BBA in Culinary Arts, MBA in Culinary Arts


Unit-1: Dressings and Condiments, Salads – Vinaigrette, Blue cheese, Italian, Boiled, Sour cream, Salads – Components, Principles, Ingredients, classification.


The three basic dressings are: vinaigrettes, mayonnaise-based, and dairy-based

  • Vinaigrettes are made with oil and vinegar. Temporary emulsion, needs to be shaken or stirred while using. Procedure is: Combine vinegar with seasonings, Whip in the oil a little at a time, by hand or machine and Serve immediately or chill for later.
  • Mayonnaise is a permanent emulsion with eggs, oil, and vinegar or acid. Good mayonnaise is creamy, pale ivory, not too acidic, should hold its own shape and Mustard is often added to give a little tartness.
  • Dairy-based can be made with cream or acidic, fresh dairy products. Should be used up immediately or soon, as they have a short shelf life, adjust seasoning and thickness before using, Excellent for fruit salads, jellied salads, chilled fish


  1. FRENCH: 1 part vinegar: 2 parts oil + salt, pepper, french mustard.
  2. ENGLISH: 2 parts vinegar: 1 part oil + salt, pepper, caster sugar, english mustard.
  3. AMERICAN: Equal parts of oil and vinegar + salt. Pepper, english mustard and additional sugar.
  4. MAYONNAISE: Mayonnaise sauce thinned down with vinegar or lemon juice.
  5. VINAIGRETTE: 1 part vinegar: 2 parts olive oil + salt, pepper, english/french mustard.
  6. RAVIGOTTE: Vinaigrette + chopped chervil, chives, tarragon, capers and parsley.
  7. GRIBICHE: Mayonnaise dressing + chopped gherkins, capers, chervil, taragon, parsley and strips of hard boiled egg white.
  8. ACIDULATED CREAM: Fresh cream + fresh lemon juice and salt
  9. THOUSAND ISLAND : Mayonnaise dressing + a little chili sauce and chopped red pimento, chives and green peppers 
  10. LEMON DRESSING: Substitute the vinegar with lemon juice adds oil according to taste plus salt, pepper and preferred mustard component.



Herba Salata, the Latin equivalent of salted greens, is where the term salad is derived from. This suggests that the earliest salads were mixtures of pickled greens, seasoned with salt. This culinary variation evolved by the time of Imperial Rome into mixtures of greens served with a fresh herb garnish and an oil-vinegar dressing. The 17th and 18th Century brought more additions to the humble culinary creation called the salad. Lettuces of various types were used as a base with some type of meat, poultry and mixed vegetables placed on the top. It was in the early 20th century that Escoffier carried the art of salad making to new heights. The possibilities for salad combinations are limited only by the imagination of the chef. They may include leaf greens, raw and cooked vegetables, fruit, meat, legumes and rice and pasta-based salads, to mention just a few.

Components of salad

Base, Body, Dressing and Garnish

  • The BASE or UNDERLINER of the salad is usually a layer of greens.
  • The BODY of the salad is the main ingredient. It may include vegetables, fruits, meats, or cheeses.
  • The DRESSING is a liquid or semi-liquid used to flavor, moisten, or enrich the salad.
  • The GARNISH of the salad adds color and appeal, and sometimes flavor. It must always be edible, and may be as simple as a sprinkling of crumbs or spice.

Principles of salad layout

The wide variety of salads makes it difficult to state exact rules for the proper preparation of salads. However, there are some rules of thumb that must be followed.

  • Utilize the freshest ingredients and especially those in season.
  • Light leaf vegetables should be tossed in a dressing just before the service.
  • Pour enough dressing to season; not drown the main ingredient.
  • Use a suitable container to present the salad.
  • Never overcrowd the salad plate.
  • Accommodate the salad within the dish and not on or over the edge.

Guidelines for Arranging Salads

Perhaps even more than with most other foods, the appearance and arrangement of a salad are essential to its quality. The colorful variety of salad ingredients gives the creative chef an opportunity to create miniature works of art on the salad plate.

  1. Keep the salad off the rim of the plate: Think of the rim as the frame of a picture. Keep the salad within the frame. Select the right plate for the portion size, not too large or not too small.
  2. Strive for a good balance of color: Pale iceberg lettuce is pretty plain and colorless but can be livened up by mixing in some darker greens and perhaps a few shreds of carrot, red cabbage or other colored vegetables such as peppers. On the other hand don’t overdo it and go overboard. Three colors are usually more than enough. Shades of green give a good effect and too many colors will look messy.
  3. Height makes a salad attractive: Ingredients mounded onto a plate are more interesting than that lying flat. Lettuce cups as a base adds height. Often, just a little height is enough.
  4. Cut the ingredients neatly: Ragged or sloppy cutting makes the whole salad look unattractive and haphazard.
  5. Make every ingredient identifiable: The pieces should be large enough for the customer to identify each ingredient. Don’t pulverize everything. Bite size pieces are the rule. Seasoning ingredients like onion could be chopped fine.
  6. Keep it simple: A simple, natural arrangement is pleasant to view. An elaborate design, a contrived arrangement, or a cluttered plate will defeat the purpose.

Preparation of salad ingredients

In many food service operations, salads are the items that are given the least attention and consideration, both in planning and preparation. Chefs often erroneously perceive it as a simple task that needs little or no training. This attitude results in salads of a poor quality. Certain factors need to be considered while planning a salad. These include:

  • Fresh ingredients
  • Attractive plating
  • Proper textures
  • Eye appeal

Well balanced flavor

Classification of salads

  1. Simple
    1. Compound
  2. Simple: These salad comprise one primary ingredients for body and one or two ingredient used for garnish for e.g. tomato salad garnish with coriander leaves. These salad also tossed with dressing and mostly fresh ingredients used for e.g. beetroot salad with vinaigrette dressing

Compound Salads

These salads comprise of more than one ingredients and based on skill and chef imagination. E.g. are Nicoise Salad, Waldorf salad, Russian Salad, Caesar Salad Coleslaw salad etc.  Compound salad are made up of four parts:

BASE: normally one/combination of the above greens. It gives definition to the placement of the salad on the plate. A green lettuce leaf is used as an under liner for the salad. Shredded greens can also be utilized and this will give height and dimension to the plate. The base also absorbs excess dressing preventing it from running around the plate during the presentation and the meal. However, the base is not always necessary. A cole slaw made up of leafy vegetable (cabbage) need not have a base at all. Beetroot salad whose color might run can do without the base.

BODY: This is the main ingredient in the salad and will generally give the name to the salad. The body must be the main ingredient and will be placed on top of the base. The body could be made up of just on ingredient or in some cases, several.

DRESSING:  is used to enhance and add to the taste and flavor of the body. It makes the salad more palate pleasing. The dressing may be tossed with the body of the salad, or served as an accompaniment poured over the salad at the table. The dressing is made up of four parts:

  • THE OIL: This could include plain refined, odorless oil or a more exotic one such as Avocado oil, Olive oil, Sesame seed oil, Walnut oil, Peanut oil, Corn oil, Almond oil & Soybean oil. One could also have flavored oil such as chili oil, herb oil or garlic oil.     
  • THE ACIDIC MEDIUM: Is normally vinegar, red or white. However, Lemon/Lime juice, Yogurt (curds), Red and White Wine can also be used. The popular vinegars include Cider Vinegar, Malt Vinegar, Wine Vinegar, Wine Vinegar, Chili Vinegar and Rice Vinegar.
  • THE SEASONING: Would include varieties of salt.
  •   THE FLAVOR ENHANCERS: These will include Spice Powders, Herbs, Garlic, Proprietary Sauces, Fruit Juices & Cream.

