existence for over 50 years, some of the original shops are still operating.
Several celebrities and influential politicians and businessmen also visit this place, which is crowded through the evening and into the night.
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Khan Market
Khan Market is one of Delhi’s incredible food districts.It has a mix of cafes, fine dining options and fast food. A vibrant neighborhood, whose streets are filled with the delicious aromas of mutton kebab and fried rice, it is a hub for the best eateries, bars and restaurants.
A few restaurants here that you absolutely must visit are The Big Chill, Yellow Brick Road Restaurant, Wok in the Clouds, Azam’s Mughlai, and Cafe Turtle.
Jama Masjid
Food in Delhi is incomplete without a visit to this area. If you eat meat and love street food, Jama Masjid area is the place to be!
Jama Masjid and the lane opposite, Bazaar Matia Mahal, have some of the best non-vegetarian street food in Delhi. From keema samosas to grilled boti to kebabs and jalebi, this area is a paradise for foodies.
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Another street for best food in Delhi, which you most certainly shouldn’t miss, is Nizamuddin. There are dozens of amazing eateries in this area and you will find delicious kebabs, sweets, and Mughlai delicacies.
All your meat-lovers out there should definitely try out Karim’s, Gulfam Kashmiri Wazwan, and Ghalib Kabab Corner.
South Campus
If you are a college student or just someone on a tight budget, in search of some delicious food, South Campus is a great option, with a variety of awesome cafes.
The cafes here mostly serve shakes, fast food, American and Italian cuisines. Our favourites are Scooter on the Wall, Big Yellow Door, and QD’s. Check out one of these joints for some fantastic food.
Chittaranjan Park
CR Park is the place to go if you want the best Bengali food experience in town, sweets included!
From fish to rolls to sweets and pani puri, you get some heavenly Bengali food here. Wear some stretchy pants and head over here for a food binge to remember!
Try out Raju Puchka Wala, Kolkata Hot Kathi Roll, Mad About Momos, and Annapurna Sweet House for sure.
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Connaught Place
Connaught Place is the place in Delhi for food – no matter what your budget is. From fancy fine-dining restaurants to the delicious local rajma chawal, Connaught Place has food for everyone’s budget.
With the best restaurants in the city, Connaught Place is an area that has all kinds of cuisine – local and international.
New Friends Colony
New Friends Colony has some great eateries that serve delicious North and South Indian cuisine. From yummy shawarmas to dosas to cafes and fast food, this area has always been popular with foodies.
We recommend trying Sab Ki Khatir, Tunday Kababi (for great Lucknowi food in Delhi), Pebble Street, and Al Bake.
Karol Bagh
Karol Bagh area has an eclectic blend of all kinds of Indian cuisine. From street food, and shakes to dhabas and restaurants, it has some amazing food options.
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Roshan Di Kulfi, Anjalika, Om Corner Chhole Bhature, Art Of Spices, Sindhi Corner, Sandoz, and Changezi.
Amar Colony
Amar Colony is one of the oldest localities in Delhi, and is known for its delicious eateries. Chhole Bhature is an outstanding food to eat in Delhi, and particularly excellent here.
Residents of this colony consist of Indians, Africans and Afghans, and therefore the food options are many. Amar Colony is considered yet another paradise for foodies in Delhi.
Our best picks in this area are Dolma Aunty Momos, Baba Nagpal Ke Chhole Bhature, Muttu South Indian Anna, Kulfiano, Gopala, and Queen’s Kitchen.
Dilli Haat
Apart from the amazing set of traditional clothes, jewellery and handicrafts, Dilli Haat is also known for its amazing food. It has food stalls from all over India where you can get different state’s delicacies quickly and it’s affordable, too!
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Haryanvi Food Delights:
• Haryana the land of courage and tradition.
• Among the world’s oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old. Haryana is found on 1 November 1966.
Hinduism (87.46%)
Islam (7.03%)
Sikhism (4.91%)
Jainism (0.21%)
Christianity (0.20%)
Buddhism (0.03%)
Others (0.18%)
• Famous for: tradition and culture (Haryana has its own unique traditional folk music, folk dances, saang (folk theater), belief system such as Jathera (ancestral worship),and arts such as Phulkari and Shisha embroidery.), zamindars, Sports, clothing & kadhiboli (language),geography, science and technology, medical and health, cultivation of crops.
Singri ki sabzi
Bazre ke roti
bathua raita
choliya ke sabzi
wheat roti
aalu raita
kadhi pakora
makki ke roti
gajar raita
bajara khichri
kuttu ke roti
ghiya raita
methi gajar ke sabzi
chana ke roti
mix dal and all dal prep.
stuffed paratas
kachri ki chutney
kachri ki sabzi
jowar(millet) ke roti
aalu ki chutney
mulli ki burji
laal mirch chutney
gawar ki sabzi
hari chutney
sorsoon ka saag
tamatar ke chutney
choli ka saag
chana ka saag
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Haryana Desert
Aatte ke Laddu
Aate ka Halwa
Besan Burfi
Bazre ke Laddu
Besan ka Halwa
Gazar Ki Burfi
Alsi ke laddu
Gazar ka Halwa
Gole ki Burfi
Besan Ke Laddu
Moong ka Halwa
Khoya Burfi
Bundi ke Laddu
Suji ka Halwa
Moong Ki Burfi
Chane ke Laddu
Suji ki Burfi
Cholia ke Laddu
Chawal Ki Kheer
Churme ke Laddu
Kheer with Boora
Churma – Bazre ki Roti Ka
Goond Ke Laddu
Kheer with Shakkar
Churma – Cheeni Ka
Khoye ke Laddu
Sabudana Kheer
Churma – Gur Ka
Methi ke Laddu
Samakia Kheer
Churma – Paranthe Ka
Murmure Ke Laddu
Sewai ki Kheer
Churma – Poori Ka
Til ke Laddu
Churma – Shakkar ka
Other Sweets
• Balu Shahi
Meethi Ghee Bura Sewai
• Ghee Bura
Meethi Suwali
• Gud Chawal
Puda Chini Ka
• Guldana
Puda Gur Ka
• Gulgule
Puda – Sahad Ka
• Jalebi & Jaleba
• Kasar with Gur and Ghee
Shakkar Pare
• Kasar with Boora and Ghee
• Kheer lapsi
Mithe chawal
• Khees
• Khurmeni
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Other highlights
• Tapsaya pratha – in rohtak
• Khoya ke barfi – in barifatapur
• Jallabhi – jind
• Ghewar – sonipath
• Pakora – bahadurgah
• Gajak – rohtak
• Ravidi – revadhi
badam ragda
kache doodh ke lassi
Lapsi – Cheeni ki
Lapsi – Gur Ki
dhai bhala
gur chana
Tamil Nadu Culinary Delight Puttu and kadala curry puttu is a cylindrical steamed rice cake cooked with coconut shavings. This is an extremely popular breakfast item and staple food of Kerala. This Kerala food item is usually served with kadala curry which is essentially black chickpeas but can be eaten in whichever way it tastes good They were very popular in ancient Tamil country (which included Tamil Nadu, Kerala and parts of Karnataka). According to eminent Indian food historian K.T. Achaya both idiyappam and appam were dishes sold by kaazhiyar and kuuviyar – vendors od snack foods on the seashore; Appam with stew Appam staple element of Kerala cuisine, it is essentially a thin pancake with crispy edges made from fermented rice flour, coconut milk, coconut water, and a teensy bit of sugar, These crepe-like bowls are best enjoyed with Ishtu, a kind of stew that has been originally derived from the European stew and is made from coconut milk, cinnamon, cloves and shallots, and sometimes also mango pieces and vegetables. The aroma of spices with the sweet fragrance of coconut milk is enough to lure foodies to the kitchen
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According to eminent Indian food historian K.T. Achaya both idiyappam and appam were dishes sold by kaazhiyar and kuuviyar – vendors od snack foods on the seashore; they are graphically described in ancient Sangam poems, Perumpanuru, Mathuraikanchi and Silappathikaram which date back to a period from 300 BC to 300 AD. Pronounced as: Ap-pam with I-sh-tew Idiyappam. Also known as Noolappam in Kerala cuisine, it is made of rice flour, salt and water with a number of thin strands or sevai entwined together to make the lovely texture that this dish bears. It is this texture that makes it versatile. You can have it with all kinds of curries, but it tastes best with Egg Curry. This dish originating from South India and Sri Lanka. Also spread to Southeast Asia where it is called putu mayam in Malaysian and putu mayang in Indonesian sometimes, it is called string hoppers in English. Pronounced as: E-di-ap-pam Malabar Parota Originating from the Malabar region of the coast. It is an all-time favorite among all age groups! From the Indian subcontinent, made from Maida flour, popular in Southern India. It is a common street food in southern India, especially in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the neighboring country of Sri Lanka. .
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It has a flaky, crispy and crumbly texture which melts in your mouth and leaves behind a sweet yet savory taste. Main ingredients: Maida flour, Eggs, Ghee or oil
Palada Payasam A traditional dessert, prepared during the festival of Onam or any other occasion is a simple rice pudding or kheer, made in almost all the households across Kerala. The most authentic version of this Kerala food dish is made out of rice ada (which is easily available in any Keralite grocery store), sugar, milk and ghee. After all any special occasion is incomplete without the favourite payasam! Thalassery Biryani The prominent cuisine from Thalassery the northernmost town in Kerala is a special biryani with relishing aroma and taste. Made of kaima or biryani rice, authentic masala made of specific spices and dry nuts and stuffed meat, this dish is made especially during the celebration of Eid in Malabar region of Kerala. The dish is especially savoured with curd, lime pickle (naranga achar) and salad. Ada Pradhaman Very sweet dessert with spices and nuts, ada pradhaman is the king of kheers in Kerala. With a warm and pleasant aroma, this payasam or kheer is a unique blend of thick coconut milk, jaggery and baked rice adda. It is specially served at the end of a sadhya as a dessert. Consisting of rice parcels encased in a dough made of rice flour
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Made out of raw rice flour, sugar or jaggery and grated coconut. It is usually prepared on Onam Erissery
Filled with healthy ingredients of gram and pumpkin, is one of the traditional kootan in Kerala. The blend of coconut and other spices (cumin, turmeric, etc) along with the vegetables is amazing. It is should be savoured with hot rice for a better experience. Erissery is one of the main side dish (kootan) served in sadhya.
Lucknow Culinary Delight
• The food of Luchnow is broadly termed as “AWADHI FOOD”.
• Luchnow has always been the melting pot of nawabi culture.
• Known for its cultural refinement, luchnow has also been the epitome of legendary hospitality.
• The famous bawarchis, who with tremendous discipline, bordering on religious fervor, still follow the traditional style of cooking handed down to them by the ancestors.
• With an emphasis on traditional foods that truly rely on natural, fresh ingredients, we return to an age before “convenience foods”, ironically complicated our eating habits.
• The cuisine is incomplete if various systems and methods of cooking were not described.
The various types of techniques are used in the kitchen for the luchnow. These are as follows:
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❖ BAGHAR: This is the method of tempering a dish with hot oil, ghee and spices. It may be done at the beginning or at the end.
For example: Dal, Kadhi, Baghare Baingan
❖ DHUNGAR: This is the quick smoke procedure used to
flavor meat dish, dals and raita. This is common procedure while making kebabs.
For example: Galavat Ke Kebab
❖ DUM DENA: Dum means breath and process involves placing semi-cooked ingredients in pot, sealing utensil with flour dough and applying very slow charcoal fire on top as well as below.
For example: Biryanis, curries
❖ LOAB: It refers to final stage in cooking when oil used during cooking rises to surface, giving dish the finished appearance.
For example: Rogan in curries
• Although awadh is not a state, the Mughlai food of luchnow is commonly termed as Awadhi cuisine.
• In the times of nawabs, this region was termed as awadh.
• Luchnow, commonly known as the ‘city of nawabs’, reflects the Persian culture of arts, country manners, poetry and fine cuisine.
• Luchnow is the capital of U.P and is also known as ‘Golden city of eastern U.P.
• It is situated in Gangetic plains and entire region is
surrounded by rural towns and villages such as Malihabad, Kakori, Gosaiganj.
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• River gomti flows through city dividing Luchnow into tho parts, trans-Gomti and cis-Gomti.
Luchnow is famous for its mangoes. Some of the best mangoes come from this region. Some other are as follows:
• All-spice (kebab chini)
• Royal cumin (shahi jeera)
• Mace (javitri)
• Saffron (kesar or zafraan)
• Lazzat-e-taam
• Bay berry (baobeer)
• Dried lemon grass (jarakhush)
• Sandalwood (chandan)
• Fox Nuts (makhana)
• Rose petals (gulab patti)
• Perfume (ittar)
• Clotted cream (balai)
• Gold leaf (sone ka warq)
Since Awadhi cuisine uses different typical techniques of cooking, the equipments used are very special. Some equipments used are as follows:
• Bhagona or patili.
• Deg or degchi (for dum cooking)
• Kadhai
• Lagan
• Lone Ka Tandoor
• Mahi tawa
• Seehi.
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The green fields of northern plains have encorouged people to farm animals such as goats, sheeps, cattle and chicken. Poultry farming around luchnow is also very famous and it is very common to see people enjoying the rooster fights on the streets.
❖ PULAO: Nawabs Abdul Quasim Khan was a nobleman of taste. The pulao was believed to be tasty and light for stomach. The rice used for dish was such nutritious as this used to be melted in mouth.
❖ NEHARI: At time of Nasir-ud-din Haider, a non-luchnavi, who was generally known as mahumdu, opened food stall in firangi mahal quarter. Nehari is a lamb preparation that is stewed with spices. It is usually had during Ramadan days as it gives a lot of energy.
❖ SHEERMAL: Mahumdu, who is considered a pride of luchnow, till date, who was also responsible for creation of sheermal. It is a light flaky bread often cooked in an iron tandoor because of its high fat content. After baking it is smeared with saffron and milk, accompanied with galouti kebab.
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❖ MALIDA: Pieces of bread mixed with ghee and sugar are an everyday sweet dish and also had on special occasions. It is sweet dish with semolina, which is so light. It led to development of panjgiri, a dish of semolina, dry fruits and milk.
❖ MURABBA: In Awadh, chefs used to prepare murabba of whole unripe small mangoes in such a way that green outer skin retained its original appearance.
❖ ZARDA: Spring is season of festivity on awadh cuisine celebrated with lots of music and dance. Fragnant basmati rice was prepared with saffron and sugar to celebrate this occasion.
❖ RIZALA: It is a mutton preparation and in a creamy white gravy. This was created to give different colour to gravy as most people associate red meats with red gravy. It is yoghurt based gravy, flavoured with cardamom and fresh green chillies.
❖ SHAMMI KEBAB: This is made from meat cooked with chana lentils and minced with spices. The tart flavor is quite close to raw mango. The texture is extremely soft and simply melts in mouth.
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❖ HALEEM: Haleem can be related to French pate, which has a paste like texture of meat. The meat is cooked with ghee, spices, broken wheat. The meat is slowly cooked till it shreads and then it is cooked until fibre breaks and resembles a texture of paste.
❖ GALOUTI KEBAB: These kebabs derive their name from word ‘ to melt in mouth’. The texture of meat is almost like paste and is cooked on large flat utensil. Also famous by name of tundey kebab. In this breast of lamb is used.
Rajasthan Culinary Delight 1. Dal Bati Churma: Dal Bati Churma is a very popular Rajasthani dish that is a treat for your taste-buds. It’s a staple food in several parts of India including Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh. It is served in a traditional way by first squashing the Bati and then pouring the Ghee on it. Yellow coloured daal (lentil) is also served with it. It is served in all the celebrations and festivals of Rajasthan including weddings, religious occasions or birthday parties. Daal is typically made of lentils and is spicy. Baati is made of flour. The sweet Churma is a combination of wheat flour, dry fruits & sugar. Ghee is added to all the three items. It is widely consumed in all parts of Rajasthan.
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2. Mawa Kachori:
Rajwada lands has its own unique taste and different ways to eat it. So mawa kachori which is famous in Jodhpur, is a round kachori but filled with sweet mawa and dipped in sugar syrup and various dry fruits.
3. Gulab Jamun Ki Sabji:
Gulab Jamun Ki Sabji is a delicious Rajasthani Curry which is popular in Jodhpur. It is best served with roti or steamed rice. Where jamun are made of mawa and Maida and deep fried and cooked in the curry till all the flavours are absorbed by the jamun. 4. Laal Maas: Laal maans is a meat curry from Rajasthan, India. It is a mutton curry prepared in a sauce of yoghurt and hot spices such as red Mathania chillies. This dish typically is very hot and rich in garlic, the gravy may be thick or liquid and is eaten with chapatis made out of wheat (usually eaten in summers) or bajra (a millet grown in Rajasthan and eaten in the winter months. It is very famous in Jaisalmer region of Rajasthan.
Besides spicy flavours, each region is distinguished by its popular sweets. Most people from Rajasthan have a natural liking for sweets or ‘Mithai’ as it is locally called. People residing in Rajasthan prefer ‘Jalebis’ and ‘Fafda’ with a large glass of hot milk in the morning. Each region has its own specialty. Laddoos from Jodhpur and Jaisalmer, Malpuas from Pushkar, Jalebies from most big cities, Rasogullas from Bikaner, Dil Jani from Udaipur, Mishri Mawa and Ghevar from Jaipur, Sohan Halwa from Ajmer, Mawa from Alwar.
Dil Jani from Udaipur: ‘Diljani’ the name refers to something which is close to your heart. Diljani sweet is basically several small boondis incorporated with Orange Juice, a single spoon of Diljani can relish all the sweet-buds in your mouth.
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UP Delights
A gourmet’s delight and an abode for those human souls given to joyous revelry, Uttar Pradesh is undoubtedly a foodista’s delight and redemption. Delicacies of various kinds are cooked inside it by the fire burning underneath the vessel for as many as three days at a stretch, with a lid on its mouth. Despite being classified as a tortuously slow method of putting in place a culinary delight, which indeed it is, the results produced nonetheless are a real treat to the taste buds.
This is what Uttar Pradesh Food is about-Perfection, no matter what it takes! Brought into existence by the bawarchis(royal chefs) of the Nawabs of Lucknow, the method is known popularly as ‘Dum Pukht’. Known for its remarkable ability to keep all the aromatic fragrances of the food surprisingly well-preserved, this one method is a sui generis from Lucknow.
Presenting, our best-loved recipes from this land of legendary food:
1) Bharwan chicken pasanda- A true blue royal delicacy- hearty and wholesome. Chicken breasts stuffed with a rich khoya-cheese mixture and drizzled with a luscious coconut-cashew sauce.
2) Mutton Kofta- This one’s winner on the dinner table. It can be served dried as kebabs or with a thick gravy which goes well with Basmati rice.
3) Arhar Ki Dal- nothing spells comfort like some steaming arhar dal drizzled on a plateful of rice. Every household in the state is sure to have its own version.
4) Kakori kebab- a famous Nawabi recipe from lucknow passed down through generations. It derives its name from the city of kakori on the outskirts of Lucknow. It is made with the finest meat of the lamb and a few spices.
5) Bhindi ka salan- It is native to the Mughlai cuisine. Crispy fried bhindi dipped in a zingy yogurt-based gravy with a melange of spices.
6) Aloo Rasedaar- a quick and easy indulgent fare, one of those breezy afternoons, aloo-puri is an all-time favourite food.
7) Bedmi- Paired with potato curry or chana it makes for a happy combination. Crisp and fluffy, the puris are made with whole meat flour and urad dal.
Indian Culinary Institute, Noida
Culinary product of India Notes (MBA in Culinary Arts) 79 | P a g e
8) Allahabad ki Tehri- a simple and speedy one-pot meal for those lazy days. With the goodness of Basmati rice and a melange of veggies, this recipe makes for a satisfying meal.
9) Baingan ki Lonje- this one’ a speciality from Benaras. Brinjals stuffed with an onion and spice mix and shallow fried.
10) Keema Dum- Rustic, char grilled flavours dominate this recipe. Minced meat marinated and cooked with a range of spices in mustard oil. Dum is a style of slow cooking.
11) Galouti Kebab- these non-veg kebabs were invented in the city of Nawabs, Lucknow. They are prepared with a melange of Indian spices.
History Background Uttar Pradesh as a state unfolds a fascinating past dating back to 4000 years ago, which still breathes fresh in every corner. This state sits around the three historically significant rivers- Yamuna, Ganga and the mythological Saraswati. The vast and fertile Gangetic Plains that make up the present-day Uttar Pradesh have played a key role in the rise and fall of major empires and dynasties going back more than 2500 years ago. Lying to the east of the capital of India, New Delhi, this was a strategic region which invaders and rulers sought to control in order to establish their power in North India.
List of peak seasons for fruits and veggie
❖ Winter Season- Chestnuts, Grapefruit, lemons, Oranges, Tangerines, Kale
❖ Spring Season- Apricots, Avocado, Mango, Pineapple, Rhubarb, Strawberries
❖ Summer Season- Blackberries, Blueberries, Nectarines, Peaches, Plums
❖ Fall Season- Apples, Cranberries, Figs, Grapes, Pears, Pomegranate
Seasonal availability under geographical indicators
❖ Malihabad Dasheri Mango- most popular variety of mango grown in different parts of India and it is the largest producer of the Dasheri mango.
❖ Allahabad Surkha Guava- cultivated across the Allahabad and known for sweet and strongly flavours and is known for its medical properties.
❖ Banarasi Langra- it is the prominent variety of mango and one of the most superior variety of Mango from the Northern India and are originally from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.

