The first cocoa discovers and use in 1500-400 BC by the Olmecs population and after that cocoa tree was cultivated in Southern Mexico (Mayans and Aztecs) after that brought to Spain. In Barcelona first chocolate factory was established and from there spread into England. Fry and Sons Company and Milton Hershey company start to provides the chocolate to the public in U.S.. The Cocoa word drive form the ‘cacao ‘of Mayan and Aztec language. Cocoa beans derived from fruit of cocoa tree. “Theobroma (food of the gods) cocoa are of the family Sterculiaceae with four principal types: Criollo, about 5% of world cocoa production; and the more common Forastero, with smaller, flatter and purple beans; Nacional with fine flavour, grown in Ecuador. The fourth variety, Trinitario, a more disease-resistant hybrid of Criollo and Forastero is regarded as a flavour bean” (Fowler, 1999). Theobroma cacao grows between tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, with varieties originating in forest areas of South America. Forastero basic cocoa, grows mainly in Brazil and West Africa, whilst flavour cocoas are largely hybrids and are cultivated in Central and South America. Aztecs in Mexico cultivated cocoa from South America, via Caribbean islands, and Hernandos Cortes, a Spanish, took cocoa to Spain as a beverage and to Spanish Guinea as a crop.
Cocoa butter industry is undergoing for dynamic change in demand and supply in the world for chocolate. The new trends towards for premium chocolate products have not only new challenges but also opportunities to stakeholder in this sector. Recently, in Europe and the United States found the major change in matured market like organic, single-origin, reduced sugar, Fairtrade, and dark and high cocoa content chocolate. Indeed, the characterised of confectionery market has been changed or increase by customer demand, taste, health and convenience product. In recent time many research on health and nutritional beneﬁts of cocoa and chocolate found that cocoa may decrease the bad cholesterol and helping to prevent cardiovascular diseases. In addition, research shows that cocoa butter has the high antioxidants which reduce the risk of cancer.
A saturated fat of cocoa butter also known as theobroma oil and it is vegetable fat extracted from cocoa beans. It has a cocoa aroma, flavour and taste. It has a light-yellow in colour and used to make chocolate, toiletries, ointments, pharmaceuticals, candy, bakery dessert and carving of chocolate. In bakery mostly used in preparation of white chocolate and milk chocolate, cocoa butter has the characteristics of hardness at room temperature and pleasant melting behaviour create the unique taste. It has melt in 32C to 35C temperature and combination of triacylglycerols of palmitic, oleic and stearic acids.
Coco butter does not contain proteins and carbohydrate. It is composed of 95% of Triacylglycerols, 2% of Diacylglycerols and 2% of polar lipids and free fatty acids. Attributes and function of cocoa butter in bakery are to provides the heat stability, shelf life, flavour release, snap, viscosity control, emulsification and appearance – glossiness. It has a 2-5 years shelf life in an airtight container. In bakery, it is used for making chocolate coatings or thinning the chocolate and frequently used in baking.
Process of Cocoa Butter
It is made from cocoa beans and cocoa beans are grow from the trunk and branches of the cocoa tree and ripe pods are removed from the trees during the harvest and the 3 to 4 weeks interval of harvest is required for maximum yield of pod. These pods are cut with a sharpened blade and pruning hook (types of tool) with handle used for removing the pods high on tree and cleanly cut of stalk which bears it without damage the flower cushion. After harvesting these pods are opened within the 10 days and remove the cocoa beans with the help of machete cutting tool and wooden club also used to open the pods. After this, cocoa beans undergo for the fermentation and drying process.
Roasting process also followed for development of alkalinisation flavour in cocoa butter. Mostly three methods of roasting are used in cocoa processing industry and these are Whole bean roasting, Nib roasting and Liquor roasting. After that nib grinding and liquor treatment process is followed and for reducing the nibs into liquor, pin or hammer mills, stone mills, disc mills and bead or ball mills machined used, and beans hulls is separates through the grind process and produce the cocoa liquor (cocoa mass). After this, hydraulic presses (520 kg/cm2) is used to extract the cocoa butter from the cocoa liquor. Typically, approximately 80 to 90% of cocoa butter is collected by pressing and residual lipids may be removed by supercritical ﬂuid extraction According to European Union directive and FDA regulation the percentage of cocoa butter used in chocolate guideline are:
|Dark Chocolate|| |
|Cocoa butter:||≥ 18%||Total dry cocoa solids:||>25%|
|Total dry cocoa solids:||≥ 35%||Dry non-fat cocoa solids:||>2.5%|
|Dry non-fat cocoa solids:||≥ 14%||Cocoa butter:||>20%|
Cocoa Butter is high in antioxidant and good fat for digestion. In Bakery cocoa butter is suited for making the following dishes or dessert
- Pond Cake
- Hazelnut Coco Butter
- Chocolate Cake
- Choco Cake
- Cocoa Butter Cookies
- Cocoa butter Short Bread
- Cocoa Butter Keto blondies
- Cocoa Orange Trifle
- Mint Chocolate
- White Chocolate Bar
- Home Made White Chocolate
- Vegan Chocolate Bar
- Chocolate Chip Cookies
- Coconut Chocolate tart
- Almond date Fudge
- No Bake Chocolate Cookies
- Chocolate Fudge
- Cocoa Nut Cluster
Butter also use for sauté or fry the other ingredients in culinary and it
provides the unique taste to dish. Cocoa butter has six polymorphic forms
(I–VI) and forms V and VI are the most stable forms. Recently many study on
shear of cocoa butter during the tempering time has been studied in a different
ﬂow geometries and found the silky or ribbon texture in the cocoa butter. Some
time vegetable fat is used as a substitute of cocoa butter which have the
similar triglyceride composition in the fat for purpose to cut the cost of
 Clercq, N., Kadivar, S., Walle, D., Pelsmaeker, S., Ghellynck, X., & Dewettinck, K. “Functionality of cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate products.” European Food Research and Technology 243.2 (2016): 309-321