GARNISH: Ideally, the garnish will embellish the salad. However, it is not necessary to always have a garnish. Sometimes, if the vegetables are neatly cut and have retained their colors, the salad will look good on its own. Like the base, the garnish is optional.

Parts/Composition of Salad is same: Base, Body Dressing and Garnish

Other Types of Salad

    A.  Tossed

    B.  Mixed

    C.  Arranged

    D.  Cooked

    E.  Molded

     F.  Layered

    G.  Frozen

Salads can be served at the following positions in the meal:

Today, the salad is considered to be a popular item. It is the favorite of weight watchers and those on a diet. It is also a versatile dish and can be served as:

  • An appetizer
  • An entrée
  • A main course
  • An accompaniment to the main course
  • A dessert
  • On the buffet as part of the salad bar
  • As a sandwich filling
  • As a plate garnish


A simple salad is a variety of one or more greens. A mild dressing such as a light Vinaigrette is used so the delicate taste of the greens is not masked. Various types of greens are now available locally and would include:  

–   Cos – Oak Leaf Escarole Arugula
–   Romaine – Ruby Chicory Radiccio
Bibb – Roquette Endive  
Iceberg – Frezie Belgian endive  
Limestone – Boston Red/white cabbage  
Curly – Crisphead Spinach  
Chinese – Butterhead Cress/Water Cress  

Leaf salads are usually served as an accompaniment to the main course and rarely as any other course.


  1. Wash the greens thoroughly in several changes of water.
  2. Drain the greens well. Poor draining will result in watered down dressing.
  3. Crisp the greens. Place them in a colander in the refrigerator.
  4. Cut or tear into bite size pieces.
  5. Mix the greens well. Toss gently till uniformly mixed.
  6. Plate the salads. Use cold plates please! Not those just out of the dishwasher.
  7. Refrigerate.
  8. Add dressing just before serving along with garnish. Dressed greens wilt rapidly.

Six attributes of a salad are:

    a.  color

    b.  flavor

    c.  texture

    d.  shape

    e.  style

    f.   nutritive value


Archiduc, Augustin, Demi Deuil, Eve, Eleonora, Florida, Francaise, Gauloise, Lorette, Louisette, Nicoise, Russian, Rachel And Waldorf.

Review Questions

  1. How would you define a Salad?
  2. Differentiate between a simple salad and a compound salad.
  3. Describe the Parts/Composition of Salad
  4. Make a list of various dressings. Differentiate the French and English dressing.
  5. Explain in detail the principle and guideline the arranging the salad.
  6. Basic Procedure for Leaf Salads

Unit-2: Hors D’oeuvres – Cold, Hot, Classic

Hors d’oeuvre and Appetizers

Hors d’oeuvre is a French expression and its true definition is a preparation served outside of the menu proper, at the beginning of the meal before the main course. It comes from the French term outside (hors) and goes back to the early times when at banquets, the appetizer (hors d’oeuvre) was served in a separate room (ante chamber/room) while the guests assembled and waited for the arrival of the host and the chief guest. Hors d’oeuvre or appetizer as it is called in English can be described as a small tidbit, which should be light, delicate attractive and tasty. The term hors d’oeuvre should never be spelt with the final s, since there is plural form for the term in French. An hors d’oeuvre can be either in the solid form (appetizer) or in the liquid form (aperitif) which may be an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage.

Hors d’oeuvre may be classified in various ways:

  • Hot and Cold hors d’oeuvre
  • Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian hors d’oeuvre
  • Classical and Contemporary hors d’oeuvre
  • Hors d’oeuvre Singulaire and Compound hors d’oeuvre

However, a more comprehensive classification would include:

  • Meat based hors d’oeuvre: Pate, Terrines, Sausages (salami and mortadella), Ham
  • Fish based hors d’oeuvre: Oysters, Caviar, Roll mops, Snails, Prawn cocktail
  • Egg based hors d’oeuvre: Egg mayonnaise, stuffed eggs, devilled eggs, Gulls/Plovers eggs

–    Vegetable based hors d’oeuvre: Asparagus, Artichokes, Corn-on-the-cob

–     Fruit based hors d’oeuvre: Melon, Grapefruit, Florida cocktail

Hot Hors D’oeuvres e.g.

Lasagna Cupcakes: Wonton wrappers filled with marinara sauce, ricotta cheese, mozzarella cheese and seasoned ground beef or chicken

Chipotle-Lime Shrimp Tosdaditas: Spicy marinated Mexican shrimp served on a mini tostada shell with guacamole, creme and pico de gallo

Lamb and Mint Pesto Lollipops: Skewered lamb tenderloin medallions with a fresh mint pesto dipping sauce

Cauliflower and Brie Soup Cups: Roasted cauliflower and triple cream brie cheese, garnished with walnut dust and chives.

Spinach, Bacon and Artichoke Stuffed Mushrooms: Crimini mushrooms stuffed with fresh spinach, bacon and artichoke dip topped with mascarpone cheese and breadcrumbs

Tuscan Chicken Skewers: Crispy seared prosciutto wrapped chicken breast, marinated with rosemary, lemon, garlic and olive oil

Chicken Meatball Caesar Salad Cups: Romaine lettuce cups with grilled chicken meatballs, signature Caesar dressing, parmesan cheese and breadcrumble

White Cheddar and Virginia Ham Croquettes: Panko crusted mashed potato, white cheddar, scallions and artisanal ham. Served with a Tabasco aioli dipping sauce

Shepards Pie Bites: Shortbread pastry cups filled with classic beef stew and topped with mashed potatoes

Cold Hors D’ oeuvres e.g.

Pickled Shrimp Cocktail: Marinated and brined Mexican shrimp served with a chipotle cocktail sauce

Crab Stuffed Deviled Eggs: Hardboiled eggs filled with classic style egg mousse, lump crab meat and crispy shallots

Phyllo Caprese Cups: Crisp phyllo cups filled with cherry tomatoes, fresh mozzerella and basil pesto

Egg Salad Stuffed Potatoes: Egg salad with fresh dill, mustard, scallions and garlic aioli served in a roasted red bliss potato cups

Watermelon and Brie Wedges: Watermelon slices topped with brie, arugula leaves and balsamic reduction

Antipasto Bites: Baked salami cups filled with fresh mozzarella, roasted red bell peppers, grilled artichoke hearts and fresh basil.

Boursin Cheese Cake Bites: Boursin and cream cheese fondue baked with a panko and parmesan crust. Topped with a tomato jam and micro greens

Ham & Cheese Palmiers: Puff pastry wrapped black forest ham, gruyere cheese and mustard. Baked until golden brown

Fresh Fruit Skewers: Melon balled  cantaloupe, honeydew and watermelon served with a mango-mascarpone dipping sauce

Cold Hors d’oeuvre is of two categories:

  1. The ready to serve variety, available in the market off the shelves, like smoked salmon, pate, sausages.
  2. Those which require culinary preparation and that, when made properly have the advantage of being freshly prepared from fresh ingredients with maximum flavor and appeal. This is where fine cuisine can make a contribution to eating pleasure.