COMMUNICATION Notes for 1st Sem

BBA (CA)- 105     Communication

This paper is intended to emphasize on improving oral and written communication skills through experiential training and comprehensive understanding of the students.

Unit-1: Business Communication: Definition, Importance of effective communication, Process of Communication, Objectives of Communication, Characteristics of Communication and the C s of Good Communication.

Unit-2: Better Listening: Listening for Pronunciation Practice, Listening for Personal Communication, Active Listening: Communicating in Public Situations, Listening for Communication: Language Functions.

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication: Speaking about Myself, Speaking Accurately, Practice in Public Speaking, Non-Verbal Communication, Social Communication: Performing Language Functions, Speaking across the Curriculum.

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading: Countering Defects, Reading Silently for Understanding and Speed, Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of Reading, Reading — Study Reading: Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum, Extensive Reading: Encouraging Lifelong Learning.

Unit-5: Effective Writing: Better Writing Using Personal Experiences, Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and Grammar, Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions, Effective Writing across the Curriculum, Promoting Creative Writing.


  1. Kaul, A. (2005). Effective Business Communication, PHI, New Delhi.
  2. Munter M. (2011). Guide to Managerial Communication: Effective Writing & Speaking, PHI, New Delhi.

Table of Contents

BBA (CA)- 105       Communication. 1

Unit-1: Business Communication: 1

Unit-2: Better Listening: 9

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication: 13

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading: 16

Unit-5: Effective Writing: 18

Unit-1: Business Communication:

1.1 Definition:

Communication is a process through which ideas or opinions are exchanged or transferred, progress of a person is dependent upon his/ her communication skills. It is considered as an art for achieving success at work place as it is clearly associated with the ability to communicate effectively. Both at the workplace and with outsiders. It takes a variety of forms, i.e., from 2 people having face to face conversation or hand signals in the form of messages to the global telecommunication network. The process of communication facilities interaction among people without which we would be unable to share our knowledge or experiences with anyone else.

“Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so that an understanding response results”.

 By Peter Little

“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.

By W.H. New man and C.F. summer Jr.

1.2 Importance of effective communication:

Communication is required not only in social life but also in personal and professional life. Good communication helps an individual advance socially by making useful contacts. It also builds self-confidence and enables him to help and lead others. In a business, reputation, trust and credibility need to be built up in order to get clients trust and confidence. Having sense of professionalism will help bring a long-term relationship with employees and clientele.

Business communication is required for the following purposes-

1) In order to make sure that business deal is attend to promptly.

2) Communicating with external and internal contacts of an organisation.

3) Organise the business whether it is a sale, a promotion, inquiry, a problem, etc.

4) Dealing with people for their needs and otherwise. As a matter of fact, communication is pre-requisite to have a balance within the internal as well as external factors in a business whether it is dealing with people or other casts.

1.3 Process of Communication:

Communication is effective when a concise and clear message is delivered well, received Successfully and understand fully. The process of communication has the following distinct Components:

Idea, Sender, Message, Encoding Message, Noise, Understanding Idea, Decoding Message, Receiver, Medium and Channel, Feedback.

1). Idea: – Idea is the simplification and abstraction of reality filtered through the individuals Mind. Every message weather oral or written begins with an idea. Every business has its own Convention for processing and communicating information.

2). Sender: – Person sending the information is called sender. He is also known as encoder. The Process of communication begins when an idea occurs in his mind. The sender wants to send That idea to another person/organization to achieve some objective. The sender must have a Clear picture in his mind about what he wants to communicate.

3). Message: – The idea, emotion or opinion transmitted by the sender is called message. Message is an idea transformed into words. The message can be expressed in different ways Depending on the subjects, purpose, audience, personal style and cultural background of the Sender.

4). Encoding: – The method by which a message is expressed is called encoding. Message arises In the mind in the form of an idea. That idea is transmitted by the sender to the receiver in the Form of words, symbols, picture etc. If not encoded, it may not be possible for the receiver to Understand it.

5). Medium and Channel: – The method and means by which a message is transmitted by a Sender to the receiver. For instance, letters are a medium and postal or courier service a channel. If message is communicated by telephone, then oral message is a medium and telephone a Channel.

6). Receiver: – The receiver is a person/organization that receives the message. He is the Destination of the message. In the absence, the process of communication is incomplete. He not Only receives the message but also understands what is implied in it. He may be a listener, Reader or viewer of the message.

7). Decoding: – Decoding is the mental process by which the receiver draws meaning from the Word, symbols or picture of the message. Receiver decodes the message send by sender, that’s Why he is also known as decoder.

8). Feedback: – Feedback is the receiver’s response to the message. Feedback is the final ink in the communication process. Feedback tells the source/sender, how the receiver has interpreted the message. The effective communication is always sensitive to feedback.

1.4 Objectives of Communication:

The basic objective of human communication is trying to elicit a reaction from the person we are trying to communicate with. From a business or commercial angle, if we observe any small or large business around us we will be able to notice that the amount of success the business has achieved mainly relies on its power of communication. Communication defines the level of success that the company has attained.

Following are a few of the main objectives of business communication.

1. Information: The core objective of a business is to convey information and making individuals more up to date, E.g.- all the advertisement campaigns that we notice around us are an attempt to inform and convey the information across to others, and in case of companies, this information is generally regarding the product or services at offer. However, the method of communication may be verbal, written, visual or any other. All companies thrive on information pertinent to their business activity. They must have excellent knowledge regarding the market, their competitors, the government policies, the type of credit they can gain from; the existing economic situation etc. Pertinent information is the main aspect for successful business. However, in the recent times, because of the arrival of the World Wide Web, there has been a swift outburst in the quantity of information that is accessible to a company and it is turning out to be gradually more difficult for a company to come across information that is genuine, comprehensive, up-to-date and new. Furthermore, it has become very important for any company to get hold of that information. Moreover, this demand for correct information has initiated a new faction of people called the infomederies, who do not handle any type of goods but provide information. A company not only acquires information but furthermore provides information as well, for e.g.- The company has to provide factual information about profitability, quality of products, facilities provided to the workers or services rendered towards the community.

2. Motivation: Communication in business is moreover essential to boost the workers’ motivation. Thus if the communication is carried out correctly and is successful in encouraging the workers and workers are sufficiently encouraged, the work gets completed easily, proficiently and the workers will carry out their functions by themselves without supervision. Communication should be utilised to construct a proper working atmosphere. In order to create a strong competitive atmosphere between the workers and furthermore can be acknowledged and rewarded for their accomplishments. Employees who work at a lower level in the chain of command of the organisation should be motivated to give ideas and inputs on the methods to improve the functioning of an organisation, this type of communication brings about a feeling of involvement and connection and creates more loyalty towards the company.

3. Raising Morale: Another extremely significant objective of business communication (internal) is maintaining a sense of high morale amongst the workers, so that they perform their tasks with dynamism and resilience as a team. create a great impact on the success of a company. However as morale is a psychological aspect, the condition of high morale is not a lasting feature. An organisation could have a sense of high morale between the workers for following phase. Therefore, to keep the sense of high morale amongst the employees, an organisation has to constantly put in their efforts in that course. It can be managed by maintaining an open door policy, keeping tabs on the gossip and not permitting destructive rumours to spread among employees.

4. Order and instructions: An order is an oral or written rule influencing the start, end or adjusting an activity. This form of communication is internal and is executed within a company. Order may be in written or verbal form. Written orders are given when the type of job is extremely vital or the person who would carry out the task is far off. Care must be taken at the time of handing out written orders; a copy of the order should always be maintained so that it is easy during the follow up. Oral orders come into play at the time of urgency in the work and when the person is in close proximity. However, it is extremely vital to follow up in both the cases.

5. Education and training: These days, communication can be additionally used in business to enhance the scope of knowledge. The goal of education is attained by business communication on three levels (a) Management (b) employees (c) general public

a. Education for future managers: At this juncture, junior personnel in the organisation are taught to deal with vital assignments comprising of responsibility, so that they can achieve something more than their superiors in the long run.

b. Education for newbie’s: When new personnel join an organisation, they are introduced by enlightening them in relation to the culture of the company, code of discipline, work ethos etc. This is generally carried out by way of a training method to accustom the new recruits with the working style of the organisation.

c. Educating the public: This is carried out by advertising, informative seminars, newspapers, journals to notify the public regarding the product, the working style of the company and different schemes presented by the company.

1.5 Characteristics of Communication:  7 C s of Good Communication:

1. Complete: The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly.

2. Concise: Conciseness means wordiness, i.e., communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forging the other C’s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication.

3. Consideration: Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e., the audience’s view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems.

4. Clear: Clarity implies emplacing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once.

5. Correct: Correctness in communication implies that there is no grammatical error in communication.

6. Courteous: Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic.

7. Concrete: Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence.

1.6 Barriers of Communication

Communication plays a major role in developing a relationship. It can also affect the relationship among family members or management in any institute. More specifically, communication influences the effectiveness of instruction, performance evaluation, and the handling of discipline problems. Communication should be straightforward. What can make it complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers. Some barriers of communication are the following.

1. Physiological Barrier

Physiological barriers to communication are related with the limitations of the human body and the human mind (memory, attention, and perception). Physiological barriers may result from individuals’ personal discomfort, caused by ill-health, poor eye sight, or hearing difficulties.

2. Poor Listening Skills

Listening to others is considered a difficult task. A typical speaker says about 125 words per minute. The typical listener can receive 400–600 words per minute. Thus, about three-fourth of listening time is free time. The free time often sidetracks the listener. The solution is to be an active rather than passive listener. A listener’s premature frown, shaking of the head, or bored look can easily convince the other person/speaker that there is no reason to elaborate or try again to communicate his/her excellent idea.

3. Information Overload

Nurses are surrounded with a pool of information. It is essential to control the flow of the information, else the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked. As a result, communication may get distorted.

4. Inattention

At times, we just do not listen but only hear. For example, your boss is immersed in his/her very important paper work surrounded by so many files on the table and you are explaining him/her about an urgent office problem. In this situation, due to the inattention, the boss will not listen to you (he/she will only hear you); hence, he/she may not get what you are saying and it may lead to disappointment.

5. Emotions

The emotional state of a person at a particular point of time affects his/her communication with others as it has an impact on the body language (nonverbal communication). If the receiver feels that the sender is angry (emotional state), he/she can easily infer that the information being obtained will be very terrible.

6. Physical and Environmental Distractions

Physical distractions are the physical things that get in the way of communication. Examples of such things include the telephone, an uncomfortable meeting place, and noise. These physical distractions are common in the hospital setting. If the telephone rings, the usual human tendency will be to  answer it even if the caller is interrupting a very important or even delicate conversation. Distractions such as background noise, poor lighting, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room, or an environment that is too hot or cold can affect people’s morale and concentration, which in turn interfere with effective communication.

7. Psychological Barrier

Psychological factors such as misperception, filtering, distrust, unhappy emotions, and people’s state of mind can jeopardize the process of communication. We all tend to feel happier and more receptive to information when the sun shines. Similarly, if someone has personal problems such as worries and stress about a chronic illness, it may impinge his/her communication with others.

8. Social Barriers

Social barriers to communication include the social psychological phenomenon of conformity, a process in which the norms, values, and behaviors of an individual begin to follow those of the wider group. Social factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, and marital status may act as a barrier to communication in certain situations.

9.  Cultural Barriers

Culture shapes the way we think and behave. It can be seen as both shaping and being shaped by our established patterns of communication. Cultural barrier to communication often arises when individuals in one social group have developed different norms, values, or behaviors to individuals associated with another group. Cultural difference leads to difference in interest, knowledge, value, and tradition. Therefore, people of different cultures will experience these culture factors as a barrier to communicate with each other.

14. Barriers Related with the Message

            Unclear Messages


Question from Unit -1

What is the main objective of business communication?

 ‘7 C s’ of good communication.

What are the barriers to communication? How to overcome these barriers?       

Explain the process of communication with a neat diagram.                       

Unit-2: Better Listening:

Good listening skills make workers more productive. The ability to listen carefully will allow a person to:

  • understand assignments in better way and find and what is expected from him.
  • build rapport with co-workers, bosses, and clients;
  • show support;
  • work better in a team-based environment;
  • resolve problems with customers, co-workers, and bosses;
  • answer questions
  • find underlying meanings in what others say.

2.1 Listening for Pronunciation Practice:

Make sentence to differentiate the meaning of following homophones.

Great – a person who has achieved distinction and honor in some field- “he is one of the greats of Indian music”

Grate – reduce to small shreds or pulverize by rubbing against a rough or sharp perforated surface-“grate carrots and onions”

Access (Approach,  reach) This type of account offers you instant access to your money

Excess (Additional, more than) The store has an excess of stock which it must sell off

Accept– to receive or take something- My friend was happy to accept the gift.

 Except– not including something – The restaurant is open every day of the week except Sunday

Affect – to cause a change – Her decision to skip class could affect her grade

Effect – a change that is produced by a cause – The snow had little effect on the school schedule.

To (Preposition) – used to indicate the place, person, or thing that something moves toward – I am going to the mall after we finish eating lunch.

Too (Adverb) – more than what is wanted, accepted, needed, possible, etc.  – The pink bag is too heavy for me to lift by myself, but the blue one is lighter. 

Two (Noun) – the number 2 -I would like two copies please.

Career (profession) Mr. Balhara was very successful in his hotel career.

Carrier (person/company which carries goods, support for luggage in bicycles) The goods train is the biggest carrier of goods.

Birth (coming to life) Sheela gave birth to a girl child..

Berth (a shelf like sleeping space in train) Please reserve a first class berth for me in the Taj  Express.

Dye (a coloring that changes the color of material) Take colour well during the dyeing process.

