MBA in Culinary Arts

COMMUNICATION Notes for 1st Sem

BBA (CA)- 105     Communication

This paper is intended to emphasize on improving oral and written communication skills through experiential training and comprehensive understanding of the students.

Unit-1: Business Communication: Definition, Importance of effective communication, Process of Communication, Objectives of Communication, Characteristics of Communication and the C s of Good Communication.

Unit-2: Better Listening: Listening for Pronunciation Practice, Listening for Personal Communication, Active Listening: Communicating in Public Situations, Listening for Communication: Language Functions.

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication: Speaking about Myself, Speaking Accurately, Practice in Public Speaking, Non-Verbal Communication, Social Communication: Performing Language Functions, Speaking across the Curriculum.

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading: Countering Defects, Reading Silently for Understanding and Speed, Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of Reading, Reading — Study Reading: Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum, Extensive Reading: Encouraging Lifelong Learning.

Unit-5: Effective Writing: Better Writing Using Personal Experiences, Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and Grammar, Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions, Effective Writing across the Curriculum, Promoting Creative Writing.


  1. Kaul, A. (2005). Effective Business Communication, PHI, New Delhi.
  2. Munter M. (2011). Guide to Managerial Communication: Effective Writing & Speaking, PHI, New Delhi.

Table of Contents

BBA (CA)- 105       Communication. 1

Unit-1: Business Communication: 1

Unit-2: Better Listening: 9

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication: 13

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading: 16

Unit-5: Effective Writing: 18

Unit-1: Business Communication:

1.1 Definition:

Communication is a process through which ideas or opinions are exchanged or transferred, progress of a person is dependent upon his/ her communication skills. It is considered as an art for achieving success at work place as it is clearly associated with the ability to communicate effectively. Both at the workplace and with outsiders. It takes a variety of forms, i.e., from 2 people having face to face conversation or hand signals in the form of messages to the global telecommunication network. The process of communication facilities interaction among people without which we would be unable to share our knowledge or experiences with anyone else.

“Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so that an understanding response results”.

 By Peter Little

“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.

By W.H. New man and C.F. summer Jr.

1.2 Importance of effective communication:

Communication is required not only in social life but also in personal and professional life. Good communication helps an individual advance socially by making useful contacts. It also builds self-confidence and enables him to help and lead others. In a business, reputation, trust and credibility need to be built up in order to get clients trust and confidence. Having sense of professionalism will help bring a long-term relationship with employees and clientele.

Business communication is required for the following purposes-

1) In order to make sure that business deal is attend to promptly.

2) Communicating with external and internal contacts of an organisation.

3) Organise the business whether it is a sale, a promotion, inquiry, a problem, etc.

4) Dealing with people for their needs and otherwise. As a matter of fact, communication is pre-requisite to have a balance within the internal as well as external factors in a business whether it is dealing with people or other casts.

1.3 Process of Communication:

Communication is effective when a concise and clear message is delivered well, received Successfully and understand fully. The process of communication has the following distinct Components:

Idea, Sender, Message, Encoding Message, Noise, Understanding Idea, Decoding Message, Receiver, Medium and Channel, Feedback.

1). Idea: – Idea is the simplification and abstraction of reality filtered through the individuals Mind. Every message weather oral or written begins with an idea. Every business has its own Convention for processing and communicating information.

2). Sender: – Person sending the information is called sender. He is also known as encoder. The Process of communication begins when an idea occurs in his mind. The sender wants to send That idea to another person/organization to achieve some objective. The sender must have a Clear picture in his mind about what he wants to communicate.

3). Message: – The idea, emotion or opinion transmitted by the sender is called message. Message is an idea transformed into words. The message can be expressed in different ways Depending on the subjects, purpose, audience, personal style and cultural background of the Sender.

4). Encoding: – The method by which a message is expressed is called encoding. Message arises In the mind in the form of an idea. That idea is transmitted by the sender to the receiver in the Form of words, symbols, picture etc. If not encoded, it may not be possible for the receiver to Understand it.