Hors d’oeuvre varies are often served at lunch and consist of many items served in a container called raviers. Various items can qualify to be called a part of hors d’oeuvre varies such as olives, pickled onions, cornichons (pickled gherkins), sliced salami, ham and even items like smoked salmon and gulls/plovers eggs

Hot hors d’oeuvre could generally be served at a cocktail party or before a dinner but seldom at lunch. Although there are some hot hors d’oeuvre that are classical, there are many others that are strictly prototype and serve as a basis for many different preparations. As a matter of fact, every branch of cookery that is reduced to a smaller portion is or could be used in the preparation of hot hors d’oeuvre. Paillettes, allumettes, beignets, frittes, bouchees, croustades, rissoles, ramequins and even the classsic quiche can all be served as hot hors d’oeuvre when reduced in size.

Zakuski, or hors d’oeuvre a la russe or canapés a la russe became very popular. These cold hors d’oeuvre are considered to be classical and made up of certain specified ingredients. Chefs in Russia were patronized by the Czars and reached the pinnacle of their profession.  It consists of a base of Blinis; the famous Russian pancake made out of buckwheat flour. This was topped with a topping that would be meat, fish, vegetable or combination of these. A characteristic of the topping is that it would most often be flavored with a smoked fish or meat. The surface would be decorated elaborately; and here is where the chef had the chance to demonstrate his imagination and his skill. Intricate garnishes of exquisite designs would decorate the zakuski. This would then be finished off with a glaze of aspic. The zakuski is a dinner hors d’oeuvre and are larger in size than the canapé. They are presented to the guest individually, without an accompaniment or sauce.

Canapés– 1 to 2 bites; open faced (composed hors d’ oeuvres).

These are tiny open-faced snacks, which are cut into a variety of shapes – round, rectangular, oval, triangle or other shapes. The size and thickness will depend upon the nature of the ingredients used.

A canapé will have three parts:

The base – which would normally be bread – toasted or plain, white or brown? However, a variety of other base ingredients could also be used – puff pastry, flaky pastry, short crust, pizza dough, choux pastry, are examples of the variety that can be used. Sometimes, a spread would be applied to the base to prevent it from soaking up the moisture of the topping.

The topping – almost anything could be used to top the base. However, it should be suitable and must complement the base. It should be fairy dry and must hold shape. A slice of cheese, hardboiled egg, ham, salami, mushrooms or chicken coated with a thick cream sauce, marinated mushrooms and prawns could all be used as topping. The list is limitless and can only be contained by the imagination.

The garnish – this is done more to increase the visual appeal and the appearance than for any functional value. A slice of olive, a sprig of parsley, a dice of capsicum or even a green pea can all be used to increase the presentation of the platter of canapés.

Canapés are usually served as snacks at cocktail parties and are never featured on the regular menu. Some classical canapés are served as the savoury course. Here are some popular canapés:

Canapé Rigoletto: Butter a canapé with cayenne butter. Sprinkle with a mixture of finely chopped whites and yolks of egg, ham, tongue, fine herbs and truffles.

Canapés a la danoise: Butter rye bread with horseradish butter, arrange slices of smoked salmon and filets of marinated herrings on top.

Canapés cancalaise: Butter a canapé with tuna fish butter, top with a poached mussel and decorate with a sprig of parsley.

Canapé rejane: Butter a slice of bread with lobster butter, top with a mound of chopped egg and mayonnaise and decorate with lobster coral.

Canapés a la nicoise: Butter the bread with anchovy butter. Pile stuffed olives on top and fill the gaps with anchovy butter.

Canapés poulette: Butter round canapés with anchovy butter, sprinkle sieved boiled egg yolks and top with a shrimp.

Canapés vie vile: cover a canapé with tarragon butter, top with a slice of ham and decorate with tarragon leaves.

Assignment: make a list of innovative canapés breaking them into the base, the topping and the garnish.

Difference between Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

The definitions of hor d’oeurves and appetizers are often interchangeable, however, there is a difference…

Hors d’Oeurves are the small, savory bites, typically finger foods, served before a meal usually in a buffet style or passed on trays by waiters.

Appetizers appear as the first course that is served at the table.  They are usually served with beverages, either alcoholic or otherwise.

General Rules for Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

  • If you are serving a dinner after the appetizers or hor d’oeurves, two to three different types are usually sufficient.
  • If preparing food for a cocktail party only, meaning that there will not be a dinner to follow, you should typically prepare five to seven different appetizers.  Some of these foods should be more substantial and filling if a meal is not served afterward.
  • As a general rule, figure two pieces per person for each of the appetizers or hor d’oeurves that you will be serving. 
  • If you are preparing food for a cocktail party, make sure that your appetizers or hor d’oeurves are finger foods only. You do not want to serve food that needs to be eaten with utensils, as that will become difficult for your standing guests to eat.  If your guest has to put their plate down to cut the food, that would also not be considered appropriate or polite.
  • If you are serving appetizers and hor d’oeurves before a meal, you may only want to offer one or two options.  However, if the appetizers or hor d’oeurves are the only food option, then you may want to offer your guests a variety of choices.
  • It is important to remember that the appetizers of hor d’oeurves should not clash with the main meal to follow.  For example, if you are serving pickled beets or deviled eggs as an appetizer, beets or eggs should not be served in the main meal.

Presentation of Appetizers and Hor d’Oeurves

  • Location is a vital part of the presentation of appetizers and hor d’oeurves.  Arrange your platters and bowls throughout the room, otherwise your guests will be crowded around the buffet table.  This will discourage conversation and encourage an uncomfortable setting.
  • In addition, you should make sure that you have enough napkins on hand for your guests.  Appetizers and hor d’oeurves tend to get quite messy, especially if they are “finger food.”

Hor d’Oeurves Prepartion

  • Complete all mise en place
  • Store at proper temperatures
  • Adhere to a production schedule

Hor d’Oeurves Presentation

  • Eye appealing and creative
  • Harmonizing flavors and colors
  • Simplicity/ elegance

Unit-3: Butchery of Meat: Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton, Poultry,Quality characteristics, Retail cuts, Traditional methods of preserving meat, Cold Cuts and Cured Foods, Fish Mongery – Classification, cuts, Commissary – SPS of different vegetables, Grades, Care, 


Introduction to meat cookery

Meat can be defined as the flesh of an animal used as food . It can also be defined as the whole or part of the carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs. Meat as high energy type of food is considered to be the food of choice due largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent protein and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides excellent nutrients. Famous across the world as a popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many cuisines. Liver is considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but is also a power house for toxin storage. Livers from mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be baked, boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst.


Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for breeding. Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.

Introduction to meat cookery

Meat can be defined as the flesh of an animal used as food (Hedrick et al, 1994). It can also be defined as the whole or part of the carcass of an animal, slaughtered, but does not include eggs (Williams, 2007). Meat as high energy type of food is considered to be the food of choice due largely to its nutritional value. Meat is well known as an excellent protein and energy source for our daily diets and after digestion, provides excellent nutrients (Chang and Huang, 1991). Famous across the world as a popular food, livers of birds and mammals are served in many cuisines. Liver is considered to be one of the good sources of nutrients, but is also a power house for toxin storage (Mandora, 2010). Livers from mammals and birds are commonly eaten as food by humans. Liver can be baked, boiled, fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into spreads, or sausages such as Braunschweiger and liverwurst (Myhre, 2003).