Die (to cease to live and become dead) he died of tuberculosis

Beat (to hit something hard) he beat the table with his hand’

Beet (a type of plant) Beetroot plant widely cultivated as a source of food for human

Fair (Lovely, just) This shop charges fair prices.

Fare (Money charged for bus, train etc., journey) Taxi driver had only one fare that day.

Weather (Climate) We went out shopping in the fine weather.

Whether (if) Tell me whether he would send the parcel or not.

2.2 Listening for Personal Communication:

2.3 Active Listening:

Levels and Types of Listening

  1. Discriminative Listening: It involves an attempt to distinguish one second from all others. Stopping work to determine whether the phone is ringing is an example of this listening. We learn how to discriminate among sounds at an early stage.

2. Comprehensive Listening: It involves an attempt to understand a speaker’s message in totality and to interpret the meaning precisely. This kind of listening is generally practiced in classrooms, where we must remember what has been taught and rely upon it for future use.

3. Critical Listening: When a person want’s to sift through what he has heard and come to a decision he must listen critically. This involves judging the clarity, accuracy and reliability of the information evidence and also being alert to emotional appeals. Examples: Professionals like doctors and judges do this listening.

4. Active Listening: It is also called empathized listening or supportive listening. Empathy means putting yourself into other person’s shoes and trying to understand his perspective. When we listen actively, we encourage the speaker to express himself completely. It involves responding to the emotional content apart from only the verbal message. An active listener is alert to all clues and carefully deserves the non-verbal behaviour of the speaker to get a complete picture. Eg. Counsellors.

Guidelines for effective listening

1. Use attentive body language: The posture and position of body influence both the ability to listen and how you are perceived as a listener. An attentive listener should show confidence in his/her body language.

2. Concentration: Effective listening requires focusing on what is being sad. While listening, we should not get distracted by noise or any kind of disturbances. We should be concentrated to what the speaker is speaking.

3. Listen more, speak less: For effective listening, it is very important to listen carefully rather than interrupting the speaker again and again. One should listen more and carefully rather than speaking more and immediately deriving conclusions.

4. Have an open mind: It means listen without judging the other person or criticizing the things that he/ she tells you. It is always better to be opened minded to other persons view and ideas through which we may get to know a lot. Apart from this, we cannot just stop listening to someone just because we dislike his/ her appearance, thought etc.

5. Don’t jump to conclusion: Wait until you hear what the speaker has to say, before jumping or deriving conclusions. A good listener should not be bias and should not judge or decide something without having all the facts and reach to unwanted conclusions.

6. Show Understanding: A good listener deliberately listens to the speaker and understands his/ her feelings. He concentrates totally on the facts and evaluates the facts. A good listener should be projective (i.e. one who tries to understand the views of the speaker) and empathic (i.e. tries to understand the speakers perspective).

7. Short Note on: Listening, Computerization and Note Taking Good note taking involves effective listening that includes concentrating on selecting, summarizing, evaluating what is being said by the speaker. Listening requires you not only to hear what is being said but to understand as well. Note taking is the practice of recording information captured from another source. By taking notes, the writer records the essence of the information, freeing their mind from having to recall everything. Note taking is the practice of writing pieces of information, in an informal and unstructured manner. It generally involves writing down most of what you hear or read without processing the information. Note taking is taken as a passive approach to study and learning.

 2.4 Communicating in Public Situations:

2.5 Listening for Communication:

Most people spend at least half of their communication time listening. This most used communication skill is not only crucial in interpersonal communication but it is also must in organisation communication and helps in determining success in education and careers. Business written Kevin Murphy says “the better you listen, the luckier you get so take time to listen”. Recent studies show that personnel at all levels spend about 32.7% of their time, listening. Whereas, speaking takes up 25.8% of their time and writing 22.6% however, senior professionals spend even more time listening. Poor listening can cause innumerable mistakes. Listening helps employees to update their facts, skills, attitudes and also improve their spoken skills.

  • Language Functions:
    • Listening Barriers

Physical Barriers


Poor acoustics

 Defective mechanical devices

 Frequent interruptions

 Uncomfortable seating arrangements

 Uncomfortable environment

 Message overload

People – Related Barriers

Physiological Barriers

            Being unsure of the speaker’s ability

Personal anxiety


Psychological Barriers


Emotional blocks

Question of Unit-2

What is listening? What are the different types of listening?

 What are the barriers of listening? How to overcome them?                               

Different types of Listening barriers.

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication:

The purpose of any speech can be categorised into broad headings: 1. General 2. Specific

There are three general speech purposes:

1. To Inform: The main concern of the speaker here is to make the audience understood and remember the information presented.

2. To Persuade: The major objective of a persuasive speech to induce the audience to think, feel and act in a manner intended by the speaker.

3. To Entertain: Through such speeches, the speaker wants the audience to have an enjoyable time.

Specific purpose describes the exact nature of response you want from the audience.

It has three requirements: 1. Central Idea 2. Clear and Concise message 3. It should be worded in term of the audience desire.

Steps in Organising and Delivering the Speech

1. Organising Speech: Jot down 3 or 4 main points that you want your audience to remember.

2. Summarise each idea in a single clear sentence: Sentences should be built around facts and supported by examples.

3. Write you speech: Use short and clear words. Don’t pronounce it with professional or technical jargons.

4. Use sense of humour: Cracking a sensible joke or the adding a punchy one liners as per the environment. However, excess jokes can make the speaker sound unprofessional.

5. Write main points of 3X5 Cue Cards/ Note Cards

6. Rehearse Your Speech: Time the delivery of speech while rehearsal to match the allotted time.

7. Look at the audience: Make an eye contact with the audience to make them realise that you are there for them.

8. Deliver your speech to the audience speak slowly and loudly (volume) when required. Stand upright in a relaxed manner with your feet slightly apart and hands by your side. Visual may be used where possible as it demonstrates certain points more effectively.

3.1 Speaking about Myself:

3.2 Speaking Accurately:

A. Pronunciation, Stress and Accent How do you understand a new word of a new language?

We have to break the word to be able to correctly pronounce it. A part of a word or a word which contains a single vowel sound is known as a syllable. It is a single unit of speech that builds up the structure of every word. It gives a word its pronunciation. Each word contains at least one or more syllable as a word can be formed without a consonant sound

Following are the examples of words with single syllable: 1. Man 2. Cup 3. Hat Single vowel sound can be made of more than one vowel letters. E.g. 1. Moon 2. Cake 3. Bought As all of these words contain only one vowel sound, therefore, they are single syllable words.

Examples of words with two syllables: 1. Garden : gar den 2. Hotel : ho tel 3. Consist : con sist 4. Focus : fo cus

Examples of words with the three syllables: 1. September : sep tem ber 2. Department : de part ment 3. Telephone : te le phone 4. Camera : ca me ra 5. Saturday : sa tur day

Examples of words with four syllables: 1. Information : in for may tion 2. Practically : prac ti ca lly 3. Photography : pho to gra phy 4. Competition : com pe ti tion

Similarly, there can be words with even more syllables. Word Stress: When a word has more than one syllable, not all syllables are pronounces with the same degree of force.

Phoneme – The smallest unit at the level of sounds of one particular language is called phoneme. e.g. the /t/ from /p/ in /tin/ and /pin/. The phoneme of spoken language differs from the letters of a written language. The phonemes of English and their number vary from dialect to dialect, and also depend on the interpretation of the individual researcher.

The number of consonant phonemes is generally put at 24 (or slightly more). The number of vowels is subject to greater variation; there are 20 vowel phonemes in Received Pronunciation, 14–16 in General American and 20– 21 in Australian English. Out of this 12 are pure vowels or Monophthongs and 8 are vowel glides or Diphthongs.

Stress – Stress is the intensity or prominence given to a syllable. It way we defied as emphasis on a syllable or word in the form of prominent, relative loudness͛. In traditional approach, each English word consisting of more than one syllable can be ascribed to any one of these three degrees – primary or loud, secondary or medium and unstressed. When prominence is given to syllable in sentences, it is called sentence-stress.

3.3 Practice in Public Speaking:

Great speakers are not born, they are trained”     – Dale Carnegie

Public Speaking is the art of communicating live to a large audience. It is generally a formal face-to face interaction of an individual to a group of people. It can be as simple as providing information, story-telling or a motivational speech.

Public speaking has several components such as leadership development, business, motivating speech, mass communication, persuading, etc. It is generally done in a structured and deliberate manner with the intention to inform, influence or entertain the listener.

There are 5 elements in public speaking:

  • Who is saying?
  • What?
  • To Whom?
  • Using what medium
  • With what Effects?

3.4 Non-Verbal Communication:

The most basic form of communication is non-verbal. Long before human beings used words to communicate, our ancestors communicate with each other by using body languages such as gritting of teeth for anger, smile and touch to show affection. Thus, one can easily say that nonverbal communication is the communication without words.

As human beings evolved over a period of time, the use of this form of communication has not diminished but has widen in scope. The two-effective means of communication are Firstly, nonverbal communication is the form of sign language such as traffic lights, blowing of siren, telephone ring, traffic maps, etc. ‘Secondly’ Communication through body language, which include kinesics, para language, proxemics.

Meaning of: Kinesics: – is the interpretation of body language such as facial expressions and gestures (body movement).

Para language: – refers to the non- verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion.         

Proxemics: – is a subcategory of the study of non-verbal communication along with haptics(touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalic (para languages).

Social Communication:

Performing Language Functions:

 Speaking across the Curriculum:

Questions from Unit-3

Essential qualities of a good speaker

Importance of Non-Verbal communication in hospitality industry.

What is Audience Analysis? Explain its Importance?

What are the characteristics of an effective public speaker?                       

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading:

4.1 Countering Defects:

4.2Reading Silently for Understanding and Speed:

Reading silently improves students’ understanding because it helps them concentrate on what they are reading, rather than the pronunciation of individual words. When we read silently, we can form mental pictures of the topic being discussed. Also, we do not need to read one word at a time. When you encourage your students to read silently, you are helping them develop the strategies they need for reading fast, and with better comprehension. This is called reading efficiency, and it will help your students to read any text with maximum attention to meaning.

Silent reading also helps develop the skills of reading for a purpose, as the focus is on understanding the content without the additional burden of having to pay attention to pronunciation.

Research has shown that people read in sense groups, which means, roughly, that we read a number of words together so that they make sense to us. For example, this is how I read the first sentence of this paragraph: Reading silently/improves students’ understanding/because it helps them/ concentrate on/what they are reading,/rather than the pronunciation of individual words. Within these groups of words, our eyes stop at the content words (reading, silently, improves, students’, because, helps, concentrate, etc.) — that is, nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc., the words that carry independent meaning — and skip over the function words (it, them, on, the, of, etc.) — that is, grammatical words such as articles and other determiners.

4.3 Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of Reading

The Essential Components of Reading

Reading is an extremely complex cognitive process.  Our intellect is in fact engaged in number of tasks when we are reading, despite of the belief that reading is one singular act. There are five attributes to the process of reading: phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and fluency. These five features work together to form the reading skill. In order to turn out to be a triumph in reading skills, individuals must develop expertise in all these five areas. 


“Phonics instruction helps early elementary students develop proficiency in decoding, spelling, and understanding words” – National Reading Panel

Phonics is the relationship or a connection between sounds, letter symbols or word families, short vowels, long vowels, and letter combinations and the sounds they represent. Without phonics, words are just a group of scribbles and lines on a page.

There are many ways that phonics can be skilled because there is a multiple way to apply this aspect when reading. Every single approach permits the reader to use phonics to read and discover new words in a diverse way. 

4.4 Reading — Study Reading:

Tips to improve your Reading Skills

In the modern age of information, reading truly is a fundamental survival skill. Here are ten tips that anyone can use to improve their reading skills:

1. You don’t have to be a great reader to get the point.

Some people read fast and remember everything. Others read slowly and take a couple of times to get all the information. It doesn’t matter, really, so long as when you read, you get the information you’re seeking.

2. Know WHY you’re reading.

Are you reading for entertainment or to learn something? Decide why you’re reading before you start and you’ll greatly improve your comprehension and your enjoyment.

3. You don’t need to read everything.

Not every magazine, letter, and email you receive contains information you need. In fact, most of it is simply junk. Throw it away, hit the delete key! Just doing this will double the amount of time you have available to read.

4. You don’t need to read all of what you DO read.

Do you read every article of every magazine, every chapter of every book? If so, you’re probably spending a lot of time reading stuff you don’t need. Be choosy: select the chapters and articles that are important. Ignore the rest.

5. Scan before you read.

Look at the table of contents, index, topic headers, photo captions, etc. These will help you determine if, a) you have a real interest in this reading, and b) what information you’re likely to get from it.

6. Prioritize your reading.

You can’t read everything all at once (and wouldn’t want to). If it’s important, read it now. If it’s not, let it wait.

7. Optimize your reading environment.

You’ll read faster and comprehend more if you read in an environment that’s comfortable for you.

8. Once you start, don’t stop!

Read each item straight through. If you finish and have questions, go back and re-read the pertinent sections. If you don’t have questions, you got what you needed and are ready to move on.

9. Focus.

Remember, you’re reading with a purpose, so focus on that purpose and the material. If you lose interest or keep losing your place, take a break or read something else. You can keep track of where you are by following along with your hand. This simple technique helps you focus and increase your concentration.

10. Practice!

The more you read, the better reader you’ll become (and smarter, too)! So, feed your mind: read!

4.5 Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum:

4.6 Extensive Reading: Encouraging Lifelong Learning:

Question from Unit-4

 List out the four main reading techniques and explain.

List out the tips to improve your Reading Skills.                                         

Different attributes of effective reading.

Does reading skill helps in an organization? Explain in detail.

Unit-5: Effective Writing:

Written communication has great significance in today‟s business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for pre- paring worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.

Advantages of Written Communication

  • Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.
  • It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required.
  • It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.
  • Written communication is more precise and explicit.
  • Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization‟s image.
  • It provides ready records and references.
  • Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records.

Disadvantages of Written Communication

  • Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.
  • Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.
  • Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.
  • Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organization‟s reputation.
  • Too much paper work and e-mails burden are involved.

5.1 Better Writing Using Personal Experiences:

5.2 Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and Grammar:

Effective writing tips mentioned below.

Keep it simple. Let’s start with a few basics. Simplify your message. Rather than zig-zagging through every angle in the book, find a hook that will catch the reader’s attention and tell that story.

Trim the fat. We live in an age of information overload. Focus on the meat of the topic, and find ways to trim the fat. Your audience will appreciate it.

Answer the 5 Ws (and the H). The ‘who, what, when, where, why and how’ approach to writing might have been the first thing I learned in journalism school, but it’s still one of my favorite methods to confirm I’m telling the whole story.

Think, feel, do Before I put pen to paper, I contemplate what I want the reader to think, what I want them to feel and what I want them to do. If your writing passes the ‘Think, Feel, Do’ test, you’ve got yourself a keeper.

Design your draft. Do you remember the outlines your fifth-grade teacher made your write before you started your essay? A simple outline will allow you to connect the dots of your story with a limited amount of time investment required.

Use real, everyday words. There’s a reason most newspapers write at an eighth-grade reading level. It helps to ensure the message will be interpreted the same way it was intended.

Mind your grammar. Grammatical errors will instantly erode your credibility. Pay close attention to those graded term papers to identify any bad habits you need to correct before you graduate. Eliminate passive voice, avoid commonly misspelled words and keep an AP Stylebook handy.

Who are you? Putting yourself in the shoes of your audience is a fairly well-known writing tip, but in public relations, you have to take that one step further. We channel a variety of brand voices, C-suite executives and other important figures. Channelling the proper voice in your writing is a skill that can be improved through practice and intention.

Find your focus. Identify an environment that will allow you to write efficiently. Find inspiration through music, a comfortable seat, a quiet corner or a second cup of coffee.

Proof. Proof. Proof. Proofing extends beyond spell check. Take the time to double-check your facts. Are your links working? Did you reserve five or 55 microphones from the event vendor? Peer reviews and stepping away for a bit often help catch those hidden blemishes.

5.3 Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions

Effective Writing is writing which has a logical flow of ideas and is cohesive. This means it holds together well because there are links between sentences and paragraphs. Writing which is cohesive works as a unified whole and is easy to follow because it uses language effectively to maintain a focus and to keep the reader ‘on track’.

5.4 Effective Writing across the Curriculum

5.5 Promoting Creative Writing

Question from Unit-5

Discuss about the advantages and disadvantages of ‘written communication’.

Explain the use and effect of written communication in hotel industry.

Write the importance of written communication its advantages and disadvantages.

List out five tips towards effective writing.  

Short Question draft from all above Notes

Active Listening

Communication in public speaking

Creative Writing

Draw a neat diagram of the process of communication


Extensive Reading

Importance of reading skill

Importance of Written communication


Non-Verbal communication

Process of communication

Difference between ‘listening’ and ‘hearing’

Sate two tips to improve communication skills

Social Communication

Advantages of Written Communication.


Unit-1: Dressings and Condiments, Salads – Vinaigrette, Blue cheese, Italian, Boiled, Sour cream, Salads – Components, Principles, Ingredients, classification.