5). Medium and Channel: – The method and means by which a message is transmitted by a Sender to the receiver. For instance, letters are a medium and postal or courier service a channel. If message is communicated by telephone, then oral message is a medium and telephone a Channel.

6). Receiver: – The receiver is a person/organization that receives the message. He is the Destination of the message. In the absence, the process of communication is incomplete. He not Only receives the message but also understands what is implied in it. He may be a listener, Reader or viewer of the message.

7). Decoding: – Decoding is the mental process by which the receiver draws meaning from the Word, symbols or picture of the message. Receiver decodes the message send by sender, that’s Why he is also known as decoder.

8). Feedback: – Feedback is the receiver’s response to the message. Feedback is the final ink in the communication process. Feedback tells the source/sender, how the receiver has interpreted the message. The effective communication is always sensitive to feedback.

1.4 Objectives of Communication:

The basic objective of human communication is trying to elicit a reaction from the person we are trying to communicate with. From a business or commercial angle, if we observe any small or large business around us we will be able to notice that the amount of success the business has achieved mainly relies on its power of communication. Communication defines the level of success that the company has attained.

Following are a few of the main objectives of business communication.

1. Information: The core objective of a business is to convey information and making individuals more up to date, E.g.- all the advertisement campaigns that we notice around us are an attempt to inform and convey the information across to others, and in case of companies, this information is generally regarding the product or services at offer. However, the method of communication may be verbal, written, visual or any other. All companies thrive on information pertinent to their business activity. They must have excellent knowledge regarding the market, their competitors, the government policies, the type of credit they can gain from; the existing economic situation etc. Pertinent information is the main aspect for successful business. However, in the recent times, because of the arrival of the World Wide Web, there has been a swift outburst in the quantity of information that is accessible to a company and it is turning out to be gradually more difficult for a company to come across information that is genuine, comprehensive, up-to-date and new. Furthermore, it has become very important for any company to get hold of that information. Moreover, this demand for correct information has initiated a new faction of people called the infomederies, who do not handle any type of goods but provide information. A company not only acquires information but furthermore provides information as well, for e.g.- The company has to provide factual information about profitability, quality of products, facilities provided to the workers or services rendered towards the community.

2. Motivation: Communication in business is moreover essential to boost the workers’ motivation. Thus if the communication is carried out correctly and is successful in encouraging the workers and workers are sufficiently encouraged, the work gets completed easily, proficiently and the workers will carry out their functions by themselves without supervision. Communication should be utilised to construct a proper working atmosphere. In order to create a strong competitive atmosphere between the workers and furthermore can be acknowledged and rewarded for their accomplishments. Employees who work at a lower level in the chain of command of the organisation should be motivated to give ideas and inputs on the methods to improve the functioning of an organisation, this type of communication brings about a feeling of involvement and connection and creates more loyalty towards the company.

3. Raising Morale: Another extremely significant objective of business communication (internal) is maintaining a sense of high morale amongst the workers, so that they perform their tasks with dynamism and resilience as a team. create a great impact on the success of a company. However as morale is a psychological aspect, the condition of high morale is not a lasting feature. An organisation could have a sense of high morale between the workers for following phase. Therefore, to keep the sense of high morale amongst the employees, an organisation has to constantly put in their efforts in that course. It can be managed by maintaining an open door policy, keeping tabs on the gossip and not permitting destructive rumours to spread among employees.

4. Order and instructions: An order is an oral or written rule influencing the start, end or adjusting an activity. This form of communication is internal and is executed within a company. Order may be in written or verbal form. Written orders are given when the type of job is extremely vital or the person who would carry out the task is far off. Care must be taken at the time of handing out written orders; a copy of the order should always be maintained so that it is easy during the follow up. Oral orders come into play at the time of urgency in the work and when the person is in close proximity. However, it is extremely vital to follow up in both the cases.