  1. Quality characteristics of various butchered meats and their various retail cuts (With menu examples of each)
    1. Veal
  2. Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds which are not used for breeding.Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle.
  • Pork

Pork is the most widely consumed and versatile protein in the world; it’s easy to cook, adaptable to just about any recipe and very tender and juicy. Learn the best basic cooking tips for those familiar primal pork cuts like pork chops and pork loin, to how to master new-to-you pork cuts like pork belly or a pork rib roast. Whether you’re cooking for one or a holiday dinner for twelve, there are pork cuts for every occasion.

British Pork Cuts

American cuts of pork

Mutton, Goat, Lamb and kid.

Pork is a high-protein food and contains varying amounts of fat.

100-gram serving of cooked, ground pork provides the following nutrients.

Calories: 297, Water: 53%. Protein: 25.7 grams. Carbs: 0 grams. Sugar: 0 grams, Fiber: 0 grams, Fat: 20.8 grams

Mutton, Lamb

Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear

Mutton — the meat of a female (ewe) or castrated male (wether) sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear.

Variety offal

Offal, also referred to as variety meats, is the name for internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible organs, which varies by culture and region, but includes most internal organs excluding muscle and bone. Most common types of offal from the various species.

Species Common Offal Uses/Notes
Veal Heart  
  Liver Veal offal is more commonly served in restaurants than other types.
  Sweetbreads Thymus gland
Pork Liver Pork offal is stronger in flavour; the liver is most commonly used in pâté.
  Intestines Used for sausage casings
  Skin Used to make cracklings or chicharron
  Blood Used for blood sausage and black pudding
Lamb Liver Lamb offal is milder in flavour
  Intestines Used for sausage casings
Chicken Heart, Liver, Gizzard These three are often referred to as giblets as a whole.
Duck/Goose Liver fatty livers.


Poultry also includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons (known as squabs) but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game. The word “poultry” comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal.

Types of Poultry

Chicken, duck, turkey, Goose and Squad birds come under the poultry types.

Composition of Meat

Meat muscle, which is what we eat, is made of fibres, bound together with connective tissue, that are mainly linked to other groups of muscles or directly to the animal’s bone structure. Muscle contains 60% to 70% moisture, 10% to 20% protein, 2% to 22% fat, and 1% ash, depending on type and species.

On larger bones (such as the shanks of larger animals), it is easy to see the muscle groups in bundles (if cut on the cross-section) surrounded by collagen fibres and a much heavier connective tissue (elastin) that forms a thin covering (called silverskin) separating muscle groups or a tendon at the ends of the muscle group. The tendon is attached to the bone at or near a bone joint

The muscle fibres are known as myofibrils, which are composed of thick and thin filaments arranged in a repeating pattern alongside the other myofibrils (Figure 3). One unit of a bundle is called a sarcomere, or little muscle. The thick filaments are the contractile protein myosin. The thin filaments, known as actin, contain two other proteins called troponin and tropomyosin that help regulate muscle contraction.

Processing of Meat (Beef & Veal, Pork, Mutton, Poultry)

After proper post-mortem inspection of carcasses and found fit for human consumption, the carcasses are washed and sanitized with chlorine labelled “inspected and passed”. They are then kept in the chillers at 0-4°C for 24 hours. In chilling, the pH of the meat becomes acidic and comes below 6 where FMD virus is


After chilling, the meat is deboned in the deboning hall where all the lymph glands and connective tissues are removed. The temperature of deboning hall is maintained at 12°C – 15°C. After deboning the meat is packed in the cartons as per the requirement of the consumers. The cartons are then sealed with polyethylene and passed through the shrinkage machine. After sealing, the meat is passed through the metal detector and put in the freezer.

Packaging and labelling

Proper cuts are packaged in cartons which has labels indicating the product, date of manufacturing, shelf life, brand name, etc to provide the consumer the information about the contents. Thereafter, the packed cartons are passed through the metal detector before freezing the meat either in plate freezer/blast freezer.

Freezing of the Meat

The meat is frozen in the plate freezer / blast freezer at -40°C for 10 hours where deep bone temperature is brought down to -18°C. Thereafter, the meat is kept in the cold storage.

Cold Storage

The frozen meat is kept in cold storage maintained at -18°C to -20°C till it is cleared for loading from the in-house laboratory.

Loading of Refrigerated Container

While loading the refrigerated container, the temperature in the container has to be brought to –18°C so that there is no thawing of the frozen meat cartons while they are loaded. The reefer container has to be clean and disinfected before loading. After proper loading it is sealed taken to port either by rail /road. The temperature has to be maintained at -18°C at all times.

Meat Receival & Inspection

• Check meat for physical contamination (dirt, hide, hair, etc).

• Check and record meat temperature with digital thermometer, chilled cuts ≤ 5C chilled bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C, frozen ≤ -10C.

• Meat with unacceptable levels of visible contamination or outside temperature parameters is returned to the supplier. Meat is transferred to active refrigeration immediately after inspection.


• Frozen meat is stored in a freezer and maintained at ≤ -10C. Chilled meat is stored in a chiller and maintained at: chilled cuts ≤ 5C, chilled bodies, sides or quarters ≤ 7C.

Thaw Frozen Meat

• Air temperature during thawing shall not exceed 10 C and product ≤ 5C

Meat Preparation

• Work surfaces and equipment (saws, mincers and knives etc) are cleaned and sanitised prior to contact with meat.

• Meat is processed to documented specifications.

• Meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during processing (fresh meat



• Only new food grade packaging materials (styrofoam trays, poly wraps and bags,

and fibreboard outer cartons) are used for the packaging of meat products.

• Each package is labeled with the product type and species of animal from which they are derived; the date of packaging; the identity of the meat business at which they are packaged and the refrigeration requirements or storage recommendations.


• Chilled meat product is stored in chillers that ensure that meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 5C at all times during storage.

• Frozen meat product is stored in freezers that ensure that meat temperature is maintained at ≤ 10C at all times during storage.


• Delivery vehicles are refrigerated and capable of maintaining chilled meat at ≤ 5 C and frozen meat at ≤ 10C during delivery; are in good repair and display a current registration label.

• Delivery vehicles are cleaned and sanitised prior to loading.

Sea Food

Technically anything edible which is obtained from sea or any other water body (even fresh water) is termed as Sea food. There are many things such as Fish, Shellfish, Seaweed, which are edible and are obtained from sea, but here we will be discussing only about Fish and Shellfish. The difference between fish and shellfish is that fish have internal skeleton (endoskeleton) and shellfish have external skeleton (exoskeleton).

Fish and Shell Fish

As well as naming types of fish they could be grouped according to their characteristics or habitat:

Flat Fish or demersal species living on the sea bed, for example: plaice, dab, sole.

Freshwater fish that spend all or some of their life in rivers or lakes e.g. salmon, trout, eels, pike, perch, river cobbler/ basa, tilapia, catfish

Round fish (cylindrical in shape) some are demersal living near sea beds e.g. cod, gurnard & some are

pelagic living towards the top of the sea, for example mackerel, sardines

Shellfish crustaceans like crab and prawns, molluscs like mussels, clams, whelks, cephalopods like squid and octopus.