The three basic dressings are: vinaigrettes, mayonnaise-based, and dairy-based

  • Vinaigrettes are made with oil and vinegar. Temporary emulsion, needs to be shaken or stirred while using. Procedure is: Combine vinegar with seasonings, Whip in the oil a little at a time, by hand or machine and Serve immediately or chill for later.
  • Mayonnaise is a permanent emulsion with eggs, oil, and vinegar or acid. Good mayonnaise is creamy, pale ivory, not too acidic, should hold its own shape and Mustard is often added to give a little tartness.
  • Dairy-based can be made with cream or acidic, fresh dairy products. Should be used up immediately or soon, as they have a short shelf life, adjust seasoning and thickness before using, Excellent for fruit salads, jellied salads, chilled fish


  1. FRENCH: 1 part vinegar: 2 parts oil + salt, pepper, french mustard.
  2. ENGLISH: 2 parts vinegar: 1 part oil + salt, pepper, caster sugar, english mustard.
  3. AMERICAN: Equal parts of oil and vinegar + salt. Pepper, english mustard and additional sugar.
  4. MAYONNAISE: Mayonnaise sauce thinned down with vinegar or lemon juice.
  5. VINAIGRETTE: 1 part vinegar: 2 parts olive oil + salt, pepper, english/french mustard.
  6. RAVIGOTTE: Vinaigrette + chopped chervil, chives, tarragon, capers and parsley.
  7. GRIBICHE: Mayonnaise dressing + chopped gherkins, capers, chervil, taragon, parsley and strips of hard boiled egg white.
  8. ACIDULATED CREAM: Fresh cream + fresh lemon juice and salt
  9. THOUSAND ISLAND : Mayonnaise dressing + a little chili sauce and chopped red pimento, chives and green peppers 
  10. LEMON DRESSING: Substitute the vinegar with lemon juice adds oil according to taste plus salt, pepper and preferred mustard component.



Herba Salata, the Latin equivalent of salted greens, is where the term salad is derived from. This suggests that the earliest salads were mixtures of pickled greens, seasoned with salt. This culinary variation evolved by the time of Imperial Rome into mixtures of greens served with a fresh herb garnish and an oil-vinegar dressing. The 17th and 18th Century brought more additions to the humble culinary creation called the salad. Lettuces of various types were used as a base with some type of meat, poultry and mixed vegetables placed on the top. It was in the early 20th century that Escoffier carried the art of salad making to new heights. The possibilities for salad combinations are limited only by the imagination of the chef. They may include leaf greens, raw and cooked vegetables, fruit, meat, legumes and rice and pasta-based salads, to mention just a few.

Components of salad

Base, Body, Dressing and Garnish

  • The BASE or UNDERLINER of the salad is usually a layer of greens.
  • The BODY of the salad is the main ingredient. It may include vegetables, fruits, meats, or cheeses.
  • The DRESSING is a liquid or semi-liquid used to flavor, moisten, or enrich the salad.
  • The GARNISH of the salad adds color and appeal, and sometimes flavor. It must always be edible, and may be as simple as a sprinkling of crumbs or spice.

Principles of salad layout

The wide variety of salads makes it difficult to state exact rules for the proper preparation of salads. However, there are some rules of thumb that must be followed.

  • Utilize the freshest ingredients and especially those in season.
  • Light leaf vegetables should be tossed in a dressing just before the service.
  • Pour enough dressing to season; not drown the main ingredient.
  • Use a suitable container to present the salad.
  • Never overcrowd the salad plate.
  • Accommodate the salad within the dish and not on or over the edge.

Guidelines for Arranging Salads

Perhaps even more than with most other foods, the appearance and arrangement of a salad are essential to its quality. The colorful variety of salad ingredients gives the creative chef an opportunity to create miniature works of art on the salad plate.

  1. Keep the salad off the rim of the plate: Think of the rim as the frame of a picture. Keep the salad within the frame. Select the right plate for the portion size, not too large or not too small.
  2. Strive for a good balance of color: Pale iceberg lettuce is pretty plain and colorless but can be livened up by mixing in some darker greens and perhaps a few shreds of carrot, red cabbage or other colored vegetables such as peppers. On the other hand don’t overdo it and go overboard. Three colors are usually more than enough. Shades of green give a good effect and too many colors will look messy.
  3. Height makes a salad attractive: Ingredients mounded onto a plate are more interesting than that lying flat. Lettuce cups as a base adds height. Often, just a little height is enough.
  4. Cut the ingredients neatly: Ragged or sloppy cutting makes the whole salad look unattractive and haphazard.
  5. Make every ingredient identifiable: The pieces should be large enough for the customer to identify each ingredient. Don’t pulverize everything. Bite size pieces are the rule. Seasoning ingredients like onion could be chopped fine.
  6. Keep it simple: A simple, natural arrangement is pleasant to view. An elaborate design, a contrived arrangement, or a cluttered plate will defeat the purpose.

Preparation of salad ingredients

In many food service operations, salads are the items that are given the least attention and consideration, both in planning and preparation. Chefs often erroneously perceive it as a simple task that needs little or no training. This attitude results in salads of a poor quality. Certain factors need to be considered while planning a salad. These include:

  • Fresh ingredients
  • Attractive plating
  • Proper textures
  • Eye appeal

Well balanced flavor

Classification of salads

  1. Simple
    1. Compound
  2. Simple: These salad comprise one primary ingredients for body and one or two ingredient used for garnish for e.g. tomato salad garnish with coriander leaves. These salad also tossed with dressing and mostly fresh ingredients used for e.g. beetroot salad with vinaigrette dressing

Compound Salads

These salads comprise of more than one ingredients and based on skill and chef imagination. E.g. are Nicoise Salad, Waldorf salad, Russian Salad, Caesar Salad Coleslaw salad etc.  Compound salad are made up of four parts:

BASE: normally one/combination of the above greens. It gives definition to the placement of the salad on the plate. A green lettuce leaf is used as an under liner for the salad. Shredded greens can also be utilized and this will give height and dimension to the plate. The base also absorbs excess dressing preventing it from running around the plate during the presentation and the meal. However, the base is not always necessary. A cole slaw made up of leafy vegetable (cabbage) need not have a base at all. Beetroot salad whose color might run can do without the base.

BODY: This is the main ingredient in the salad and will generally give the name to the salad. The body must be the main ingredient and will be placed on top of the base. The body could be made up of just on ingredient or in some cases, several.

DRESSING:  is used to enhance and add to the taste and flavor of the body. It makes the salad more palate pleasing. The dressing may be tossed with the body of the salad, or served as an accompaniment poured over the salad at the table. The dressing is made up of four parts:

  • THE OIL: This could include plain refined, odorless oil or a more exotic one such as Avocado oil, Olive oil, Sesame seed oil, Walnut oil, Peanut oil, Corn oil, Almond oil & Soybean oil. One could also have flavored oil such as chili oil, herb oil or garlic oil.     
  • THE ACIDIC MEDIUM: Is normally vinegar, red or white. However, Lemon/Lime juice, Yogurt (curds), Red and White Wine can also be used. The popular vinegars include Cider Vinegar, Malt Vinegar, Wine Vinegar, Wine Vinegar, Chili Vinegar and Rice Vinegar.
  • THE SEASONING: Would include varieties of salt.
  •   THE FLAVOR ENHANCERS: These will include Spice Powders, Herbs, Garlic, Proprietary Sauces, Fruit Juices & Cream.

GARNISH: Ideally, the garnish will embellish the salad. However, it is not necessary to always have a garnish. Sometimes, if the vegetables are neatly cut and have retained their colors, the salad will look good on its own. Like the base, the garnish is optional.

Parts/Composition of Salad is same: Base, Body Dressing and Garnish

Other Types of Salad

    A.  Tossed

    B.  Mixed

    C.  Arranged

    D.  Cooked

    E.  Molded

     F.  Layered

    G.  Frozen

Salads can be served at the following positions in the meal:

Today, the salad is considered to be a popular item. It is the favorite of weight watchers and those on a diet. It is also a versatile dish and can be served as:

  • An appetizer
  • An entrée
  • A main course
  • An accompaniment to the main course
  • A dessert
  • On the buffet as part of the salad bar
  • As a sandwich filling
  • As a plate garnish


A simple salad is a variety of one or more greens. A mild dressing such as a light Vinaigrette is used so the delicate taste of the greens is not masked. Various types of greens are now available locally and would include:  

–   Cos – Oak Leaf Escarole Arugula
–   Romaine – Ruby Chicory Radiccio
Bibb – Roquette Endive  
Iceberg – Frezie Belgian endive  
Limestone – Boston Red/white cabbage  
Curly – Crisphead Spinach  
Chinese – Butterhead Cress/Water Cress  

Leaf salads are usually served as an accompaniment to the main course and rarely as any other course.


  1. Wash the greens thoroughly in several changes of water.
  2. Drain the greens well. Poor draining will result in watered down dressing.
  3. Crisp the greens. Place them in a colander in the refrigerator.
  4. Cut or tear into bite size pieces.
  5. Mix the greens well. Toss gently till uniformly mixed.
  6. Plate the salads. Use cold plates please! Not those just out of the dishwasher.
  7. Refrigerate.
  8. Add dressing just before serving along with garnish. Dressed greens wilt rapidly.

Six attributes of a salad are:

    a.  color

    b.  flavor

    c.  texture

    d.  shape

    e.  style

    f.   nutritive value


Archiduc, Augustin, Demi Deuil, Eve, Eleonora, Florida, Francaise, Gauloise, Lorette, Louisette, Nicoise, Russian, Rachel And Waldorf.

Review Questions

  1. How would you define a Salad?
  2. Differentiate between a simple salad and a compound salad.
  3. Describe the Parts/Composition of Salad
  4. Make a list of various dressings. Differentiate the French and English dressing.
  5. Explain in detail the principle and guideline the arranging the salad.
  6. Basic Procedure for Leaf Salads

Unit-2: Hors D’oeuvres – Cold, Hot, Classic

Hors d’oeuvre and Appetizers

Hors d’oeuvre is a French expression and its true definition is a preparation served outside of the menu proper, at the beginning of the meal before the main course. It comes from the French term outside (hors) and goes back to the early times when at banquets, the appetizer (hors d’oeuvre) was served in a separate room (ante chamber/room) while the guests assembled and waited for the arrival of the host and the chief guest. Hors d’oeuvre or appetizer as it is called in English can be described as a small tidbit, which should be light, delicate attractive and tasty. The term hors d’oeuvre should never be spelt with the final s, since there is plural form for the term in French. An hors d’oeuvre can be either in the solid form (appetizer) or in the liquid form (aperitif) which may be an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage.

Hors d’oeuvre may be classified in various ways:

  • Hot and Cold hors d’oeuvre
  • Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian hors d’oeuvre
  • Classical and Contemporary hors d’oeuvre
  • Hors d’oeuvre Singulaire and Compound hors d’oeuvre

However, a more comprehensive classification would include:

  • Meat based hors d’oeuvre: Pate, Terrines, Sausages (salami and mortadella), Ham
  • Fish based hors d’oeuvre: Oysters, Caviar, Roll mops, Snails, Prawn cocktail
  • Egg based hors d’oeuvre: Egg mayonnaise, stuffed eggs, devilled eggs, Gulls/Plovers eggs

–    Vegetable based hors d’oeuvre: Asparagus, Artichokes, Corn-on-the-cob

–     Fruit based hors d’oeuvre: Melon, Grapefruit, Florida cocktail

Hot Hors D’oeuvres e.g.

Lasagna Cupcakes: Wonton wrappers filled with marinara sauce, ricotta cheese, mozzarella cheese and seasoned ground beef or chicken

Chipotle-Lime Shrimp Tosdaditas: Spicy marinated Mexican shrimp served on a mini tostada shell with guacamole, creme and pico de gallo

Lamb and Mint Pesto Lollipops: Skewered lamb tenderloin medallions with a fresh mint pesto dipping sauce

Cauliflower and Brie Soup Cups: Roasted cauliflower and triple cream brie cheese, garnished with walnut dust and chives.

Spinach, Bacon and Artichoke Stuffed Mushrooms: Crimini mushrooms stuffed with fresh spinach, bacon and artichoke dip topped with mascarpone cheese and breadcrumbs

Tuscan Chicken Skewers: Crispy seared prosciutto wrapped chicken breast, marinated with rosemary, lemon, garlic and olive oil

Chicken Meatball Caesar Salad Cups: Romaine lettuce cups with grilled chicken meatballs, signature Caesar dressing, parmesan cheese and breadcrumble

White Cheddar and Virginia Ham Croquettes: Panko crusted mashed potato, white cheddar, scallions and artisanal ham. Served with a Tabasco aioli dipping sauce

Shepards Pie Bites: Shortbread pastry cups filled with classic beef stew and topped with mashed potatoes

Cold Hors D’ oeuvres e.g.

Pickled Shrimp Cocktail: Marinated and brined Mexican shrimp served with a chipotle cocktail sauce

Crab Stuffed Deviled Eggs: Hardboiled eggs filled with classic style egg mousse, lump crab meat and crispy shallots

Phyllo Caprese Cups: Crisp phyllo cups filled with cherry tomatoes, fresh mozzerella and basil pesto

Egg Salad Stuffed Potatoes: Egg salad with fresh dill, mustard, scallions and garlic aioli served in a roasted red bliss potato cups

Watermelon and Brie Wedges: Watermelon slices topped with brie, arugula leaves and balsamic reduction

Antipasto Bites: Baked salami cups filled with fresh mozzarella, roasted red bell peppers, grilled artichoke hearts and fresh basil.

Boursin Cheese Cake Bites: Boursin and cream cheese fondue baked with a panko and parmesan crust. Topped with a tomato jam and micro greens

Ham & Cheese Palmiers: Puff pastry wrapped black forest ham, gruyere cheese and mustard. Baked until golden brown

Fresh Fruit Skewers: Melon balled  cantaloupe, honeydew and watermelon served with a mango-mascarpone dipping sauce

Cold Hors d’oeuvre is of two categories:

  1. The ready to serve variety, available in the market off the shelves, like smoked salmon, pate, sausages.
  2. Those which require culinary preparation and that, when made properly have the advantage of being freshly prepared from fresh ingredients with maximum flavor and appeal. This is where fine cuisine can make a contribution to eating pleasure.

Hors d’oeuvre varies are often served at lunch and consist of many items served in a container called raviers. Various items can qualify to be called a part of hors d’oeuvre varies such as olives, pickled onions, cornichons (pickled gherkins), sliced salami, ham and even items like smoked salmon and gulls/plovers eggs

Hot hors d’oeuvre could generally be served at a cocktail party or before a dinner but seldom at lunch. Although there are some hot hors d’oeuvre that are classical, there are many others that are strictly prototype and serve as a basis for many different preparations. As a matter of fact, every branch of cookery that is reduced to a smaller portion is or could be used in the preparation of hot hors d’oeuvre. Paillettes, allumettes, beignets, frittes, bouchees, croustades, rissoles, ramequins and even the classsic quiche can all be served as hot hors d’oeuvre when reduced in size.

Zakuski, or hors d’oeuvre a la russe or canapés a la russe became very popular. These cold hors d’oeuvre are considered to be classical and made up of certain specified ingredients. Chefs in Russia were patronized by the Czars and reached the pinnacle of their profession.  It consists of a base of Blinis; the famous Russian pancake made out of buckwheat flour. This was topped with a topping that would be meat, fish, vegetable or combination of these. A characteristic of the topping is that it would most often be flavored with a smoked fish or meat. The surface would be decorated elaborately; and here is where the chef had the chance to demonstrate his imagination and his skill. Intricate garnishes of exquisite designs would decorate the zakuski. This would then be finished off with a glaze of aspic. The zakuski is a dinner hors d’oeuvre and are larger in size than the canapé. They are presented to the guest individually, without an accompaniment or sauce.

Canapés– 1 to 2 bites; open faced (composed hors d’ oeuvres).

These are tiny open-faced snacks, which are cut into a variety of shapes – round, rectangular, oval, triangle or other shapes. The size and thickness will depend upon the nature of the ingredients used.

A canapé will have three parts:

The base – which would normally be bread – toasted or plain, white or brown? However, a variety of other base ingredients could also be used – puff pastry, flaky pastry, short crust, pizza dough, choux pastry, are examples of the variety that can be used. Sometimes, a spread would be applied to the base to prevent it from soaking up the moisture of the topping.

The topping – almost anything could be used to top the base. However, it should be suitable and must complement the base. It should be fairy dry and must hold shape. A slice of cheese, hardboiled egg, ham, salami, mushrooms or chicken coated with a thick cream sauce, marinated mushrooms and prawns could all be used as topping. The list is limitless and can only be contained by the imagination.

The garnish – this is done more to increase the visual appeal and the appearance than for any functional value. A slice of olive, a sprig of parsley, a dice of capsicum or even a green pea can all be used to increase the presentation of the platter of canapés.

Canapés are usually served as snacks at cocktail parties and are never featured on the regular menu. Some classical canapés are served as the savoury course. Here are some popular canapés:

Canapé Rigoletto: Butter a canapé with cayenne butter. Sprinkle with a mixture of finely chopped whites and yolks of egg, ham, tongue, fine herbs and truffles.

Canapés a la danoise: Butter rye bread with horseradish butter, arrange slices of smoked salmon and filets of marinated herrings on top.

Canapés cancalaise: Butter a canapé with tuna fish butter, top with a poached mussel and decorate with a sprig of parsley.

Canapé rejane: Butter a slice of bread with lobster butter, top with a mound of chopped egg and mayonnaise and decorate with lobster coral.

Canapés a la nicoise: Butter the bread with anchovy butter. Pile stuffed olives on top and fill the gaps with anchovy butter.

Canapés poulette: Butter round canapés with anchovy butter, sprinkle sieved boiled egg yolks and top with a shrimp.

Canapés vie vile: cover a canapé with tarragon butter, top with a slice of ham and decorate with tarragon leaves.

Assignment: make a list of innovative canapés breaking them into the base, the topping and the garnish.

Difference between Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

The definitions of hor d’oeurves and appetizers are often interchangeable, however, there is a difference…

Hors d’Oeurves are the small, savory bites, typically finger foods, served before a meal usually in a buffet style or passed on trays by waiters.