5. Education and training: These days, communication can be additionally used in business to enhance the scope of knowledge. The goal of education is attained by business communication on three levels (a) Management (b) employees (c) general public

a. Education for future managers: At this juncture, junior personnel in the organisation are taught to deal with vital assignments comprising of responsibility, so that they can achieve something more than their superiors in the long run.

b. Education for newbie’s: When new personnel join an organisation, they are introduced by enlightening them in relation to the culture of the company, code of discipline, work ethos etc. This is generally carried out by way of a training method to accustom the new recruits with the working style of the organisation.

c. Educating the public: This is carried out by advertising, informative seminars, newspapers, journals to notify the public regarding the product, the working style of the company and different schemes presented by the company.

1.5 Characteristics of Communication:  7 C s of Good Communication:

1. Complete: The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly.

2. Concise: Conciseness means wordiness, i.e., communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forging the other C’s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication.

3. Consideration: Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e., the audience’s view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems.

4. Clear: Clarity implies emplacing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once.

5. Correct: Correctness in communication implies that there is no grammatical error in communication.

6. Courteous: Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic.

7. Concrete: Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence.

1.6 Barriers of Communication

Communication plays a major role in developing a relationship. It can also affect the relationship among family members or management in any institute. More specifically, communication influences the effectiveness of instruction, performance evaluation, and the handling of discipline problems. Communication should be straightforward. What can make it complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers. Some barriers of communication are the following.

1. Physiological Barrier

Physiological barriers to communication are related with the limitations of the human body and the human mind (memory, attention, and perception). Physiological barriers may result from individuals’ personal discomfort, caused by ill-health, poor eye sight, or hearing difficulties.

2. Poor Listening Skills

Listening to others is considered a difficult task. A typical speaker says about 125 words per minute. The typical listener can receive 400–600 words per minute. Thus, about three-fourth of listening time is free time. The free time often sidetracks the listener. The solution is to be an active rather than passive listener. A listener’s premature frown, shaking of the head, or bored look can easily convince the other person/speaker that there is no reason to elaborate or try again to communicate his/her excellent idea.

3. Information Overload

Nurses are surrounded with a pool of information. It is essential to control the flow of the information, else the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked. As a result, communication may get distorted.

4. Inattention

At times, we just do not listen but only hear. For example, your boss is immersed in his/her very important paper work surrounded by so many files on the table and you are explaining him/her about an urgent office problem. In this situation, due to the inattention, the boss will not listen to you (he/she will only hear you); hence, he/she may not get what you are saying and it may lead to disappointment.

5. Emotions

The emotional state of a person at a particular point of time affects his/her communication with others as it has an impact on the body language (nonverbal communication). If the receiver feels that the sender is angry (emotional state), he/she can easily infer that the information being obtained will be very terrible.

6. Physical and Environmental Distractions

Physical distractions are the physical things that get in the way of communication. Examples of such things include the telephone, an uncomfortable meeting place, and noise. These physical distractions are common in the hospital setting. If the telephone rings, the usual human tendency will be to  answer it even if the caller is interrupting a very important or even delicate conversation. Distractions such as background noise, poor lighting, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room, or an environment that is too hot or cold can affect people’s morale and concentration, which in turn interfere with effective communication.

7. Psychological Barrier

Psychological factors such as misperception, filtering, distrust, unhappy emotions, and people’s state of mind can jeopardize the process of communication. We all tend to feel happier and more receptive to information when the sun shines. Similarly, if someone has personal problems such as worries and stress about a chronic illness, it may impinge his/her communication with others.

8. Social Barriers

Social barriers to communication include the social psychological phenomenon of conformity, a process in which the norms, values, and behaviors of an individual begin to follow those of the wider group. Social factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, and marital status may act as a barrier to communication in certain situations.

9.  Cultural Barriers

Culture shapes the way we think and behave. It can be seen as both shaping and being shaped by our established patterns of communication. Cultural barrier to communication often arises when individuals in one social group have developed different norms, values, or behaviors to individuals associated with another group. Cultural difference leads to difference in interest, knowledge, value, and tradition. Therefore, people of different cultures will experience these culture factors as a barrier to communicate with each other.