Types of Fish

Salt Water Fish, Flat Fish, Round Fish, Fresh Water Fish, Anadromus, Lean Fish, Catadromus, Oily Fish, Shellfish

Composition of Fish

The flesh of fish is similar to any other meat in terms of composition, only difference is in the ratio. Fish has high amount of protein, water and in case of oily fish high fat contents, other than this there are some vitamins and minerals also which is present in fish. When compared to any meat, fish is very tender and is cooked fast even on low heat as it has less connective tissue. The toughness of the meat is result of protein coagulation due to heat, that’s why fish should be handled very carefully after cooking as it tends to fall apart.

Selection of Fish

  • Check the eyes for clarity: check the eyes. They should be crystal-clear, plump, wet, and shiny, with no sunken features. Cloudy eyes = sad fish
  • Check the fins: The tail and dorsal fins of the fish should be healthy-looking, wet, and intact. A fish that’s been mishandled will have torn or ragged fins, Torn and ragged fins = mishandled fish
  • Torn and ragged fins probably belong to a fish that was netted or held for too long.
  • Poke the flesh: If the fish monger allows it, try touching the fish for further signs of health and freshness. It should feel cold, wet, and slippery, but not sticky. When pressed, it should spring back to its natural shape. Soft flesh = old fish. Fish that has lost its firm shape is no longer fresh.

Check the gills: Check the gills for vitality and color. When first caught, a fish’s gills appear bright red, and slowly darken over time. Brown-red gills = old fish

Touch the scales: Scales are designed to protect the fish from a harsh watery environment. When a fish is fresh, the scales will be shiny and firm, a veritable armor against the elements. Less-fresh fish will often shed scales as you run your hand over them, and they may appear dry and flaky.

Review Questions

  1. Explain briefly cut of Veal with diagram.
    1. Briefly described the various characteristics of poultry and their various retail cuts.
    1. Processing of poultry
    1. Types Fish and Shell fish
    1. Selection and storage process of Shell fish.
    1. Cuts of Pork/Pig and Types

Unit-4: Cheese and Sandwiches – Processing, classification, National cheeses, Parts of sandwiches, Types


Cheese is one of the most used ingredients for breakfast around the world. It is a milk based solid food. Cheese can be prepared from cow, sheep, goat and other mammal milk. The basic procedure of preparing cheese is by curdling milk and further acidification. Rennet or other rennet substitutes are used for the curdling of milk.

Hundreds of types of cheese exist all over the world. The types of cheese exist due to the usage of the milk from different mammals, specific species of molds and bacteria and also varying the aging length. Other processes are also used to prepare different types of cheese. Other factors which determine the type of cheese is the diet of the animal the milk is taken from. The diet can include herbs, spices and wood smoke.

Cheese cannot be categorized on a single categorization concept. Therefore, there various systems used for the categorization of cheese. Some factors taken into consideration while classifying cheese are the length of aging, the methods of making it, the curd and the various processes relating to the curd, the kind of milk, the fat content and the whether the texture of the cheese is hard or soft.

The most common type of cheese is Fresh Cheese. To prepare fresh cheese, milk is curdled and drained. There is little other processing involved in preparing Fresh Cheese. Some examples of Fresh Cheese are chevre, Cas and cottage cheese. Cheese is also classified according to its firmness. The various classifications are soft, semisoft, semihard and hard. However, this type of categorization is not exact. Cheddar is a type of hard or semi hard cheese.

Semi hard cheese is created with the cutting of the curd, heating gently, piling and then stirred before pressed into forms. The most common semi hard cheese are the cheddar cheese like Gloucester and Chesire.

Milder cheese, like the Colby and Monterey Jack are prepared by having curd rinsed and then pressed. This washes away the acidity and calcium in the cheese. This procedure is also used to create the Edam and Gouda cheese.

Gruyere and Emmetal, swiss type of cheese are quite firm. They have a texture of holes, which add to their sharp flavors and aroma. Parmesan, Romano and Pecorino are the hardest cheese, also known as grating cheese.Some cheese are prepared by allowing Penicillin Candida to grow on the outside ot the soft cheese for a preset time. THe mold adds to the runny and gooey textures of the cheese and also intensifies the flavors of these cheese. The mold forms a white crust on the cheese.

Molds are of two types, blue and white. The white molds are generally used while preparing cheese from goat’s milk. Blue mold cheese is commonly called blue cheese. Stilton, Gorgonzola and Roquefort are some of these types of cheese. They are prepared by injecting Penicillum roqueforti molds into the cheese. This mold then grows within the cheese, as opposed to Brie and Carmembert, where the mold is allowed to grow on the outside of the cheese. Blue cheese can be of soft or firm texture and have assertive flavours.

Processed cheese is another type of cheese. Processed cheese is prepared by adding emulsifying agents, milk, preservatives, more salt and food coloring to traditional cheese. Velveeta and yellow American cheese are the most popular types of processed cheese.

Washing Rind is also a major type pf cheese. These cheese are bathed in saltwater brine while they age. This makes their surface available for bacteria. These bacteria are responsible for the flavors and odors of washing rind cheese. Other than these major types, there are hundred if not thousands of types of cheese created in all parts of the world. Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America and Australia have various ways of preparing cheese.

Serving and Storage Tips

  • Unpasteurised cheese with a range of flavours should not be sliced until purchase otherwise it will start to lose its subtlety and aroma.
  • Keep the cheese in conditions in which it matures. Hard, semi-hard and semi-soft cheeses are stored in the temperatures from around 8 – 13 C.
  • Keep the cheese wrapped in the waxed paper and place it in a loose-fitting food-bag not to lose humidity and maintain the circulation of air.
  • Wrap blue cheeses all over as mould spores spread readily not only to other cheeses but also to everything near.
  • Chilled cheeses should be taken out of the refrigerator one and a half or two hours before serving.
  • Cheeses contain living organisms that must not be cut off from air, yet it is important not to let a cheese dry out.
  • Do not store cheese with other strong-smelling foods. As a cheese breathes it will absorb other aromas and may spoil.
  • Wrap soft cheeses loosely. Use waxed or greaseproof paper rather than cling film.
  • Let cold cheese warm up for about half an hour before eating to allow the flavour and aroma to develop.

Categorisation of cheese

  1. Soft cheese
  2. Semi-hard cheese
  3. Hard cheese
  4. Blue cheese

In Cheese following things you should know

  • Source of milk, pasteurised or not
  • Butterfat content
  • Species of bacteria
  • Length of ageing
  • Making process
  • Flavouring agents (herbs, spices, wood smoke)
  • Country/Region of origin


  • The plastic, spun-curd buffalo milk cheese Mozzarella, originated from southern Italy.
  • Extra time in the vat is allowed so that the curd can sink to the bottom and so that the lactic acids can soften the curd to make it easier to knead.