Appetizers appear as the first course that is served at the table.  They are usually served with beverages, either alcoholic or otherwise.

General Rules for Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

  • If you are serving a dinner after the appetizers or hor d’oeurves, two to three different types are usually sufficient.
  • If preparing food for a cocktail party only, meaning that there will not be a dinner to follow, you should typically prepare five to seven different appetizers.  Some of these foods should be more substantial and filling if a meal is not served afterward.
  • As a general rule, figure two pieces per person for each of the appetizers or hor d’oeurves that you will be serving. 
  • If you are preparing food for a cocktail party, make sure that your appetizers or hor d’oeurves are finger foods only. You do not want to serve food that needs to be eaten with utensils, as that will become difficult for your standing guests to eat.  If your guest has to put their plate down to cut the food, that would also not be considered appropriate or polite.
  • If you are serving appetizers and hor d’oeurves before a meal, you may only want to offer one or two options.  However, if the appetizers or hor d’oeurves are the only food option, then you may want to offer your guests a variety of choices.
  • It is important to remember that the appetizers of hor d’oeurves should not clash with the main meal to follow.  For example, if you are serving pickled beets or deviled eggs as an appetizer, beets or eggs should not be served in the main meal.

Presentation of Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

  • Location is a vital part of the presentation of appetizers and hor d’oeurves.  Arrange your platters and bowls throughout the room, otherwise your guests will be crowded around the buffet table.  This will discourage conversation and encourage an uncomfortable setting.
  • In addition, you should make sure that you have enough napkins on hand for your guests.  Appetizers and hor d’oeurves tend to get quite messy, especially if they are “finger food.”

Hor d’Oeurves Prepartion

  • Complete all mise en place
  • Store at proper temperatures
  • Adhere to a production schedule

Hor d’Oeurves Presentation

  • Eye appealing and creative
  • Harmonizing flavors and colors
  • Simplicity/ elegance

Unit-3: Butchery of Meat: Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton, Poultry,Quality characteristics, Retail cuts, Traditional methods of preserving meat, Cold Cuts and Cured Foods, Fish Mongery – Classification, cuts, Commissary – SPS of different vegetables, Grades, Care, 


Introduction to meat cookery

Meat can be defined as the flesh of an animal used as food . It can also be defined as the whole or part of the carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs. Meat as high energy type of food is considered to be the food of choice due largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent protein and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides excellent nutrients. Famous across the world as a popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many cuisines. Liver is considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but is also a power house for toxin storage. Livers from mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be baked, boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst.


Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for breeding. Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.

Introduction to meat cookery

Meat can be defined as the flesh of an animal used as food (Hedrick et al, 1994). It can also be defined as the whole or part of the carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs (Williams, 2007). Meat as high energy type of food is considered to be the food of choice due largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent protein and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides excellent nutrients (Chang and Huang, 1991). Famous across the world as a popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many cuisines. Liver is considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but is also a power house for toxin storage (Mandora, 2010). Livers from mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be baked, boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst (Myhre, 2003).

  1. Quality characteristics of various butchered meats and their various retail cuts (With menu examples of each)
    1. Veal
  2. Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for breeding.Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.
  • Pork

Pork is the most widely consumed and versatile protein in the world; it’s easy to cook, adaptable to just about any recipe and very tender and juicy. Learn the best basic cooking tips for those familiar primal pork cuts like pork chops and pork loin, to how to master new-to-you pork cuts like pork belly or a pork rib roast. Whether you’re cooking for one or a holiday dinner for twelve, there are pork cuts for every occasion.

British Pork Cuts

American cuts of pork

Mutton, Goat, Lamb and kid.

Pork is a high-protein food and contains varying amounts of fat.

100-gram serving of cooked, ground pork provides the following nutrients.

Calories: 297, Water: 53%. Protein: 25.7 grams. Carbs: 0 grams. Sugar: 0 grams, Fiber: 0 grams, Fat: 20.8 grams

Mutton, Lamb

Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear

Mutton — the meat of a female (ewe) or castrated male (wether) sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear.

Variety offal

Offal, also referred to as variety meats, is the name for internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible organs, which varies by culture and region, but includes most internal organs excluding muscle and bone. Most common types of offal from the various species.

Species Common Offal Uses/Notes
Veal Heart  
  Liver Veal offal is more commonly served in restaurants than other types.
  Sweetbreads Thymus gland
Pork Liver Pork offal is stronger in flavour; the liver is most commonly used in pâté.
  Intestines Used for sausage casings
  Skin Used to make cracklings or chicharron
  Blood Used for blood sausage and black pudding
Lamb Liver Lamb offal is milder in flavour
  Intestines Used for sausage casings
Chicken Heart, Liver, Gizzard These three are often referred to as giblets as a whole.
Duck/Goose Liver fatty livers.


Poultry also includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons (known as squabs) but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game. The word “poultry” comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal.

Types of Poultry

Chicken, duck, turkey, Goose and Squad birds come under the poultry types.

Composition of Meat

Meat muscle, which is what we eat, is made of fibres, bound together with connective tissue, that are mainly linked to other groups of muscles or directly to the animal’s bone structure. Muscle contains 60% to 70% moisture, 10% to 20% protein, 2% to 22% fat, and 1% ash, depending on type and species.

On larger bones (such as the shanks of larger animals), it is easy to see the muscle groups in bundles (if cut on the cross-section) surrounded by collagen fibres and a much heavier connective tissue (elastin) that forms a thin covering (called silverskin) separating muscle groups or a tendon at the ends of the muscle group. The tendon is attached to the bone at or near a bone joint

The muscle fibres are known as myofibrils, which are composed of thick and thin filaments arranged in a repeating pattern alongside the other myofibrils (Figure 3). One unit of a bundle is called a sarcomere, or little muscle. The thick filaments are the contractile protein myosin. The thin filaments, known as actin, contain two other proteins called troponin and tropomyosin that help regulate muscle contraction.

Processing of Meat (Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton, Poultry)

After proper post-mortem inspection of carcasses and found fit for human consumption, the carcasses are washed and sanitized with chlorine labelled “inspected and passed”. They are then kept in the chillers at 0-4°C for 24 hours. In chilling, the pH of the meat becomes acidic and comes below 6 where FMD virus is


After chilling, the meat is deboned in the deboning hall where all the lymph glands and connective tissues are removed. The temperature of deboning hall is maintained at 12°C – 15°C. After deboning the meat is packed in the cartons as per the requirement of the consumers. The cartons are then sealed with polyethylene and passed through the shrinkage machine. After sealing, the meat is passed through the metal detector and put in the freezer.

Packaging and labelling

Proper cuts are packaged in cartons which has labels indicating the product, date of manufacturing, shelf life, brand name, etc to provide the consumer the information about the contents. Thereafter, the packed cartons are passed through the metal detector before freezing the meat either in plate freezer/blast freezer.

Freezing of the Meat

The meat is frozen in the plate freezer / blast freezer at -40°C for 10 hours where deep bone temperature is brought down to -18°C. Thereafter, the meat is kept in the cold storage.

Cold Storage

The frozen meat is kept in cold storage maintained at -18°C to -20°C till it is cleared for loading from the in-house laboratory.

Loading of Refrigerated Container

While loading the refrigerated container, the temperature in the container has to be brought to –18°C so that there is no thawing of the frozen meat cartons while they are loaded. The reefer container has to be clean and disinfected before loading. After proper loading it is sealed taken to port either by rail /road. The temperature has to be maintained at -18°C at all times.

Meat Receival & Inspection

• Check meat for physical contamination (dirt, hide, hair, etc).

• Check and record meat temperature with digital thermometer, chilled cuts ≤ 5C chilled bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C, frozen ≤ -10C.

• Meat with unacceptable levels of visible contamination or outside temperature parameters is returned to the supplier. Meat is transferred to active refrigeration immediately after inspection.


• Frozen meat is stored in a freezer and maintained at ≤ -10C. Chilled meat is stored in a chiller and maintained at: chilled cuts ≤ 5C, chilled bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C.

Thaw Frozen Meat

• Air temperature during thawing shall not exceed 10 C and product ≤ 5C

Meat Preparation

• Work surfaces and equipment (saws, mincers and knives etc) are cleaned and sanitised prior to contact with meat.

• Meat is processed to documented specifications.

• Meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during processing (fresh meat



• Only new food grade packaging materials (styrofoam trays, poly wraps and bags,

and fibreboard outer cartons) are used for the packaging of meat products.

• Each package is labeled with the product type and species of animal from which they are derived; the date of packaging; the identity of the meat business at which they are packaged and the refrigeration requirements or storage recommendations.


• Chilled meat product is stored in chillers that ensure that meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during storage.

• Frozen meat product is stored in freezers that ensure that meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 10C at all times during storage.


• Delivery vehicles are refrigerated and capable of maintaining chilled meat at ≤ 5 C and frozen meat at ≤ 10C during delivery; are in good repair and display a current registration label.

• Delivery vehicles are cleaned and sanitised prior to loading.

Sea Food

Technically anything edible which is obtained from sea or any other water body (even fresh water) is termed as Sea food. There are many things such as Fish, Shellfish, Seaweed, which are edible and are obtained from sea, but here we will be discussing only about Fish and Shellfish. The difference between fish and shellfish is that fish have internal skeleton (endoskeleton) and shellfish have external skeleton (exoskeleton).

Fish and Shell Fish

As well as naming types of fish they could be grouped according to their characteristics or habitat:

Flat Fish or demersal species living on the sea bed, for example: plaice, dab, sole.

Freshwater fish that spend all or some of their life in rivers or lakes e.g. salmon, trout, eels, pike, perch, river cobbler/ basa, tilapia, catfish

Round fish (cylindrical in shape) some are demersal living near sea beds e.g. cod, gurnard & some are

pelagic living towards the top of the sea, for example mackerel, sardines

Shellfish crustaceans like crab and prawns, molluscs like mussels, clams, whelks, cephalopods like squid and octopus.

Types of Fish

Salt Water Fish, Flat Fish, Round Fish, Fresh Water Fish, Anadromus, Lean Fish, Catadromus, Oily Fish, Shellfish

Composition of Fish

The flesh of fish is similar to any other meat in terms of composition, only difference is in the ratio. Fish has high amount of protein, water and in case of oily fish high fat contents, other than this there are some vitamins and minerals also which is present in fish. When compared to any meat, fish is very tender and is cooked fast even on low heat as it has less connective tissue. The toughness of the meat is result of protein coagulation due to heat, that’s why fish should be handled very carefully after cooking as it tends to fall apart.

Selection of Fish

  • Check the eyes for clarity: check the eyes. They should be crystal-clear, plump, wet, and shiny, with no sunken features. Cloudy eyes = sad fish
  • Check the fins: The tail and dorsal fins of the fish should be healthy-looking, wet, and intact. A fish that’s been mishandled will have torn or ragged fins, Torn and ragged fins = mishandled fish
  • Torn and ragged fins probably belong to a fish that was netted or held for too long.
  • Poke the flesh: If the fish monger allows it, try touching the fish for further signs of health and freshness. It should feel cold, wet, and slippery, but not sticky. When pressed, it should spring back to its natural shape. Soft flesh = old fish. Fish that has lost its firm shape is no longer fresh.

Check the gills: Check the gills for vitality and color. When first caught, a fish’s gills appear bright red, and slowly darken over time. Brown-red gills = old fish

Touch the scales: Scales are designed to protect the fish from a harsh watery environment. When a fish is fresh, the scales will be shiny and firm, a veritable armor against the elements. Less-fresh fish will often shed scales as you run your hand over them, and they may appear dry and flaky.

Review Questions

  1. Explain briefly cut of Veal with diagram.
    1. Briefly described the various characteristics of poultry and their various retail cuts.
    1. Processing of poultry
    1. Types Fish and Shell fish
    1. Selection and storage process of Shell fish.
    1. Cuts of Pork/Pig and Types

Unit-4: Cheese and Sandwiches – Processing, classification, National cheeses, Parts of sandwiches, Types


Cheese is one of the most used ingredients for breakfast around the world. It is a milk based solid food. Cheese can be prepared from cow, sheep, goat and other mammal milk. The basic procedure of preparing cheese is by curdling milk and further acidification. Rennet or other rennet substitutes are used for the curdling of milk.

Hundreds of types of cheese exist all over the world. The types of cheese exist due to the usage of the milk from different mammals, specific species of molds and bacteria and also varying the aging length. Other processes are also used to prepare different types of cheese. Other factors which determine the type of cheese is the diet of the animal the milk is taken from. The diet can include herbs, spices and wood smoke.

Cheese cannot be categorized on a single categorization concept. Therefore, there various systems used for the categorization of cheese. Some factors taken into consideration while classifying cheese are the length of aging, the methods of making it, the curd and the various processes relating to the curd, the kind of milk, the fat content and the whether the texture of the cheese is hard or soft.

The most common type of cheese is Fresh Cheese. To prepare fresh cheese, milk is curdled and drained. There is little other processing involved in preparing Fresh Cheese. Some examples of Fresh Cheese are chevre, Cas and cottage cheese. Cheese is also classified according to its firmness. The various classifications are soft, semisoft, semihard and hard. However, this type of categorization is not exact. Cheddar is a type of hard or semi hard cheese.

Semi hard cheese is created with the cutting of the curd, heating gently, piling and then stirred before pressed into forms. The most common semi hard cheese are the cheddar cheese like Gloucester and Chesire.

Milder cheese, like the Colby and Monterey Jack are prepared by having curd rinsed and then pressed. This washes away the acidity and calcium in the cheese. This procedure is also used to create the Edam and Gouda cheese.

Gruyere and Emmetal, swiss type of cheese are quite firm. They have a texture of holes, which add to their sharp flavors and aroma. Parmesan, Romano and Pecorino are the hardest cheese, also known as grating cheese.Some cheese are prepared by allowing Penicillin Candida to grow on the outside ot the soft cheese for a preset time. THe mold adds to the runny and gooey textures of the cheese and also intensifies the flavors of these cheese. The mold forms a white crust on the cheese.

Molds are of two types, blue and white. The white molds are generally used while preparing cheese from goat’s milk. Blue mold cheese is commonly called blue cheese. Stilton, Gorgonzola and Roquefort are some of these types of cheese. They are prepared by injecting Penicillum roqueforti molds into the cheese. This mold then grows within the cheese, as opposed to Brie and Carmembert, where the mold is allowed to grow on the outside of the cheese. Blue cheese can be of soft or firm texture and have assertive flavours.

Processed cheese is another type of cheese. Processed cheese is prepared by adding emulsifying agents, milk, preservatives, more salt and food coloring to traditional cheese. Velveeta and yellow American cheese are the most popular types of processed cheese.

Washing Rind is also a major type pf cheese. These cheese are bathed in saltwater brine while they age. This makes their surface available for bacteria. These bacteria are responsible for the flavors and odors of washing rind cheese. Other than these major types, there are hundred if not thousands of types of cheese created in all parts of the world. Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America and Australia have various ways of preparing cheese.

Serving and Storage Tips

  • Unpasteurised cheese with a range of flavours should not be sliced until purchase otherwise it will start to lose its subtlety and aroma.
  • Keep the cheese in conditions in which it matures. Hard, semi-hard and semi-soft cheeses are stored in the temperatures from around 8 – 13 C.
  • Keep the cheese wrapped in the waxed paper and place it in a loose-fitting food-bag not to lose humidity and maintain the circulation of air.
  • Wrap blue cheeses all over as mould spores spread readily not only to other cheeses but also to everything near.
  • Chilled cheeses should be taken out of the refrigerator one and a half or two hours before serving.
  • Cheeses contain living organisms that must not be cut off from air, yet it is important not to let a cheese dry out.
  • Do not store cheese with other strong-smelling foods. As a cheese breathes it will absorb other aromas and may spoil.
  • Wrap soft cheeses loosely. Use waxed or greaseproof paper rather than cling film.
  • Let cold cheese warm up for about half an hour before eating to allow the flavour and aroma to develop.

Categorisation of cheese

  1. Soft cheese
  2. Semi-hard cheese
  3. Hard cheese
  4. Blue cheese

In Cheese following things you should know

  • Source of milk, pasteurised or not
  • Butterfat content
  • Species of bacteria
  • Length of ageing
  • Making process
  • Flavouring agents (herbs, spices, wood smoke)
  • Country/Region of origin


  • The plastic, spun-curd buffalo milk cheese Mozzarella, originated from southern Italy.
  • Extra time in the vat is allowed so that the curd can sink to the bottom and so that the lactic acids can soften the curd to make it easier to knead.