14. Barriers Related with the Message

            Unclear Messages


Question from Unit -1

What is the main objective of business communication?

 ‘7 C s’ of good communication.

What are the barriers to communication? How to overcome these barriers?       

Explain the process of communication with a neat diagram.                       

Unit-2: Better Listening:

Good listening skills make workers more productive. The ability to listen carefully will allow a person to:

  • understand assignments in better way and find and what is expected from him.
  • build rapport with co-workers, bosses, and clients;
  • show support;
  • work better in a team-based environment;
  • resolve problems with customers, co-workers, and bosses;
  • answer questions
  • find underlying meanings in what others say.

2.1 Listening for Pronunciation Practice:

Make sentence to differentiate the meaning of following homophones.

Great – a person who has achieved distinction and honor in some field- “he is one of the greats of Indian music”

Grate – reduce to small shreds or pulverize by rubbing against a rough or sharp perforated surface-“grate carrots and onions”

Access (Approach,  reach) This type of account offers you instant access to your money

Excess (Additional, more than) The store has an excess of stock which it must sell off

Accept– to receive or take something- My friend was happy to accept the gift.

 Except– not including something – The restaurant is open every day of the week except Sunday

Affect – to cause a change – Her decision to skip class could affect her grade

Effect – a change that is produced by a cause – The snow had little effect on the school schedule.

To (Preposition) – used to indicate the place, person, or thing that something moves toward – I am going to the mall after we finish eating lunch.

Too (Adverb) – more than what is wanted, accepted, needed, possible, etc.  – The pink bag is too heavy for me to lift by myself, but the blue one is lighter. 

Two (Noun) – the number 2 -I would like two copies please.

Career (profession) Mr. Balhara was very successful in his hotel career.

Carrier (person/company which carries goods, support for luggage in bicycles) The goods train is the biggest carrier of goods.

Birth (coming to life) Sheela gave birth to a girl child..

Berth (a shelf like sleeping space in train) Please reserve a first class berth for me in the Taj  Express.

Dye (a coloring that changes the color of material) Take colour well during the dyeing process.

Die (to cease to live and become dead) he died of tuberculosis

Beat (to hit something hard) he beat the table with his hand’

Beet (a type of plant) Beetroot plant widely cultivated as a source of food for human

Fair (Lovely, just) This shop charges fair prices.

Fare (Money charged for bus, train etc., journey) Taxi driver had only one fare that day.

Weather (Climate) We went out shopping in the fine weather.

Whether (if) Tell me whether he would send the parcel or not.

2.2 Listening for Personal Communication:

2.3 Active Listening:

Levels and Types of Listening

  1. Discriminative Listening: It involves an attempt to distinguish one second from all others. Stopping work to determine whether the phone is ringing is an example of this listening. We learn how to discriminate among sounds at an early stage.

2. Comprehensive Listening: It involves an attempt to understand a speaker’s message in totality and to interpret the meaning precisely. This kind of listening is generally practiced in classrooms, where we must remember what has been taught and rely upon it for future use.

3. Critical Listening: When a person want’s to sift through what he has heard and come to a decision he must listen critically. This involves judging the clarity, accuracy and reliability of the information evidence and also being alert to emotional appeals. Examples: Professionals like doctors and judges do this listening.

4. Active Listening: It is also called empathized listening or supportive listening. Empathy means putting yourself into other person’s shoes and trying to understand his perspective. When we listen actively, we encourage the speaker to express himself completely. It involves responding to the emotional content apart from only the verbal message. An active listener is alert to all clues and carefully deserves the non-verbal behaviour of the speaker to get a complete picture. Eg. Counsellors.

Guidelines for effective listening

1. Use attentive body language: The posture and position of body influence both the ability to listen and how you are perceived as a listener. An attentive listener should show confidence in his/her body language.