  • Other names: Danish Blue
  • Country of origin: Denmark
  • Source of milk: Cows
  • Texture: Semi-soft
  • Aging time: 8–12 weeks


  • Traditional, creamery, whey cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a basin-shaped cheese, pure white and wet but not sticky.
  • Good Ricotta should be firm, not solid and consist of a mass of fine, moist, delicate grains, neither salted nor ripened.
  • There are three distinct varieties of ricotta: ricotta salata moliterna (ewe’s milk whey), ricotta piemontese (cow’s milk whey + 10% milk) and ricotta romana (a byproduct of Romano cheese production).
    Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine:Muscadet Sauvignon Blanc
  • Country: Italy

Bel Paese  

  • Bel Paese is from the Lombardy region of Italy.
  • It is a modern, creamery, semi soft cheese and has a light, milky aroma.
  • The name means “beautiful land” and was inspired by the title of a book by Stoppani.
  • Bel Paese is very similar to French St. Paulin. It can also be used instead of mozzarella.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Brie is the best known French cheese and has a nickname “The Queen of Cheeses”.
  • “Real” French Brie is unstabilized and the flavor is complex when the surface turns slightly brown. When the cheese is still pure-white, it is not matured.
  • Brie, one of the great dessert cheeses, comes as either a 1 or 2 kilogram wheel and is packed in a wooden box. In order to enjoy the taste fully, Brie must be served at room temperature.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Bourgogne

Camembert de Normandie  

  • A very famous French cheese, Camembert dates back to the 18th century and is named for a Norman village in which there is a statue of the creator of this particular variety (Marie Harel).
  • Originally, this cheese was dry and yellow-brown, but after a few modifications it became softer and more earthy.
  • Camembert is crumbly and soft and gets creamier over time (usually 2-3 weeks). A genuine Camembert has a delicate salty taste.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine:St. Emilion, St Estephe
  • Fat content:45 %

Carre de l’Est  

  • This cheese has a moist rind that sticks to the fingers and feels elastic. It usually has a square shape with either an orange-red, washed rind or a penicillin mould crust.
  • It has a smoky-bacon flavor and the taste has a hint of mushrooms.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content: 45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Coteaux Champenois, Sancerre, Pinot Noir d’Alsace


  • Feta is one of the most famous cheeses in Greece. It is made in various sizes, often as a loaf-shape.
  • Feta was originally made with either ewe’s milk or a mixture of ewe’s and goat’s milk, but today most feta is made with pasteurized milk and tastes of little besides salt.
  • Feta can be soaked in fresh, cold water or milk for a few minutes or longer, if necessary, to make it less salty.
  • Milk: cow ewe and goat milk


  • It is Hungarian spiced, white cheese made from the mixture of sheep’s and cow’s milk.
  • The cheese has its name according to sheep’s milk called Liptoi. As Hungarians are great lovers of spicy food, Liptauer is very popular in the country as the taste is a mixture of onion, caraway seeds, capers, paprika and salt.
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Fat content:50 % 


  • Munster is a creamery, washed-rind cheese made from cow’s milk. It has a round shape with sticky, orange, washed skin.
  • The cheese is very smooth, fairly soft and has a mildly piquant flavor that can become quite pungent with regular washings. Munster is dark yellow with a strong flavor. It should be served with dark bread and beer.
  • French Munster is one of the few cheeses which ripen from the inside out. French Munster has nothing in common with Domestic Munster which is a white, mild cheese.
  • In The U.S.A this cheese is known as Muenster.
  • Fat content:45 %
  • Recommended Wine:Gewurztraminer, Tokay Pinot Gris d’Alsace


  • There are two types of Appenzell: common (made with skim milk and brine-cured for 12 months and festive (full milk cured with brine as well as pepper and the sediment from the white wine-making process).
  • The cheese originates in the north-eastern Swiss canton of the Appenzell near the Liechtenstein border but, today is also made in the canton of St Gallen (which is a siege of a special authority protecting a genuity of Appenzell).
  • Country: Switzerland
  • Milk: cow milk


  • The most widely purchased and eaten cheese in the world. Cheddar cheeses were originally made in England, however today they are manufactured in many countries all over the world.
  • Cheddar is always made from cow’s milk and has a slightly crumbly texture if properly cured. If the cheese is too young, the texture is smooth.
  • Unlike other well known cheeses, Cheddar’s name is not protected so it has been used and abused by many producers around the world.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:48 %


  • One of the oldest English cheeses, invented during the 12th century.
  • There are three types of Cheshire: White, Red (colored with annatto) and Blue which is punctured during the curing process, resulting in blue veins.
  • Cheshire is firm in texture and a bit more crumbly than Cheddar. It is rich, mellow and slightly salty with an excellent aftertaste.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:48 %


  • These cheeses are made from goat’s milk.
  • Chevres are excellent dessert cheeses, often served as snacks or before dinner drinks. Goat cheese is often served as an ingredient in many fine dishes.
  • Milk: goat milk
  • Fat content:45 %


  • The cheese has a shape of cylinder with natural rind.
  • It is the first cheese in Britain to be made in factory.
  • This cheese is very similar to Cheddar, but has a softer, flakier curd and a butter taste.
  • A herb-flavored version is called Sage Derby.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:45 %  


  • This is a pressed, semi-hard to hard cheese, made from cow’s milk.
  • It comes in a shape of ball covered with distinctive red wax.
  • Edam is produced from skimmed or semi-skimmed milk.
  • It is usually consumed young, when the texture is elastic and supple and the flavor is smooth, sweet and nutty.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Country: Holland
  • Recommended Wine: Pinot Noir
  • Fat content: 40 %


  • This cheese is produced in the central cantons of Switzerland.
  • It is a traditional, unpasteurized, hard cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • It’s hard, thin rind is covered by paper with producer’s name on it.
  • The aroma is sweet with tones of fresh-cut hay.
  • The flavor is very fruity, not without a tone of acidity.
  • It is considered to be one of the most difficult cheeses to be produced because of it’s complicated hole-forming fermentation process.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Recommended Wine: Vin de Savoie Givry rully Mercurey

Double Gloucester  

  • It is a traditional, unpasteurized, semi-hard cheese which has been made in Gloucestershire since the sixteenth century.
  • The cheese has a flavor of cheese and onions. Not as firm as Cheddar, it has a mellow, nutty character with an orange-zest tang.
  • Fat content: 48 %
  • Milk:  cow milk


  • Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam.
  • Gouda is a traditional, creamery, hard cheese. It is round with very smooth, yellow, waxed rind.
  • The flavor is sweet and fruity.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:40 %


  • Gruyere is named after a Swiss village. It is traditional, creamery, unpasteurized, semi-soft cheese.
  • Slightly grainy, the cheese has a wonderful complexity of flavors – at first fruity, later becomes more earthy and nutty.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Jarlsberg is a traditional, creamery Norwegian cheese.
  • The world’s most famous “Baby Swiss”, Jarlsberg has the consistency texture and hole formation of Swiss Emmental but its flavor is more nut-like and sweeter.
  • Jarlsberg can be used as a table cheese, dessert cheese or sandwich cheese.
  • Milk: cow milk


  • Limburger is creamery, washed-rind cheese. The smooth, sticky, washed rind is reddish-brown with corrugated ridges.
  • The yellow interior hints at sweetness but the taste is spicy and aromatic, almost meaty.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Country: Belgium


  • The bright, orange-red rind has fine, powdery moulds. Raspy, moist-textured, Leicester is made in a similar fashion to Cheddar and comes covered in a hard, dry rind.
  • Leicester has a rich, mild flavor with a flaky texture and a deep orange color.
  • This cheese is excellent with fruit and beer.
  • Milk: cow milk

Monterey Jack  

  • The Monterey Jack was developed by a Californian Scot, David Jacks in 1882 (some sources state 1916). Monterey Jack’s consistency depends on its maturity; most softer varieties (common in American supermarkets) is aged for one month, while grating Jack is aged for upwards of 6 months.
  • Older Jacks are smeared with oil and pepper to maintain softer rinds. Monterey Jack has a buttery, bland taste and melts easily.
  • Milk: cow milk
  • Fat content:25 %


  • Creamery, semi-hard cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • The aroma is mildly pungent while the taste is buttery and fruity with a spicy tinge. It is generally made with whole milk.
  • Tilsit is an excellent sandwich cheese, good with robust wine or beer. It has a fat content of 20 per cent and water content of 50 per cent.
  • Country:Germany


  • Traditional, hard cheese made from cow’s milk. It has a shape of cylinder with natural rind. Wensleydale can be used as table cheese and is very tasty with apple pie.
  • The flavor suggests wild honey balanced with a fresh acidity.
  • It matures in two to four months and has a fat content of 45 per cent.
  • Country:England
  • Milk: cow milk


  • This cheese originates from Southern Italy. It’s a traditional, stretched curd cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • There are also smoked versions of this cheese. Cavallo means “horse” in Italian and it is said that this cheese was originally made from mare’s milk.
  • In Italian language the expression “to end up like Caciocavallo” means to be hanged.