  • Other names: Danish Blue
  • Country of origin: Denmark
  • Source of milk: Cows
  • Texture: Semi-soft
  • Aging time: 8–12 weeks


  • Traditional, creamery, whey cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a basin-shaped cheese, pure white and wet but not sticky.
  • Good Ricotta should be firm, not solid and consist of a mass of fine, moist, delicate grains, neither salted nor ripened.
  • There are three distinct varieties of ricotta: ricotta salata moliterna (ewe’s milk whey), ricotta piemontese (cow’s milk whey + 10% milk) and ricotta romana (a byproduct of Romano cheese production).
    Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine:Muscadet Sauvignon Blanc
  • Country: Italy

Bel Paese  

  • Bel Paese is from the Lombardy region of Italy.
  • It is a modern, creamery, semi soft cheese and has a light, milky aroma.
  • The name means “beautiful land” and was inspired by the title of a book by Stoppani.
  • Bel Paese is very similar to French St. Paulin. It can also be used instead of mozzarella.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Brie is the best known French cheese and has a nickname “The Queen of Cheeses”.
  • “Real” French Brie is unstabilized and the flavor is complex when the surface turns slightly brown. When the cheese is still pure-white, it is not matured.
  • Brie, one of the great dessert cheeses, comes as either a 1 or 2 kilogram wheel and is packed in a wooden box. In order to enjoy the taste fully, Brie must be served at room temperature.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Bourgogne

Camembert de Normandie  

  • A very famous French cheese, Camembert dates back to the 18th century and is named for a Norman village in which there is a statue of the creator of this particular variety (Marie Harel).
  • Originally, this cheese was dry and yellow-brown, but after a few modifications it became softer and more earthy.
  • Camembert is crumbly and soft and gets creamier over time (usually 2-3 weeks). A genuine Camembert has a delicate salty taste.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine:St. Emilion, St Estephe
  • Fat content:45 %

Carre de l’Est  

  • This cheese has a moist rind that sticks to the fingers and feels elastic. It usually has a square shape with either an orange-red, washed rind or a penicillin mould crust.
  • It has a smoky-bacon flavor and the taste has a hint of mushrooms.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content: 45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Coteaux Champenois, Sancerre, Pinot Noir d’Alsace


  • Feta is one of the most famous cheeses in Greece. It is made in various sizes, often as a loaf-shape.
  • Feta was originally made with either ewe’s milk or a mixture of ewe’s and goat’s milk, but today most feta is made with pasteurized milk and tastes of little besides salt.
  • Feta can be soaked in fresh, cold water or milk for a few minutes or longer, if necessary, to make it less salty.
  • Milk: cow ewe and goat milk


  • It is Hungarian spiced, white cheese made from the mixture of sheep’s and cow’s milk.
  • The cheese has its name according to sheep’s milk called Liptoi. As Hungarians are great lovers of spicy food, Liptauer is very popular in the country as the taste is a mixture of onion, caraway seeds, capers, paprika and salt.
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Fat content:50 % 


  • Munster is a creamery, washed-rind cheese made from cow’s milk. It has a round shape with sticky, orange, washed skin.
  • The cheese is very smooth, fairly soft and has a mildly piquant flavor that can become quite pungent with regular washings. Munster is dark yellow with a strong flavor. It should be served with dark bread and beer.
  • French Munster is one of the few cheeses which ripen from the inside out. French Munster has nothing in common with Domestic Munster which is a white, mild cheese.
  • In The U.S.A this cheese is known as Muenster.
  • Fat content:45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Gewurztraminer, Tokay Pinot Gris d’Alsace


  • There are two types of Appenzell: common (made with skim milk and brine-cured for 12 months and festive (full milk cured with brine as well as pepper and the sediment from the white wine-making process).
  • The cheese originates in the north-eastern Swiss canton of the Appenzell near the Liechtenstein border but, today is also made in the canton of St Gallen (which is a siege of a special authority protecting a genuity of Appenzell).
  • Country: Switzerland
  • Milk: cow milk


  • The most widely purchased and eaten cheese in the world. Cheddar cheeses were originally made in England, however today they are manufactured in many countries all over the world.
  • Cheddar is always made from cow’s milk and has a slightly crumbly texture if properly cured. If the cheese is too young, the texture is smooth.
  • Unlike other well known cheeses, Cheddar’s name is not protected so it has been used and abused by many producers around the world.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:48 %


  • One of the oldest English cheeses, invented during the 12th century.
  • There are three types of Cheshire: White, Red (colored with annatto) and Blue which is punctured during the curing process, resulting in blue veins.
  • Cheshire is firm in texture and a bit more crumbly than Cheddar. It is rich, mellow and slightly salty with an excellent aftertaste.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:48 %


  • These cheeses are made from goat’s milk.
  • Chevres are excellent dessert cheeses, often served as snacks or before dinner drinks. Goat cheese is often served as an ingredient in many fine dishes.
  • Milk: goat milk
  • Fat content:45 %


  • The cheese has a shape of cylinder with natural rind.
  • It is the first cheese in Britain to be made in factory.
  • This cheese is very similar to Cheddar, but has a softer, flakier curd and a butter taste.
  • A herb-flavored version is called Sage Derby.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:45 %  


  • This is a pressed, semi-hard to hard cheese, made from cow’s milk.
  • It comes in a shape of ball covered with distinctive red wax.
  • Edam is produced from skimmed or semi-skimmed milk.
  • It is usually consumed young, when the texture is elastic and supple and the flavor is smooth, sweet and nutty.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Country: Holland
  • Recommended Wine: Pinot Noir
  • Fat content: 40 %


  • This cheese is produced in the central cantons of Switzerland.
  • It is a traditional, unpasteurized, hard cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • It’s hard, thin rind is covered by paper with producer’s name on it.
  • The aroma is sweet with tones of fresh-cut hay.
  • The flavor is very fruity, not without a tone of acidity.
  • It is considered to be one of the most difficult cheeses to be produced because of it’s complicated hole-forming fermentation process.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine: Vin de Savoie Givry rully Mercurey

Double Gloucester  

  • It is a traditional, unpasteurized, semi-hard cheese which has been made in Gloucestershire since the sixteenth century.
  • The cheese has a flavor of cheese and onions. Not as firm as Cheddar, it has a mellow, nutty character with an orange-zest tang.
  • Fat content: 48 %
  • Milk:  cow milk


  • Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam.
  • Gouda is a traditional, creamery, hard cheese. It is round with very smooth, yellow, waxed rind.
  • The flavor is sweet and fruity.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:40 %


  • Gruyere is named after a Swiss village. It is traditional, creamery, unpasteurized, semi-soft cheese.
  • Slightly grainy, the cheese has a wonderful complexity of flavors – at first fruity, later becomes more earthy and nutty.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Jarlsberg is a traditional, creamery Norwegian cheese.
  • The world’s most famous “Baby Swiss”, Jarlsberg has the consistency texture and hole formation of Swiss Emmental but its flavor is more nut-like and sweeter.
  • Jarlsberg can be used as a table cheese, dessert cheese or sandwich cheese.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Limburger is creamery, washed-rind cheese. The smooth, sticky, washed rind is reddish-brown with corrugated ridges.
  • The yellow interior hints at sweetness but the taste is spicy and aromatic, almost meaty.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Country: Belgium


  • The bright, orange-red rind has fine, powdery moulds. Raspy, moist-textured, Leicester is made in a similar fashion to Cheddar and comes covered in a hard, dry rind.
  • Leicester has a rich, mild flavor with a flaky texture and a deep orange color.
  • This cheese is excellent with fruit and beer.
  • Milk: cow milk

Monterey Jack  

  • The Monterey Jack was developed by a Californian Scot, David Jacks in 1882 (some sources state 1916). Monterey Jack’s consistency depends on its maturity; most softer varieties (common in American supermarkets) is aged for one month, while grating Jack is aged for upwards of 6 months.
  • Older Jacks are smeared with oil and pepper to maintain softer rinds. Monterey Jack has a buttery, bland taste and melts easily.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:25 %


  • Creamery, semi-hard cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • The aroma is mildly pungent while the taste is buttery and fruity with a spicy tinge. It is generally made with whole milk.
  • Tilsit is an excellent sandwich cheese, good with robust wine or beer. It has a fat content of 20 per cent and water content of 50 per cent.
  • Country:Germany


  • Traditional, hard cheese made from cow’s milk. It has a shape of cylinder with natural rind. Wensleydale can be used as table cheese and is very tasty with apple pie.
  • The flavor suggests wild honey balanced with a fresh acidity.
  • It matures in two to four months and has a fat content of 45 per cent.
  • Country:England
  • Milk: cow milk


  • This cheese originates from Southern Italy. It’s a traditional, stretched curd cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • There are also smoked versions of this cheese. Cavallo means “horse” in Italian and it is said that this cheese was originally made from mare’s milk.
  • In Italian language the expression “to end up like Caciocavallo” means to be hanged.


  • Kefalotyri was already well known and respected by the time of Byzantine era. The name comes probably from Greek word “kefalo” that means hat.
  • Kefalotyri is generally served grated over cooked dishes. The color varies from white to yellow, depending on the mixture of milk.
  • Kefalotyri is described as a “male” or “first” cheese to indicate that it is made with full-cream milk.
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Country:Greece
  • Fat content:55 %

Parmesan (Parmigiano)  

  • Named after an area in Italy, Parma Parmesan is one of the world’s most popular and widely-enjoyed cheeses.
  • Milk used for Parmesan is heated and curdled in copper containers but not before most of the milk’s cream has been separated and removed.
  • After two days, the cheeses are removed and salted in brine for a month, then allowed to mature for up to two years in very humid conditions.
  • Milk:cow milk
  • Recommended Wine: Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot Noir


  • Wheel-shaped cheese with sharp edges made from cow’s milk.
  • This cheese is very similar to Gruyere and has a strong fruity taste.
  • The natural rind is smooth, dark brown and very hard.
  • Country:Ireland

Blue Vein   

  • Blue Vein Cheeses have a strong tangy taste and pungent aroma with a smooth and creamy texture.
  • They are characterized by a network of green-blue veins of mould throughout the body of the cheese.
  • Country:Australia

Blue Castello  

  • Modern, creamery, blue cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a half-moon-shaped cheese.
  • The moist, natural rind may develop some gray, brown or white moulds.
  • Blue Castello has a Brie-like texture, with the blue in fairly thick, horizontal lines. Enriched with cream.
  • The aroma is of mushrooms and the taste is mildly spicy.
  • Country:Denmark
  • Fat content:70 %


  • It is a wheel shaped, creamery, blue cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • Dolcelatte means “sweet milk”.
  • This cheese is very soft and melts in the mouth like ice-cream.
  • Country:Italy


  • Gorgonzola is a traditional, creamery and co-operative, blue cheese.
  • The greenish-blue penicillin mould imparts a sharp, spicy flavor and provides an excellent contrast to the rich.
  • The cheese is usually wrapped in foil to keep it moist. Its color ranges from white to straw-yellow.
  • The taste ranges from mild to sharp, depending on age. Gorgonzola is also excellent in salads and dips.
  • Country:Italy
  • Milk:cow milk 


  • Historically referred to as “The King of Cheeses” Stilton is a blue-mould cheese with a rich and mellow flavor and a piquant aftertaste.
  • Excellent for crumbling over salads or as a dessert cheese, served with a Port Wine.
  • Country:England
  • Milk:cow milk
  • Fat content:55 %


  • It has a tingly pungent taste and ranks among blue cheeses. Only the milk of specially bred sheep is used and is ripened in limestone caverns.
  • This cheese has a distinct bouquet and a flavor that combines the sweet burnt-caramel taste of sheep’s milk with the sharp, metallic tang of the blue mould. Also frequently added in dressings and salads.
  • Country: France
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Recommended Wine: Zinfandel Port

Processing of Cheese

Total five steps in the chesses making these are:

Preparing the milk

1 Small cheese factories accept either morning milk (which is richer), evening milk, or both. Because it is generally purchased from small dairies which don’t pasteurize, this milk contains the bacteria necessary to produce lactic acid, one of the agents that triggers curdling. The cheese makers let the milk sit until enough lactic acid has formed to begin producing the particular type of cheese they’re making. Depending on the type of cheese being produced, the cheese makers may then heat the ripening milk. This process differs slightly at large cheese factories, which purchase pasteurized milk and must consequently add a culture of bacteria to produce lactic acid.

Separating the curds from the whey

2 The next step is to add animal or vegetable rennet to the milk, furthering its separation into curds and whey. Once formed, the curds are cut both vertically and horizontally with knives. In large factories, huge vats of curdled milk are cut vertically using sharp, multi-bladed, wire knives reminiscent of oven racks. The same machine then agitates the curds and slices them horizontally. If the cutting is done manually, the curds are cut both ways using a large, two-handled knife. Soft cheeses are cut into big chunks, while hard cheeses are cut into tiny chunks. (For cheddar, for instance, the space between the knives is about one-twentieth of an inch [half a centimeter].) After cutting, the curds may be heated to hasten the separation  In a typical cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the milk. Although smaller factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has the bacteria present to produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger factories purchase pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce the lactic acid. Next, the curds must be separated from the whey. Animal or vegetable rennet is added, and then the curds are agitated and cut using large knives. As the whey separates, it is drained. The curds are then pressed into molds, if necessary, to facilitate further moisture drainage, and aged for the proper amount of time. Some cheeses are aged for a month, others for several years.

In a typical cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the milk. Although smaller factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has the bacteria present to produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger factories purchase pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce the lactic acid.

Next, the curds must be separated from the whey. Animal or vegetable rennet is added, and then the curds are agitated and cut using large knives. As the whey separates, it is drained. The curds are then pressed into molds, if necessary, to facilitate further moisture drainage, and aged for the proper amount of time. Some cheeses are aged for a month, others for several years.

from the whey, but they are more typically left alone. When separation is complete, the whey is drained.

Pressing the curds

3 Moisture must then be removed from the curds, although the amount removed depends on the type of cheese. For some types with high moisture contents, the whey-draining process removes sufficient moisture. Other types require the curds to be cut, heated, and/or filtered to get rid of excess moisture. To make cheddar cheese, for example, cheese makers cheddar, or finely chop, the curd. To make hard, dry cheeses such as parmesan, cheese makers first cheddar and then cook the curd. Regardless, if the curds are to be aged, they are then put into molds. Here, they are pressed to give the proper shape and size. Soft cheeses such as cottage cheese are not aged.

Ageing the cheese

4 At this stage the cheese may be inoculated with a flavoring mold, bathed in brine, or wrapped in cloth or hay before being deposited in a place of the proper temperature and humidity to age. Some cheeses are aged for a month, some for up to several years. Ageing sharpens the flavor of the cheese; for example, cheddar aged more than two years is appropriately labeled extra sharp.

Wrapping natural cheese

5 Some cheeses may develop a rind naturally, as their surfaces dry. Other rinds may form from the growth of bacteria that has been sprayed on the surface of the cheese. Still other cheeses are washed, and this process encourages bacterial growth. In place of or in addition to rinds, cheeses can be sealed in cloth or wax. For local eating, this may be all the packaging that is necessary. However, large quantities of cheese are packaged for sale in distant countries. Such cheeses may be heavily salted for export (such as Roquefort) or sealed in impermeable plastic or foil.


A sandwich may be many things – it can be a delicious bit of nonsense that makes you ask for more!  It can be prim and proper and just a bit stodgy – or staunch and hearty – or it might just be an empty promise!!!! It is difficult to actually pin point when the sandwich actually appeared as a form of food presentation. We do know that the concept of wrapping bread around a filling for portability is ancient. It parallels the invention of bread. The sandwich involves bread in one way or the other. There is a universal chain of food items worldwide which all have a connection of a filling enclosed in a starchy casing. In China there is the Spring roll or the Egg roll; in Italy there is the Calzone; in Mexico, the Burrito; in Spain, the Empanada and Greece has the Pita.

Field workers in France have long had the custom of eating meat enclosed in two slices of bread. In southern France, it is customary to provide those setting out on a long journey with slices of cooked meat, sandwiched between two slices of bread. The Pain–Bagnat of Nice is a definite example of a sandwich that has been around for centuries.

The term SANDWICH came into being about 200 years ago. There lived a notorious gambler in the court of George III His name was John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792). The Earls gambling affliction was such, that he would enter into 24 hours marathons at the gaming tables. Any eating that had to be done had to be quick and not to detract from the task at hand. The Earl’s butler, who knew his master’s intensity, would place pieces of bread with cheese or meat for his sustenance. The rest is …..Well, not just history…..But the history of the Sandwich. Today, it is difficult to imagine a full-scale food service operation without the sandwich being a part of it.


The four parts of a sandwich can be listed as:

  • Bread                                – Filling
  • Spread                               – Garnish

I   Bread  

Various types of bread can be used to make sandwiches

  1. The Pullman loaf or the sandwich bread is the most popular. This may be white or brown
  2. Rolls – including hard and soft rolls, burger rolls, hot dog rolls, croissants and vienna rolls are all popular.
  3. French bread and baguettes for foot longs and submarine sandwiches
  4. Bread made of various flours such as  rye, whole wheat, maize, multigrain
  5. Unleavened bread like pita
  6. Flavored bread like cinnamon bread, raisin bread, fruit and nut bread.

II   Spread

The main function of the spread is to hold the filling and the bread together. It also forms a protective layer on the bread and prevents it from getting soggy from the moisture in the filling. Moreover, it adds to the taste of the sandwich and in case of children, contributes to the nutritive value

Plain and compound butter like anchovy, herb, parsley butter

Mayonnaise and its derivatives

Low fat spreads like margarine

Cheese spreads and cheese paste

A combination of the above.

III Filling

Could be a variety of limitless items. The filling gives the sandwich its name.

Fillings could include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, and vegetables. Salami, cooked roast chicken, ox tongue, sliced cucumber and tomato are all popular fillings.

The filling could be a single item, or a combination of several. Ham and cheese, Cucumber and chutney, Bacon and tomato. It is important that the combinations are complementary to each other.

IV Garnish

To enhance the appearance and the presentation of the sandwich, it is necessary to create eye appeal. The garnish is not absolutely essential and can be avoided in an informal setting. The sandwich may be a simple unadorned bit of bread with a filling or a masterpiece fit for a king. Various garnishes will include a stuffed olive, a pickled onion, capers, gherkins or parsley. The garnish should be delicate and dainty and not cumbersome and ugly.

The sandwich is no doubt the favourite lunch time food. For a typical customer, one who is in a rush, one who is hungry, the sandwich is the ideal food. It is quickly made and served, convenient to eat, easily adaptable to many variations. It can satisfy almost any palate and nutritional requirement. Properly made, it can be a very wholesome meal. Sandwich has long been the domain of the pantry department, along with salads and other cold snacks. Preparing sandwiches to order is one of the fundamental skills required in modern food production techniques.