2. Concentration: Effective listening requires focusing on what is being sad. While listening, we should not get distracted by noise or any kind of disturbances. We should be concentrated to what the speaker is speaking.

3. Listen more, speak less: For effective listening, it is very important to listen carefully rather than interrupting the speaker again and again. One should listen more and carefully rather than speaking more and immediately deriving conclusions.

4. Have an open mind: It means listen without judging the other person or criticizing the things that he/ she tells you. It is always better to be opened minded to other persons view and ideas through which we may get to know a lot. Apart from this, we cannot just stop listening to someone just because we dislike his/ her appearance, thought etc.

5. Don’t jump to conclusion: Wait until you hear what the speaker has to say, before jumping or deriving conclusions. A good listener should not be bias and should not judge or decide something without having all the facts and reach to unwanted conclusions.

6. Show Understanding: A good listener deliberately listens to the speaker and understands his/ her feelings. He concentrates totally on the facts and evaluates the facts. A good listener should be projective (i.e. one who tries to understand the views of the speaker) and empathic (i.e. tries to understand the speakers perspective).

7. Short Note on: Listening, Computerization and Note Taking Good note taking involves effective listening that includes concentrating on selecting, summarizing, evaluating what is being said by the speaker. Listening requires you not only to hear what is being said but to understand as well. Note taking is the practice of recording information captured from another source. By taking notes, the writer records the essence of the information, freeing their mind from having to recall everything. Note taking is the practice of writing pieces of information, in an informal and unstructured manner. It generally involves writing down most of what you hear or read without processing the information. Note taking is taken as a passive approach to study and learning.

 2.4 Communicating in Public Situations:

2.5 Listening for Communication:

Most people spend at least half of their communication time listening. This most used communication skill is not only crucial in interpersonal communication but it is also must in organisation communication and helps in determining success in education and careers. Business written Kevin Murphy says “the better you listen, the luckier you get so take time to listen”. Recent studies show that personnel at all levels spend about 32.7% of their time, listening. Whereas, speaking takes up 25.8% of their time and writing 22.6% however, senior professionals spend even more time listening. Poor listening can cause innumerable mistakes. Listening helps employees to update their facts, skills, attitudes and also improve their spoken skills.

  • Language Functions:
    • Listening Barriers

Physical Barriers


Poor acoustics

 Defective mechanical devices

 Frequent interruptions

 Uncomfortable seating arrangements

 Uncomfortable environment

 Message overload

People – Related Barriers

Physiological Barriers

            Being unsure of the speaker’s ability

Personal anxiety


Psychological Barriers


Emotional blocks

Question of Unit-2

What is listening? What are the different types of listening?

 What are the barriers of listening? How to overcome them?                               

Different types of Listening barriers.

Unit-3: Speaking for Better Communication:

The purpose of any speech can be categorised into broad headings: 1. General 2. Specific

There are three general speech purposes:

1. To Inform: The main concern of the speaker here is to make the audience understood and remember the information presented.

2. To Persuade: The major objective of a persuasive speech to induce the audience to think, feel and act in a manner intended by the speaker.

3. To Entertain: Through such speeches, the speaker wants the audience to have an enjoyable time.

Specific purpose describes the exact nature of response you want from the audience.

It has three requirements: 1. Central Idea 2. Clear and Concise message 3. It should be worded in term of the audience desire.

Steps in Organising and Delivering the Speech

1. Organising Speech: Jot down 3 or 4 main points that you want your audience to remember.

2. Summarise each idea in a single clear sentence: Sentences should be built around facts and supported by examples.

3. Write you speech: Use short and clear words. Don’t pronounce it with professional or technical jargons.

4. Use sense of humour: Cracking a sensible joke or the adding a punchy one liners as per the environment. However, excess jokes can make the speaker sound unprofessional.

5. Write main points of 3X5 Cue Cards/ Note Cards

6. Rehearse Your Speech: Time the delivery of speech while rehearsal to match the allotted time.

7. Look at the audience: Make an eye contact with the audience to make them realise that you are there for them.

8. Deliver your speech to the audience speak slowly and loudly (volume) when required. Stand upright in a relaxed manner with your feet slightly apart and hands by your side. Visual may be used where possible as it demonstrates certain points more effectively.