  • Kefalotyri was already well known and respected by the time of Byzantine era. The name comes probably from Greek word “kefalo” that means hat.
  • Kefalotyri is generally served grated over cooked dishes. The color varies from white to yellow, depending on the mixture of milk.
  • Kefalotyri is described as a “male” or “first” cheese to indicate that it is made with full-cream milk.
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Country:Greece
  • Fat content:55 %

Parmesan (Parmigiano)  

  • Named after an area in Italy, Parma Parmesan is one of the world’s most popular and widely-enjoyed cheeses.
  • Milk used for Parmesan is heated and curdled in copper containers but not before most of the milk’s cream has been separated and removed.
  • After two days, the cheeses are removed and salted in brine for a month, then allowed to mature for up to two years in very humid conditions.
  • Milk:cow milk
  • Recommended Wine: Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot Noir


  • Wheel-shaped cheese with sharp edges made from cow’s milk.
  • This cheese is very similar to Gruyere and has a strong fruity taste.
  • The natural rind is smooth, dark brown and very hard.
  • Country:Ireland

Blue Vein   

  • Blue Vein Cheeses have a strong tangy taste and pungent aroma with a smooth and creamy texture.
  • They are characterized by a network of green-blue veins of mould throughout the body of the cheese.
  • Country:Australia

Blue Castello  

  • Modern, creamery, blue cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a half-moon-shaped cheese.
  • The moist, natural rind may develop some gray, brown or white moulds.
  • Blue Castello has a Brie-like texture, with the blue in fairly thick, horizontal lines. Enriched with cream.
  • The aroma is of mushrooms and the taste is mildly spicy.
  • Country:Denmark
  • Fat content:70 %


  • It is a wheel shaped, creamery, blue cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • Dolcelatte means “sweet milk”.
  • This cheese is very soft and melts in the mouth like ice-cream.
  • Country:Italy


  • Gorgonzola is a traditional, creamery and co-operative, blue cheese.
  • The greenish-blue penicillin mould imparts a sharp, spicy flavor and provides an excellent contrast to the rich.
  • The cheese is usually wrapped in foil to keep it moist. Its color ranges from white to straw-yellow.
  • The taste ranges from mild to sharp, depending on age. Gorgonzola is also excellent in salads and dips.
  • Country:Italy
  • Milk:cow milk 


  • Historically referred to as “The King of Cheeses” Stilton is a blue-mould cheese with a rich and mellow flavor and a piquant aftertaste.
  • Excellent for crumbling over salads or as a dessert cheese, served with a Port Wine.
  • Country:England
  • Milk:cow milk
  • Fat content:55 %


  • It has a tingly pungent taste and ranks among blue cheeses. Only the milk of specially bred sheep is used and is ripened in limestone caverns.
  • This cheese has a distinct bouquet and a flavor that combines the sweet burnt-caramel taste of sheep’s milk with the sharp, metallic tang of the blue mould. Also frequently added in dressings and salads.
  • Country: France
  • Milk: ewe milk
  • Recommended Wine: Zinfandel Port

Processing of Cheese

Total five steps in the chesses making these are:

Preparing the milk

1 Small cheese factories accept either morning milk (which is richer), evening milk, or both. Because it is generally purchased from small dairies which don’t pasteurize, this milk contains the bacteria necessary to produce lactic acid, one of the agents that triggers curdling. The cheese makers let the milk sit until enough lactic acid has formed to begin producing the particular type of cheese they’re making. Depending on the type of cheese being produced, the cheese makers may then heat the ripening milk. This process differs slightly at large cheese factories, which purchase pasteurized milk and must consequently add a culture of bacteria to produce lactic acid.

Separating the curds from the whey

2 The next step is to add animal or vegetable rennet to the milk, furthering its separation into curds and whey. Once formed, the curds are cut both vertically and horizontally with knives. In large factories, huge vats of curdled milk are cut vertically using sharp, multi-bladed, wire knives reminiscent of oven racks. The same machine then agitates the curds and slices them horizontally. If the cutting is done manually, the curds are cut both ways using a large, two-handled knife. Soft cheeses are cut into big chunks, while hard cheeses are cut into tiny chunks. (For cheddar, for instance, the space between the knives is about one-twentieth of an inch [half a centimeter].) After cutting, the curds may be heated to hasten the separation  In a typical cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the milk. Although smaller factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has the bacteria present to produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger factories purchase pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce the lactic acid. Next, the curds must be separated from the whey. Animal or vegetable rennet is added, and then the curds are agitated and cut using large knives. As the whey separates, it is drained. The curds are then pressed into molds, if necessary, to facilitate further moisture drainage, and aged for the proper amount of time. Some cheeses are aged for a month, others for several years.

In a typical cheese-making operation, the first step is preparing the milk. Although smaller factories purchase unpasteurized milk that already has the bacteria present to produce lactic acid (necessary for curdling), larger factories purchase pasteurized milk and must add bacteria culture to produce the lactic acid.

Next, the curds must be separated from the whey. Animal or vegetable rennet is added, and then the curds are agitated and cut using large knives. As the whey separates, it is drained. The curds are then pressed into molds, if necessary, to facilitate further moisture drainage, and aged for the proper amount of time. Some cheeses are aged for a month, others for several years.

from the whey, but they are more typically left alone. When separation is complete, the whey is drained.

Pressing the curds

3 Moisture must then be removed from the curds, although the amount removed depends on the type of cheese. For some types with high moisture contents, the whey-draining process removes sufficient moisture. Other types require the curds to be cut, heated, and/or filtered to get rid of excess moisture. To make cheddar cheese, for example, cheese makers cheddar, or finely chop, the curd. To make hard, dry cheeses such as parmesan, cheese makers first cheddar and then cook the curd. Regardless, if the curds are to be aged, they are then put into molds. Here, they are pressed to give the proper shape and size. Soft cheeses such as cottage cheese are not aged.

Ageing the cheese

4 At this stage the cheese may be inoculated with a flavoring mold, bathed in brine, or wrapped in cloth or hay before being deposited in a place of the proper temperature and humidity to age. Some cheeses are aged for a month, some for up to several years. Ageing sharpens the flavor of the cheese; for example, cheddar aged more than two years is appropriately labeled extra sharp.

Wrapping natural cheese

5 Some cheeses may develop a rind naturally, as their surfaces dry. Other rinds may form from the growth of bacteria that has been sprayed on the surface of the cheese. Still other cheeses are washed, and this process encourages bacterial growth. In place of or in addition to rinds, cheeses can be sealed in cloth or wax. For local eating, this may be all the packaging that is necessary. However, large quantities of cheese are packaged for sale in distant countries. Such cheeses may be heavily salted for export (such as Roquefort) or sealed in impermeable plastic or foil.