1 Conventional, Closed or Lunchbox Sandwich    

These consist of two slices of bread with any filling such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs and vegetables. They may be served whole or cut into neat triangles, with or without the crust removed. White or whole meal bread can be used or any other similar bread. They are served in bars, cafes, coffee-shops and snack counters. They are the ideal item for the lunchbox that school children and office-goers carry. The filling is usually heavy and hearty, as the objective is to provide a wholesome and nutritious meal. Or, it could be light and fancy ….the perfect food for the weight watcher.

2. Tea Sandwiches

These are similar to the above but are cut into smaller triangles or in fingers. They are served at afternoon tea, usually with a very light filling. The crust is normally removed so that they look prim and proper like the high society ladies who usually eat them!!!! They will be suitably garnished for service.

3. The Buffet Sandwich

These are similar to the conventional sandwich but are cut into fancy shapes like hearts, diamonds, and ovals, with sandwich cutters. Obviously, there will be a lot of wastage and can only be used when cost permits.

4. Continental or French Sandwiches

Consists of crusty French baguettes slit horizontally, well buttered with a savory filling. It can be garnished with lettuce, slices of cucumber and tomatoes. It can be served whole or cut into pieces so that they can be lifted easily. If left whole, they are referred to as foot longs. In America, they are called submarine sandwiches.

5. Double Decker / Triple Decker and Club Sandwiches

These are extremely popular these days. If you top an ordinary sandwich with another filling and close that with a third slice of bread you get a double –  decker (two fillings, three slices of bread). Similarly, a triple – decker will have three fillings and four slices of bread. A club sandwich will have multiple fillings and multiple slices, all piled up one over the other. The fillings must be substantial and complement each other. There must be a balance in the fillings. The bread in a club sandwich may be toasted or grilled but in a double decker or a triple decker, plain bread may be used as well. These sandwiches are cut diagonally into half for service so that they can be eaten easily.

6. Open Sandwiches

Are technically not sandwiches, as a sandwich needs two slices of bread? But for convenience, they are classified as sandwiches. If the top slice of a sandwich is missing….what do you call it? Half a sandwich a garnished piece of bread. Until a better name is found, we can call it an open sandwich. Open sandwiches are slices of buttered bread on top of which is arranged a variety of toppings. The bread is then trimmed and garnished. They may even be cut into fancy shapes. The bread may be white or brown, toasted or plain. They should not be confused with canapés, which have a variety of different bases. Please remember that sandwiches are not made only to please the eye and look pretty on the platter. They must please the eye….yes, but they must also satisfy the palate.

7. Fancy Sandwiches

Ribbon sandwiches

Checker Board sandwich

Pinwheel Sandwich

Rolled sandwich

Mosaic sandwich

These are a variety of fancy sandwiches which look good when put on exhibition and display. They add a new dimension to a cold buffet presentation.

8. Hot Sandwiches

These are hot snacks but are really a hot sandwich. These include:

  • Book Maker  (England)
  • Strammer Max (Germany)
  • Lindstrom (Sweeden)
  • Croque Monsieur/Madame (France)

General Rules for Sandwich Making

1. Soften the butter before spreading.

2. Smooth fillings like fish paste and cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature.

3. Use a palette knife for easy spreading

4. Ideally, the bread should be 12 to 18 hours old. This ensures easy slicing.

5. Butter both slices of the bread being used for the sandwich. It helps to hold the sandwich together

6. Use sliced bread….it is neater and more convenient.

7. If cutting the bread yourself, arrange the bread slices in the order they have been cut.

8. Use sufficient filling. The label should not be the only means of identification of the sandwich.

9. Wrap prepared sandwiches in cling film or in a moist duster in separate batches for easy identification.

Unit-5: Sausages, Cold cuts and Cured Foods – Components, Ingredients, Types SAUSAGES, COLD CUTS AND CURED FOODS


Sausage is any meat that has been comminuted and seasoned. Comminuted means diced, ground, chopped, emulsified or otherwise reduced to minute particles by mechanical means.

A simple definition of sausage would be ‘the coarse or finely comminuted meat product prepared from one or more kind of meat or meat by-products, containing various amounts of water, usually seasoned and frequently cured.’ In simplest terms, sausage is ground meat that has been salted for preservation and seasoned to taste. Sausage is one of the oldest forms of charcuterie, and is made almost all over the world in some form or the other. Many sausage recipes and concepts have brought fame to cities and their people. Frankfurters from Frankfurt in Germany, Weiner from Vienna in Austria and Bologna from the town of Bologna in Italy are all very famous. There are over 1200 varieties world wide

Sausage consists of two parts:

  • the casing
  • the filling


Casings are of vital importance in sausage making. Their primary function is that of a holder for the meat mixture. They also have a major effect on the mouth feel (if edible) and appearance. The variety of casings available is broad. 

These include: natural, collagen, fibrous cellulose and protein lined fibrous cellulose.  Some casings are edible and are meant to be eaten with the sausage. Other casings are non edible and are peeled away before eating.


These are made from the intestines of animals such as hogs, pigs, wild boar, cattle and sheep. The intestine is a very long organ and is ideal for a casing of the sausage. The intestines are flushed clean, especially from the inside and soaked in a solution of KMNO4 for a period of 2 hours at 10°C. Sinews, blood vessels and fat clinging to the insides of the casing must be removed. Natural casings should not be over handled as they may puncture. They should be refrigerated at all times. Natural casings are available in Australia, New Zealand, and South America where cattle are reared on a very large scale. Casings are a by-product of the meat industry that is what these countries specialize in.

Use of natural casings is considered by many professional sausage makers to have many advantages:

  • They are semi porous and permit deeper smoke penetration.
  • Natural casings absorb flavors and release fats better
  • Generally, they hold their shape better and do not burst during cooking.
  • Natural casings are edible and need not be peeled before eating.
  • They have a natural color and have a better appearance.

Hogs casings are the most commonly used. Sheep casings are the highest quality available. Beef casings are also popular. Almost all casings are salted before they are packed. Natural casings need to be protected from extreme variations in temperature. The ideal storage temperature is 40-45°F


These are edible and are not synthetic casings. They are made from the hide of cattle. Collagen is obtained from the corium layer that is situated just under the skin of the animal. The fat, flesh and hair are removed from the hide and it is split into two layers by special equipment. The hair side of the hide is used in the leather industry. The flesh side (corium) is used to make collagen casings. The material is first ground, and then swelled in an acidic medium. It is then sieved, filtered and finally extruded into casings.

The advantages of collagen casings are that they can be manufactured in the sizes that you require both diameter and length. Their consistent diameter means that they are uniform and aid portion control. They are also stronger and are preferred while using machines in the commercial manufacture of sausages. They are ideal for smoking of sausages and require no special pre preparation and storage. Moreover, they are clean and sanitary.


These are by – products of the food processing industry. Cellulose and fiber is extracted from the husk, skin, peels, pips and seeds of the fruit and vegetables during the processing stage. These are processed further to make casings. These types of casings are also referred to as peel-able cellulose. The fiber adds to the strength of the casing and enables them to handle high temperatures.


A protein lining is often added to the inside of the above type of casing. These casings are ideal for the dried sausages. The protein lining causes the casing to shrink as the meat is cooked or dried so that it retains the shape of the sausage. Used mainly for dry or semi-dry sausages, they come in a red color (salami) or clear. They need to be soaked in water before stuffing, as the protein tends to stiffen during storage. Sometimes, the casing needs to be soaked in vinegar or even liquid smoke. This makes it easier to peel off the casing when the finished product is sliced.

Besides these, there some other types of casings that are also used in the sausage making industry. Plastic casings have recently become popular. They are cheaper, stronger and uniform in size. However, they need to be removed before the product is served. Caul fat, a membrane like lining of the stomach, is also used as a casing to make the flat sausages, crepinette. The membrane is networked like a spider web, with streaks of fat. Caul fat is ideal to wrap items of uneven sizes like the loukanika (patty like Greek sausage) and the crepinette.


The filling of the sausage is made up of two parts:

–   The meat component

  • the non meat component

Meat Component:

A variety of meats are used in the sausage making industry. Each type provides a particular flavor, texture and color in the product.

 Lean meats make up the largest proportion of the meat component providing the dominant character of the product. The color, flavor, texture and appearance of the product are determined by these meats. Pork is by far the most common and popular meat used in sausage making.  Beef is also becoming popular of late, because of its excellent binding properties as well as its deep red color. Veal, lamb and poultry are also being used in certain products of late.

Pork fat adds to the taste, flavor and the texture of the forcemeat.   Jowl fat is the most commonly used product in charcuterie. It is obtained from the cheek of the animal.  Normally, not more than 30% of the forcemeat is fat.

Variety meats are the offal of the carcass and can be added into the forcemeat in the production of sausage.  Variety meats used include heart, kidney, tripe, liver and tongue. These meats have a low binding power and if a lot of them are added into the forcemeat, you would require additional binders in the mixture.


Non meat ingredients are food item, which are added to the filling before stuffing. They enhance the flavor and the color, slow or prevent bacteria growth, act as a preservative and increase the volume and bulk of the mixture.  There are six types of these additives: water, curing agents, curing accelerators, sensory enhancers, stability enhancers, and extenders and binders.

WATER is usually added to the sausage mixture during the blending stage. It improved the mixing and helps to extract the proteins from the meat. It is used in all sausage mixtures.

CURING AGENTS are necessary to inhibit the growth of bacteria (especially clostridium botulinum – an anaerobic bacteria which can cause death) and improve the shelf life. They also help to improve, fix and retain the color of the forcemeat. The two common curing agents are sodium nitrate and nitrite. Nitrite is used in cured, cooked or smoked products. Nitrate is used in dried sausages.

CURING ACCELERATORS such as ascorbic acid, sodium erythorbate and citric acid are used in cured, cooked and fermented products. As their name suggests, they speed up the curing process.

SENSORY ENHANCERS are a variety of items that are used to enhance the flavor, smell, color, feel and mouthfeel.

Salt is used in all sausage products for the enhancement of flavor and as an aid in the extraction of protein from the meats.

Sweeteners (both nutritive and non-nutritive) are often added to the forcemeat. Non nutritive sweeteners such as saccharin and sorbitol add sweetness and aid in peeling. Nutritive sweeteners such as cane or beet sugar, dextrose and corn syrup are also used. 

Flavorings for sausage include spices, plant, vegetable and milk protein, yeast extract and even mustard flour. These add flavor, taste, increase the volume and act as binders. Colorings for sausage meat can be natural as well as artificial. Artificial colors are used a lot in sausage production. Chefs do not recommend these. Natural colors can be obtained from red peppers, saffron, turmeric and caramel. These will add not only color but also flavor. The use of natural colors is recommended wherever possible.

Smoke, both natural and liquid smoke contributes to the taste and flavor of the product. Use of too much liquid smoke will tend to make the product bitter. Liquid smoke also tends to fade on storage.

Flavor enhancers are products, which bring out the flavor of the other ingredients, yet have no flavor of their own. The one most commonly used in the kitchen is MSG, mono sodium glutamate. This is a natural product but must be used sparingly. MSG and nucleotides and other flavor enhancers are often used in mass production of sausage but are not widely used or common.

Other sensory enhancers include bacterial cultures, enzymes, phosphates and acidulants. They serve a variety of purposes including flavoring, softening of the tissues, juice retention and are used only in the mass commercial production of sausages and not in the hotel kitchens.

STABILITY ENHANCERS are used in sausage making to protect the flavor of the product, to slow down mold growth and to extend and bind the product.

EXTENDERS AND BINDERS are usually either animal based, fermentation based and cereal grain based. Gelatin, stock and non – fat dry milk are the animal based ones used most often in the kitchen. Fermentation based extenders and binders involve the introduction of specified types of microorganisms into the forcemeat. As these grow, they create favorable changes in the sausage. Cereal grain based ones include oats, wheat, barley, corn and rye. These products are also used to extend the volume – this is often termed as the filler. These items are far more popular in the commercial mass production of sausage rather than in specialized kitchen preparations.


There are primarily four types of fillings that are used in the production of sausages.

  1. Coarse minced forcemeat – This forcemeat contains tender and lean meat as well as fat in the mixture. The ratio is normally 3 parts of meat to one part of fat. The mixture is coarsely ground and the proportion gives optimum quality. Only good grade of meat and fat is used, as the mixture is easily identifiable. Salami is a good example of this type of a filling.
  2. Cutter pulverized forcemeat – All types of sausage containing finely ground forcemeat including frankfurters and cocktail sausages come under this group. 5 parts of meat and 3 parts of fat are the normal ratio. Second grades of meat can be utilized, as they are not identifiable, being ground into a fine mixture. Meats from older carcasses can also be used.
  3. Combination forcemeats – are a mixture of the above two types. One part of coarse forcemeat and two parts of cutter pulverized forcemeat are normally use. Pepperoni and chippolatas are examples of sausages that use this type of forcemeat. Both good and inferior quality of meat can be used. This makes it more commercially viable as well.
  4. Chunky forcemeat – In this type of a filling, the meat and fat are left in chunks. Three parts of meat to 1 part of fat are used. This type of a filling is used for the spicy South American sausages like the chorizo, which have predominant Portuguese and Spanish influence. The meat and the fat are dried before they are filled into the casing.

Once the forcemeat is prepared, it is ready for filling into the casing. It may be done manually or, sausage filler may be used. Sausage filler is a machine something like a mincing machine, which has a nozzle with changeable diameters. The rolled up casing is fitted onto the nozzle and the machine is started. The casing then un – rolls as it fills up. A stapling machine cum stapler then separates the sausages into links and seals the ends. Heat treatment is used in the sealing process.

Besides meat, which is the traditional filling, nowadays a host of other ingredients are also used. Poultry seafood, vegetables, lentils and soybean are being introduced.

There are five varieties of sausages that are available in the commercial market.

  • Fresh sausage  (e.g.: Brokwurst)
  • Cooked sausage (Mortadella)
  • Cooked-smoked sausage (Bologna, Frankfurters, Berliners)
  • Uncooked-smoked sausage (Kielbasa – the Polish sausage, Mettwurst)
  • Dry/semi dry sausage (Salami)

International Cold Cut

  • Dstreaky Bacon
  • Chicken Paprica Lyoner
  • Salami: Salami is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork.


The term Forcemeat or farce is used to describe the basic mixture that needs to be prepared in order to produce charcuterie products.

The word farce comes from the Latin farcire. A farce or forcemeat is a ground seasoned mixture of meat, game, poultry, fish or vegetables, prepared as a dish on its own or used to stuff other numerous other items such as eggs, meat, fish and poultry, pastry shells and perhaps even pasta. Such dishes are prepared in the Garde Manger.

Forcemeats are used in the preparation of a various cold dishes such as pate, terrines, galantines, ballotines, quenelle, roulade, mousse and mousseline.

  • Pate: from the old French paste, meaning paste.
  • Terrine: from the Latin Terra, meaning earth.
  • Galantine:  from the old French galant,   meaning gorgeous or showy Also from the old French term galine, meaning chicken.   
  • Ballotine: from the Italian Balla, meaning ball.
  • Quenelle: from the Alcascian French knodel, meaning dumpling
  • Roulade: from the French rouler, meaning to roll
  • Mousse/Mousseline: from the French, meaning froth.
  • Timbale: from the English Thimble


Traditional forcemeat/farce is made up of four parts:

1. The Meat   (Primary Ingredient)

2. The Binder

3. Seasoning, Flavoring and Garnish

4. The Additives

The Meat:

Consists of three elements:

–  The Dominant Meat (basic meat) which could include veal, game, poultry, rabbit, duck, or even fish. This will provide the dominant flavor and will also name the dish. E.g. chicken liver in a Chicken Liver Pate. These ingredientsshould be fresh and of prime quality. All bones, skin, sinews and gristle must be removed and the flesh cut up into ½” pieces for grinding. The dominant meat normally accounts for 40% of the meat component.

  • Lean Pork which contributes to the bulk as well as the flavor. This will be about 30% of the meat component. Nowadays, when preparing forcemeat using other varieties of meat, the lean pork can be substituted with another subsidiary meat. For example, in a Lobster Mousse, the lean pork will be substituted with shrimp or some other cheap white fish. The important thing to remember is that the  subsidiary meat should complement the dominant meat
  • Pork fat which gives richness and smoothness to the product as well as for its binding qualities. This too will be 30% of the meat component. Again, other fats such as butter and cream can be substituted in order that the meat and fat complement each other. In the Lobster mousse, cream would be better suited as a fat instead of pork fat.

The Binding Agent:

To lighten the farce and to give it a finer texture, binding agents are needed. These are typically used in the making of poultry, fish and vegetable farce. Game, veal and pork do have their own binding qualities, with the protein from the meat acting as binding agents. Binding could consist of egg yolks and/or egg whites; fresh bread soaked in milk, cream or stock; thickened béchamel sauce (panada); beurre manié (uncooked butter/flour mixture), blood or even cooked rice.

Seasoning Flavoring and Garnish:

Salt is an important part of the forcemeat. It helps to bring out the natural flavors of the other elements. 20 gm of salt / kilo of the mixture are a rough guideline to use. The salt must be evenly mixed to ensure equal distribution. Seasoning should not be extravagant to cover up for inferior quality ingredient. One mistake is to use excessive MSG for this purpose. Flavorings such as herbs and spices give character to the product. The garnish is related to the farce to which it is added. A central garnish – lamb fillet in a lamb farce, strips of ham in a pork farce, or a piece of goose liver I a game farce – provides a visual focal point when the farce is sliced. Garnishes could also be dispersed or interspersed throughout the farce and would include pistachio, crushed peppercorns, diced truffle, capers, gherkins, stuffed olives, mushrooms and similar ingredients which will provide contrast and relief in the mass of the forcemeat.