3.1 Speaking about Myself:

3.2 Speaking Accurately:

A. Pronunciation, Stress and Accent How do you understand a new word of a new language?

We have to break the word to be able to correctly pronounce it. A part of a word or a word which contains a single vowel sound is known as a syllable. It is a single unit of speech that builds up the structure of every word. It gives a word its pronunciation. Each word contains at least one or more syllable as a word can be formed without a consonant sound

Following are the examples of words with single syllable: 1. Man 2. Cup 3. Hat Single vowel sound can be made of more than one vowel letters. E.g. 1. Moon 2. Cake 3. Bought As all of these words contain only one vowel sound, therefore, they are single syllable words.

Examples of words with two syllables: 1. Garden : gar den 2. Hotel : ho tel 3. Consist : con sist 4. Focus : fo cus

Examples of words with the three syllables: 1. September : sep tem ber 2. Department : de part ment 3. Telephone : te le phone 4. Camera : ca me ra 5. Saturday : sa tur day

Examples of words with four syllables: 1. Information : in for may tion 2. Practically : prac ti ca lly 3. Photography : pho to gra phy 4. Competition : com pe ti tion

Similarly, there can be words with even more syllables. Word Stress: When a word has more than one syllable, not all syllables are pronounces with the same degree of force.

Phoneme – The smallest unit at the level of sounds of one particular language is called phoneme. e.g. the /t/ from /p/ in /tin/ and /pin/. The phoneme of spoken language differs from the letters of a written language. The phonemes of English and their number vary from dialect to dialect, and also depend on the interpretation of the individual researcher.

The number of consonant phonemes is generally put at 24 (or slightly more). The number of vowels is subject to greater variation; there are 20 vowel phonemes in Received Pronunciation, 14–16 in General American and 20– 21 in Australian English. Out of this 12 are pure vowels or Monophthongs and 8 are vowel glides or Diphthongs.

Stress – Stress is the intensity or prominence given to a syllable. It way we defied as emphasis on a syllable or word in the form of prominent, relative loudness͛. In traditional approach, each English word consisting of more than one syllable can be ascribed to any one of these three degrees – primary or loud, secondary or medium and unstressed. When prominence is given to syllable in sentences, it is called sentence-stress.

3.3 Practice in Public Speaking:

Great speakers are not born, they are trained”     – Dale Carnegie

Public Speaking is the art of communicating live to a large audience. It is generally a formal face-to face interaction of an individual to a group of people. It can be as simple as providing information, story-telling or a motivational speech.

Public speaking has several components such as leadership development, business, motivating speech, mass communication, persuading, etc. It is generally done in a structured and deliberate manner with the intention to inform, influence or entertain the listener.

There are 5 elements in public speaking:

  • Who is saying?
  • What?
  • To Whom?
  • Using what medium
  • With what Effects?

3.4 Non-Verbal Communication:

The most basic form of communication is non-verbal. Long before human beings used words to communicate, our ancestors communicate with each other by using body languages such as gritting of teeth for anger, smile and touch to show affection. Thus, one can easily say that nonverbal communication is the communication without words.

As human beings evolved over a period of time, the use of this form of communication has not diminished but has widen in scope. The two-effective means of communication are Firstly, nonverbal communication is the form of sign language such as traffic lights, blowing of siren, telephone ring, traffic maps, etc. ‘Secondly’ Communication through body language, which include kinesics, para language, proxemics.

Meaning of: Kinesics: – is the interpretation of body language such as facial expressions and gestures (body movement).

Para language: – refers to the non- verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion.         

Proxemics: – is a subcategory of the study of non-verbal communication along with haptics(touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalic (para languages).

Social Communication:

Performing Language Functions:

 Speaking across the Curriculum:

Questions from Unit-3

Essential qualities of a good speaker

Importance of Non-Verbal communication in hospitality industry.