The Additives:

Many additives are included in the forcemeat. These include Nitrates and Nitrites of Sodium and Potassium, MSG, Sodium Erythorbate, BHT and BHA, Salt Petre.

These additives will enhance the color, increase shelf life, contribute to the taste and flavor and prevent/delay the fat from going rancid.


The meat being used to make the farce as well as the equipment to grind it like the buffalo chopper or the food processor must be absolutely chilled before use. Such chilling is essential as it facilitates clean grinding of the farce, as opposed to tearing which inhibits the release of the protein which in turn later binds the farce and gives it the correct texture. A sharp cutting blade is also essential.

The process of grinding involves three stages:

  • First the ingredients are coarsely ground through a medium holed plate
  • It is then passed through a small holed plate
  • If the farce is to be ground to a fine textured paste it can be emulsified in a food processor a small amount of crushed ice can be added during the emulsifying stage. This helps to maintain the temperature of the farce during the grinding.
  • Finally, the farce is passed through a sieve to remove any trace of sinew, gristle or skin that might have remained during the grinding.

Remember, that the process may not require all the stages mentioned. For a coarse farce, like that required for a salami sausage, only the first two stages are required.

There are times when the food grinder is not available. In that case, the meat can be placed in the freezer for 30 to 60 minutes, rendering it partially frozen. This is done so that when it is placed in the food processor, the interaction of the blade against the partially frozen meat poultry or fish results in it being cut up, much the way it would if put through a meat grinder.

Herb and Spice Seasoning & Flavoring Blends:

Garde Manger chefs will develop their own blend of seasoning mix for the different products they make. The degree of strength will vary from a mild, light blend for fish and seafood roulade to a medium blend for pork and veal terrine to a heavy blend for a game pate. Ideally, the herb and spice blend should be of a dry nature and finely powdered so that it blends in well with the farce. However, some chefs prefer to use the fresh variety, especially of herbs. If the herbs are fresh, they need to be chopped very finely.  Spice blends are a matter of personal choice.


There are five primary types of forcemeat:

Campagne (Country Style)

Straight Method

Gratin Style

Mousseline Style           

5/4/3 Emulsion forcemeat

Campagne is also called the country style forcemeat. It is the earliest style that was used and is the precursor of all modern versions. It is generally made out of pork. This is probably due to the historically low expense and small amount of land required to raise pigs. Pork fat is also incorporated. The farce has a dense, coarse texture, a characteristic which resulted from the lack of sophisticated equipment in the early days when it was first developed. The earliest forcemeats were chopped with two knives giving the coarse texture that is associated with country style forcemeat today. Another character resulting from the time it was developed is that of being highly seasoned. Due to the virtual non – existence of refrigeration techniques or other preservation methods, the heavy seasoning covered both the flavor of the tainted meat and acted as a preservative for the forcemeat. The seasonings commonly used include onion, garlic, black pepper, juniper berries, bay leaf and nutmeg. Country style forcemeat is usually a combination of coarsely ground farce and a smooth ground farce so that chunks of meat are visible in the mass of the mixture.

Straight Method forcemeat is more refined, having a finer, less dense texture. As culinary preparations and equipment improved, the capability of producing a more refined style of forcemeat was possible. Here, any type of dominant meat can be used. It is normally, veal, duck, rabbit plus pork. White poultry and fish are rarely used here. Ideally pork fat especially jowl fat is used.

The finer lighter texture and more delicate seasoning of this forcemeat are indicative of the refinement of many culinary preparations as technological advances were made. It was no longer necessary to mask the flavors of the meats. It was possible to simply enhance it. The common flavors used are shallots, wine, brandy and all spice. Better grinding techniques meant that the meats were binding better on their own and additional binding was not required.

In some cases a panada can be used to achieve a lighter texture and color in the farce.

Gratin Style is the name given to the forcemeat that is obtained from pre cooked meats. This style is used extensively to make pates. In some cases the cooking will entail only lightly searing and browning of the meats (hence the term gratin), at other times, the meat may be completely cooked before grinding and pureeing. The contemporary interpretation of gratin style is an expansion of the definition of farce given by Escoffier. His definition refers to any forcemeat based on liver, needed to be pre cooked before grinding. Most types of meat can be used in gratin style forcemeats. However, as in the case of the straight method, poultry and fish is normally not use. Often, the liver of veal and pork are used. Pork back fat and jowl fat are also incorporated. The texture of this type of forcemeat is very fine and should be properly ground till smooth.  The density of this type of farce is slightly lighter than a straight method due to the varying degree of binding power that is lost because of the pre cooking. Panada is avoided it will soften the already delicate texture. To compensate the loss of binding power, extra eggs are added. A different flavor is achieved here as a result of the browning and pre cooking. A nutty flavor develops. The result is very smooth, delicately flavored forcemeat.

Mousseline style is the fourth type of farce. The most distinctive characteristic of this method is the type of fat that is used in its preparation. The use of cream as the source of fat, combined with the processing of the components to an ultra fine consistency, results in an extremely light and smooth product. This product is in sharp contrast to that produced using the harder types of fat. Mousseline –style forcemeats are made using lean white or light meats and fish. Chicken, rabbit, shellfish, sole and trimmed lean pork fillet is ideal to use. Although a panada is not needed for additional binding for this type of forcemeat, one is occasionally added to achieve a lighter consistency. Due to the delicate nature of the meats and the cream, the seasoning to should be very delicate. Care must be taken not to overpower the flavors of the components of the forcemeat.  Shallots, ground white pepper and white wine can be used.

Note: The term mousseline forcemeat is often improperly abbreviated as mousse in everyday use. This is a source of much confusion. A mousse is a mixture of fully cooked and pureed basic ingredients bound with gelatin and fat and lightened with an aerator like egg white.

5/4/3 Emulsion Forcemeat is used extensively in making sausages like frankfurters, bologna and knockwurst. It I a commercial mixture and hardly ever used in a hotel kitchen. Its name is derived from the ratio of the components of the forcemeat:  5 parts of meat, 4 parts of fat and 3 parts of ice.  5/4/3 emulsion forcemeat can be made with almost any kind of meat. Fish is not considered suitable for this kind of forcemeat. Pork jowl fat is the common fat used; the term emulsion automatically indicates the texture, which should be a perfectly smooth paste. Processing of the components of the forcemeat with ice, results in a very strong emulsion of the meat and the fat when it is cooked. The resulting blend has a moderate density. A variety of binders can be used to assist in the binding and water retention. Panada is not capable of providing the type of binding required. Therefore, non-fat milk powder is preferred. Sodium caseinate and phosphates can also be used. Since this is used commercially, the seasoning and flavoring will vary from one manufacturer to the other.


Perfumed with freshly chopped herbs and aromatic spices, a melange of succulent ingredients distinguishes pates and terrines, as some of the most delectable of food preparations. They can be basic or fancy, inexpensive or costly, they can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes – small, large, oval, round, rectangular and even cylindrical. Terrines are cooked, stored and even served in the same container which may be crafted iron, enamel, porcelain and glass but which originally was pottery or earthen ware from which the terrine got its name (terre meaning earth in French).


The term pate refers to forcemeat baked in a crust, usually in a rectangular mould, something like a loaf tin. In French it is called pate en croute. Simply defined, a pate is a paste of finely chopped or pounded or pureed seasoned meat, which generally is liver. There are a few classical dishes like the pate campagne from France that is not baked and really should be referred to as terrines.

Among the wide variety of ingredients used in the making of a pate are liver, a variety of meats, truffle and of course seasoning. Goose and duck liver, bring a characteristic flavor to the pate. Chicken livers are the most common these days but sheep and calf liver are often used as well. Truffle will make the pate special. Pates can be prepared in advance, stored and then used as and when required. The meats used in a pate are first marinated and at times pre cooked. The livers must be handled carefully and the gall bladder, veins and blood clots if any must be removed. Ideally, the livers must be soaked in milk for 24 hours (refrigerated). They are then drained and seasoned. Sometimes, a small quantity of bread crumbs is added to the farce to lighten the mixture. Non fat dry milk (powder) could also be used. It adds a creamy texture to the mixture. A meat glaze or aspic could also be substituted as a binder and will contribute a rich gelatinous quality to the farce. For that extra fragrance, a small quantity of wine or brandy could be added at the last minute before combining and processing.

For the crust, dough must be prepared and the following recipe has proved to be good


Flour           1 kg

Butter          150 gm

Margarine    200 gm

Baking powder 15 gm

Water 250 ml (approx.)

Vinegar       25 ml

Eggs            3

Salt             2 tsp

Sift the flour and the baking powder.

Rub the shortening and the butter into the flour

Combine and add the remaining ingredients into the flour.

Mix until the dough is formed and knead till smooth.

Shape the dough into a flat rectangle. Refrigerate overnight.

Note: pate dough can also be made out of yeast and brioche dough

Assembling the pate:

Lightly oil the mould.

Roll the dough and line the mould leaving an overhang on the four sides.

Carefully press the dough into the corners of the mould.

Refrigerate the lined mould for at least an hour.

Fill the mould with the prepared farce ½ inch short of the top edge.

(The forcemeat should be placed in the mould in several layers. Use a palette knife to press into place. This will reduce the risk of air pockets in the finished product. There may be a central or dispersed garnish)

Fold the overhanging dough over the top of the mould and the seal.

Carefully cut two small holes from the top and provide chimneys for the excess steam to escape during the cooking.

Cooking the Pate:

The cooking takes place in two stages

Browning stage:  Cover the surface with foil and place the mould in a pre heated 475°F oven for approximately 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and allow to rest for 15 minutes. The surface should show hints of brown.

Cooking stage:  Uncover the pate and lightly egg wash the top of the pate

Place in a pre heated 375°F oven until an internal temperature of 170°F has been reached. Temperature can be taken through the chimney. Make sure the thermometer reaches the center of the pate.

Finishing the Pate:

The pate is not complete when removed from the oven. It must now be filled with aspic. First, allow the pate to cool to room temperature. This will allow for the fat and the juices to be re absorbed into the meat. Through the chimneys, carefully pour in good quality aspic. The aspic will slowly be absorbed into the meat and will fill the sides (where the meat has shrunk), and any crevice and air pockets that might have formed. Allow the pate to chill overnight before removal and slicing.


Terrines are the closet cousins of the pate. The terrine vessel is an oblong earthern ware mould. As mentioned earlier, this was the original vessel that was use and this is how terrine got its name.  However, nowadays, enamel, cast iron, clay, porcelain and china vessels are common. Since the terrine takes its name from the vessel and not the mixture used, the variety of types is limitless. The forcemeat used in a terrine is usually uncooked and is slightly coarser compared to a pate. Various force Meats can be used and layered one over the other. Care should be taken that the variety of forcemeats used complement each other. The binding used in forcemeat for a terrine is normally eggs or gelatin.

Pre preparation of a Terrine:

 The forcemeat for the terrine must first be prepared. This may be more than one type and can be layered. The garnish which can be chopped herbs is also prepared. Line the mold with strips of pork fat or bacon.

Assembling the Terrine:

Fill the terrine half full and ensure that there are no air pockets. If a central garnish is being used, place this in the middle and top with the other half of the forcemeat. If several types of forcemeat are being used, then layer them one over the other. Top with additional layers of pork fat or streaky bacon. The fat/bacon keeps the terrine moist during the ensuing cooking process. Small bunches of fresh herbs may also be placed on the top of the terrine.  Bayleaf, rosemary and thyme are ideal for this purpose.

Cooking the Terrine:

Assemble a water bath to cook the terrine. A wire rack can be placed at the bottom of the pan on which the mould can rest. Place in a preheated 325°F oven. The temperature of the water should be 190°f before placing in the oven. The water should come up to ½ inch below the level of the forcemeat in the mould.

The temperature of the water should be maintained at 170-175°F throughout the cooking process. The terrine is done when the internal temperature reaches 140°F. remove from the water bath and cool at room temperature for 30 minutes.

Pressing Terrines:

A cooked terrine is pressed or weighted after it is cooked. This involves placing a weight on the surface of the terrine. A metal plate that fits into the top of the terrine is placed on top and a medium weight is placed on the plate. This is then refrigerated overnight. It helps to compact the terrine and thereby improve the texture and facilitates easy slicing of the terrine.

Storing Pates and Terrines:

Refrigerate meat pates and terrines to ripen their flavor. Covered and refrigerated, they will keep for a week. Terrines will actually keep much longer if a layer of melted fat/butter is poured over the surface. Avoid the freezing of meat pates and terrines. It alters the texture of the meat and also the pastry. Well-chilled pates and terrines will slice the best. However, they taste best closer to room temperature. After slicing, allow to stand a while. This allows the subtleties of the flavor to emerge.

Serving Pates and Terrines:

Pate in pastry is sliced and served as a starter along with a plate salad.

Terrine can be served sliced or scooped out with a spoon. Terrines and pates can both be featured on a cold buffet presentation.

Foie Gras

Foie Gras, if literally translated, means fat liver. But the liver is no ordinary liver, nor is it just fat!!! Pate de Foie Gras is the resulting product of an extremely complicated process involving the liver of goose and its recipe dates back to the 17th Century.

The geese is placed in pens and given plenty to eat. The feed consists of beetroot, artichokes, carrots, corn, cooked potatoes, maize, oats and beans along with plenty of fresh water. This specially crafted diet contains a high quantity of vitamins and at times the bird needs to be forcefed. After 2 to 3 weeks, the goose liver swells slowly and when the farmer/breeder thinks it is sufficiently ready, the bird is killed and the liver removed.

Once the goose livers have been selected, they are sent to the manufacturers of foie gras and in some special cases, directly to chefs who make their own foie gras. Generally, foie gras can be bought either fresh or tinned/canned.

In the processing of foie gras, the bile is first removed and the livers are then carefully sorted and graded. Some livers may be ideal for steaming and others for baking. Those which are suitable for light steaming would quickly become dry if they are cooked in the oven. The color, texture and firmness are also important.

The network of nerves are removed from the livers which are then put to soak in water and are then drained and seasoned. The livers are stuffed with truffle and then steamed or baked in the oven. Livers of lesser quality or the wrong color (the right color is shell pink) are pulverised into a mousse and can be used as a meat spread for sandwiches. The livers can be packed in tins or in earthen jars.

The delicate nature of Foie Gras necessitates particular care in serving. It should be served cold and at the beginning of the meal with a crisp white wine. Reisling, Champagne, White Burgundy or even Bordeaux of good vintage is ideal. Red wine should definitely be avoided as it will detract from the taste instead of sharpening it.

Foie gras can be garnished with aspic jelly and with nothing else. Foie gras is best presented on the plate in the shape of shells, scooped out of the jar/can/terrine with a teaspoon. It can also be served in slices. Certain types of foie gras are surrounded by a layer of white fat. The connoisseur will remove this, knowing that it has been used only to ensure its perfection and to preserve it.

Foie gras has been around for ages and has been consumed for centuries. It was made traditionally in the region of Alcase in the town of Strasbourg in Eastern France. In fact, the correct name should read Pate de Foie Gras de Strasbourg.  Legally, all foie gras from the region must contain a maximum 75% goose liver and a minimum 5% truffle, to be accorded the name. Like Champagne and other wines, an appellation or controlling body governs the production, manufacture, sales, pricing and marketing of the Foie Gras.

From 1762, the Marechal de Conrades who resided in Strasbourg had a head chef Jean Pierre Clause whose ability in the culinary arts was gratefully acknowledged by the guests of the Marechal. One day, in order to please his master, he put before him Pate Marechal, a dish he had just invented. Marechal thought it so magnificent that he ordered another one to be made and sent it to Versailles to the Kings palace. The court liked it so much that the Marechal was granted an estate.

Nowadays, it is chiefly the French cities of Strasbourg and Toulouse which are renowned for their Foie gras



Truffle is known by several names such as Black Diamond and Children of the Gods. The truffle is a fungus fruit that matures underground. However, not all underground fungi are truffle. The real story of the growth of truffle is a strange one. The truffle is the fruit of a widely spreading system of colorless, microscopic branching threads that penetrate the soil for distances that are measurable in yards. These threads known as hyphae, touch the furtherest tips of the roots of trees and shrubs. The interaction of roots and hyphae forms a compound structure part plant and part fungus. However, this cannot further develop without vitamins and minerals. When the hyphae have absorbed enough material from the soil and plant, they proceed to develop fruit. The fruit which develops from a knot of hyphae is called a truffle. Nowadays, specially trained dogs and hogs are used to detect truffle. Truffles vary in color from a smooth white surface to a dark brown or black. They are usually rounded, although some may resemble ginger. The interior of the truffle has elaborate rolds or chambers. The flavor of the truffle can vary considerably. Some have a touch of garlic in its flavor.

In France, the region of Perigord less than 50 miles from the Bordeaux region is well known for its crop of truffle. In Italy, Piedmont in the Umbria region produces almost the entire crop of Italian white truffle. Geographically, truffle will occur near the wine growing regions. Surprisingly, a good year for wine means a bad year for truffle and vice verca.

The composition of truffle is 72% water, 8-10% protein, 4% fat, 13-15% carbohydrates and 2-5% mineral traces.

Contrary to popular belief, the white truffle, unlike its black cousin should never be cooked as it may loose its fragrance if subjected to heat. Fresh truffle should be firm to touch and not spongy. They impart a distinct aroma when fresh. Because of their exorbitant prices, their usage in the kitchen and the garde manger is fairly limited

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