What is Audience Analysis? Explain its Importance?

What are the characteristics of an effective public speaker?                       

Unit-4: Building Confidence in Reading:

4.1 Countering Defects:

4.2Reading Silently for Understanding and Speed:

Reading silently improves students’ understanding because it helps them concentrate on what they are reading, rather than the pronunciation of individual words. When we read silently, we can form mental pictures of the topic being discussed. Also, we do not need to read one word at a time. When you encourage your students to read silently, you are helping them develop the strategies they need for reading fast, and with better comprehension. This is called reading efficiency, and it will help your students to read any text with maximum attention to meaning.

Silent reading also helps develop the skills of reading for a purpose, as the focus is on understanding the content without the additional burden of having to pay attention to pronunciation.

Research has shown that people read in sense groups, which means, roughly, that we read a number of words together so that they make sense to us. For example, this is how I read the first sentence of this paragraph: Reading silently/improves students’ understanding/because it helps them/ concentrate on/what they are reading,/rather than the pronunciation of individual words. Within these groups of words, our eyes stop at the content words (reading, silently, improves, students’, because, helps, concentrate, etc.) — that is, nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc., the words that carry independent meaning — and skip over the function words (it, them, on, the, of, etc.) — that is, grammatical words such as articles and other determiners.

4.3 Reading Efficiently: The Sub-Skills of Reading

The Essential Components of Reading

Reading is an extremely complex cognitive process.  Our intellect is in fact engaged in number of tasks when we are reading, despite of the belief that reading is one singular act. There are five attributes to the process of reading: phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and fluency. These five features work together to form the reading skill. In order to turn out to be a triumph in reading skills, individuals must develop expertise in all these five areas. 


“Phonics instruction helps early elementary students develop proficiency in decoding, spelling, and understanding words” – National Reading Panel

Phonics is the relationship or a connection between sounds, letter symbols or word families, short vowels, long vowels, and letter combinations and the sounds they represent. Without phonics, words are just a group of scribbles and lines on a page.

There are many ways that phonics can be skilled because there is a multiple way to apply this aspect when reading. Every single approach permits the reader to use phonics to read and discover new words in a diverse way. 

4.4 Reading — Study Reading:

Tips to improve your Reading Skills

In the modern age of information, reading truly is a fundamental survival skill. Here are ten tips that anyone can use to improve their reading skills:

1. You don’t have to be a great reader to get the point.

Some people read fast and remember everything. Others read slowly and take a couple of times to get all the information. It doesn’t matter, really, so long as when you read, you get the information you’re seeking.

2. Know WHY you’re reading.

Are you reading for entertainment or to learn something? Decide why you’re reading before you start and you’ll greatly improve your comprehension and your enjoyment.

3. You don’t need to read everything.

Not every magazine, letter, and email you receive contains information you need. In fact, most of it is simply junk. Throw it away, hit the delete key! Just doing this will double the amount of time you have available to read.

4. You don’t need to read all of what you DO read.

Do you read every article of every magazine, every chapter of every book? If so, you’re probably spending a lot of time reading stuff you don’t need. Be choosy: select the chapters and articles that are important. Ignore the rest.

5. Scan before you read.

Look at the table of contents, index, topic headers, photo captions, etc. These will help you determine if, a) you have a real interest in this reading, and b) what information you’re likely to get from it.

6. Prioritize your reading.

You can’t read everything all at once (and wouldn’t want to). If it’s important, read it now. If it’s not, let it wait.

7. Optimize your reading environment.

You’ll read faster and comprehend more if you read in an environment that’s comfortable for you.

8. Once you start, don’t stop!

Read each item straight through. If you finish and have questions, go back and re-read the pertinent sections. If you don’t have questions, you got what you needed and are ready to move on.

9. Focus.

Remember, you’re reading with a purpose, so focus on that purpose and the material. If you lose interest or keep losing your place, take a break or read something else. You can keep track of where you are by following along with your hand. This simple technique helps you focus and increase your concentration.

10. Practice!

The more you read, the better reader you’ll become (and smarter, too)! So, feed your mind: read!

4.5 Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum:

4.6 Extensive Reading: Encouraging Lifelong Learning:

Question from Unit-4

 List out the four main reading techniques and explain.

List out the tips to improve your Reading Skills.                                         

Different attributes of effective reading.

Does reading skill helps in an organization? Explain in detail.

Unit-5: Effective Writing:

Written communication has great significance in today‟s business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for pre- paring worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.

Advantages of Written Communication

  • Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.
  • It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required.
  • It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.
  • Written communication is more precise and explicit.
  • Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization‟s image.
  • It provides ready records and references.
  • Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records.

Disadvantages of Written Communication

  • Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.
  • Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.
  • Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.
  • Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organization‟s reputation.
  • Too much paper work and e-mails burden are involved.

5.1 Better Writing Using Personal Experiences:

5.2 Better Writing through Appropriate Vocabulary and Grammar:

Effective writing tips mentioned below.

Keep it simple. Let’s start with a few basics. Simplify your message. Rather than zig-zagging through every angle in the book, find a hook that will catch the reader’s attention and tell that story.

Trim the fat. We live in an age of information overload. Focus on the meat of the topic, and find ways to trim the fat. Your audience will appreciate it.

Answer the 5 Ws (and the H). The ‘who, what, when, where, why and how’ approach to writing might have been the first thing I learned in journalism school, but it’s still one of my favorite methods to confirm I’m telling the whole story.

Think, feel, do Before I put pen to paper, I contemplate what I want the reader to think, what I want them to feel and what I want them to do. If your writing passes the ‘Think, Feel, Do’ test, you’ve got yourself a keeper.

Design your draft. Do you remember the outlines your fifth-grade teacher made your write before you started your essay? A simple outline will allow you to connect the dots of your story with a limited amount of time investment required.

Use real, everyday words. There’s a reason most newspapers write at an eighth-grade reading level. It helps to ensure the message will be interpreted the same way it was intended.

Mind your grammar. Grammatical errors will instantly erode your credibility. Pay close attention to those graded term papers to identify any bad habits you need to correct before you graduate. Eliminate passive voice, avoid commonly misspelled words and keep an AP Stylebook handy.

Who are you? Putting yourself in the shoes of your audience is a fairly well-known writing tip, but in public relations, you have to take that one step further. We channel a variety of brand voices, C-suite executives and other important figures. Channelling the proper voice in your writing is a skill that can be improved through practice and intention.

Find your focus. Identify an environment that will allow you to write efficiently. Find inspiration through music, a comfortable seat, a quiet corner or a second cup of coffee.

Proof. Proof. Proof. Proofing extends beyond spell check. Take the time to double-check your facts. Are your links working? Did you reserve five or 55 microphones from the event vendor? Peer reviews and stepping away for a bit often help catch those hidden blemishes.

5.3 Writing for Effective Communication: Formal Occasions

Effective Writing is writing which has a logical flow of ideas and is cohesive. This means it holds together well because there are links between sentences and paragraphs. Writing which is cohesive works as a unified whole and is easy to follow because it uses language effectively to maintain a focus and to keep the reader ‘on track’.

5.4 Effective Writing across the Curriculum

5.5 Promoting Creative Writing

Question from Unit-5

Discuss about the advantages and disadvantages of ‘written communication’.

Explain the use and effect of written communication in hotel industry.

Write the importance of written communication its advantages and disadvantages.

List out five tips towards effective writing.  

Short Question draft from all above Notes

Active Listening

Communication in public speaking

Creative Writing

Draw a neat diagram of the process of communication


Extensive Reading

Importance of reading skill

Importance of Written communication


Non-Verbal communication

Process of communication

Difference between ‘listening’ and ‘hearing’

Sate two tips to improve communication skills

Social Communication

Advantages of Written Communication.

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