A sandwich may be many things – it can be a delicious bit of nonsense that makes you ask for more!  It can be prim and proper and just a bit stodgy – or staunch and hearty – or it might just be an empty promise!!!! It is difficult to actually pin point when the sandwich actually appeared as a form of food presentation. We do know that the concept of wrapping bread around a filling for portability is ancient. It parallels the invention of bread. The sandwich involves bread in one way or the other. There is a universal chain of food items worldwide which all have a connection of a filling enclosed in a starchy casing. In China there is the Spring roll or the Egg roll; in Italy there is the Calzone; in Mexico, the Burrito; in Spain, the Empanada and Greece has the Pita.

Field workers in France have long had the custom of eating meat enclosed in two slices of bread. In southern France, it is customary to provide those setting out on a long journey with slices of cooked meat, sandwiched between two slices of bread. The Pain–Bagnat of Nice is a definite example of a sandwich that has been around for centuries.

The term SANDWICH came into being about 200 years ago. There lived a notorious gambler in the court of George III His name was John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792). The Earls gambling affliction was such, that he would enter into 24 hours marathons at the gaming tables. Any eating that had to be done had to be quick and not to detract from the task at hand. The Earl’s butler, who knew his master’s intensity, would place pieces of bread with cheese or meat for his sustenance. The rest is …..Well, not just history…..But the history of the Sandwich. Today, it is difficult to imagine a full-scale food service operation without the sandwich being a part of it.


The four parts of a sandwich can be listed as:

  • Bread                                – Filling
  • Spread                               – Garnish

I   Bread  

Various types of bread can be used to make sandwiches

  1. The Pullman loaf or the sandwich bread is the most popular. This may be white or brown
  2. Rolls – including hard and soft rolls, burger rolls, hot dog rolls, croissants and vienna rolls are all popular.
  3. French bread and baguettes for foot longs and submarine sandwiches
  4. Bread made of various flours such as  rye, whole wheat, maize, multigrain
  5. Unleavened bread like pita
  6. Flavored bread like cinnamon bread, raisin bread, fruit and nut bread.

II   Spread

The main function of the spread is to hold the filling and the bread together. It also forms a protective layer on the bread and prevents it from getting soggy from the moisture in the filling. Moreover, it adds to the taste of the sandwich and in case of children, contributes to the nutritive value

Plain and compound butter like anchovy, herb, parsley butter

Mayonnaise and its derivatives

Low fat spreads like margarine

Cheese spreads and cheese paste

A combination of the above.

III Filling

Could be a variety of limitless items. The filling gives the sandwich its name.

Fillings could include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, and vegetables. Salami, cooked roast chicken, ox tongue, sliced cucumber and tomato are all popular fillings.

The filling could be a single item, or a combination of several. Ham and cheese, Cucumber and chutney, Bacon and tomato. It is important that the combinations are complementary to each other.

IV Garnish

To enhance the appearance and the presentation of the sandwich, it is necessary to create eye appeal. The garnish is not absolutely essential and can be avoided in an informal setting. The sandwich may be a simple unadorned bit of bread with a filling or a masterpiece fit for a king. Various garnishes will include a stuffed olive, a pickled onion, capers, gherkins or parsley. The garnish should be delicate and dainty and not cumbersome and ugly.

The sandwich is no doubt the favourite lunch time food. For a typical customer, one who is in a rush, one who is hungry, the sandwich is the ideal food. It is quickly made and served, convenient to eat, easily adaptable to many variations. It can satisfy almost any palate and nutritional requirement. Properly made, it can be a very wholesome meal. Sandwich has long been the domain of the pantry department, along with salads and other cold snacks. Preparing sandwiches to order is one of the fundamental skills required in modern food production techniques.


1 Conventional, Closed or Lunchbox Sandwich    

These consist of two slices of bread with any filling such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs and vegetables. They may be served whole or cut into neat triangles, with or without the crust removed. White or whole meal bread can be used or any other similar bread. They are served in bars, cafes, coffee-shops and snack counters. They are the ideal item for the lunchbox that school children and office-goers carry. The filling is usually heavy and hearty, as the objective is to provide a wholesome and nutritious meal. Or, it could be light and fancy ….the perfect food for the weight watcher.

2. Tea Sandwiches

These are similar to the above but are cut into smaller triangles or in fingers. They are served at afternoon tea, usually with a very light filling. The crust is normally removed so that they look prim and proper like the high society ladies who usually eat them!!!! They will be suitably garnished for service.

3. The Buffet Sandwich

These are similar to the conventional sandwich but are cut into fancy shapes like hearts, diamonds, and ovals, with sandwich cutters. Obviously, there will be a lot of wastage and can only be used when cost permits.

4. Continental or French Sandwiches

Consists of crusty French baguettes slit horizontally, well buttered with a savory filling. It can be garnished with lettuce, slices of cucumber and tomatoes. It can be served whole or cut into pieces so that they can be lifted easily. If left whole, they are referred to as foot longs. In America, they are called submarine sandwiches.

5. Double Decker / Triple Decker and Club Sandwiches

These are extremely popular these days. If you top an ordinary sandwich with another filling and close that with a third slice of bread you get a double –  decker (two fillings, three slices of bread). Similarly, a triple – decker will have three fillings and four slices of bread. A club sandwich will have multiple fillings and multiple slices, all piled up one over the other. The fillings must be substantial and complement each other. There must be a balance in the fillings. The bread in a club sandwich may be toasted or grilled but in a double decker or a triple decker, plain bread may be used as well. These sandwiches are cut diagonally into half for service so that they can be eaten easily.

6. Open Sandwiches

Are technically not sandwiches, as a sandwich needs two slices of bread? But for convenience, they are classified as sandwiches. If the top slice of a sandwich is missing….what do you call it? Half a sandwich a garnished piece of bread. Until a better name is found, we can call it an open sandwich. Open sandwiches are slices of buttered bread on top of which is arranged a variety of toppings. The bread is then trimmed and garnished. They may even be cut into fancy shapes. The bread may be white or brown, toasted or plain. They should not be confused with canapés, which have a variety of different bases. Please remember that sandwiches are not made only to please the eye and look pretty on the platter. They must please the eye….yes, but they must also satisfy the palate.

7. Fancy Sandwiches

Ribbon sandwiches

Checker Board sandwich

Pinwheel Sandwich

Rolled sandwich

Mosaic sandwich

These are a variety of fancy sandwiches which look good when put on exhibition and display. They add a new dimension to a cold buffet presentation.

8. Hot Sandwiches

These are hot snacks but are really a hot sandwich. These include:

  • Book Maker  (England)
  • Strammer Max (Germany)
  • Lindstrom (Sweeden)
  • Croque Monsieur/Madame (France)

General Rules for Sandwich Making

1. Soften the butter before spreading.

2. Smooth fillings like fish paste and cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature.

3. Use a palette knife for easy spreading

4. Ideally, the bread should be 12 to 18 hours old. This ensures easy slicing.

5. Butter both slices of the bread being used for the sandwich. It helps to hold the sandwich together

6. Use sliced bread….it is neater and more convenient.

7. If cutting the bread yourself, arrange the bread slices in the order they have been cut.

8. Use sufficient filling. The label should not be the only means of identification of the sandwich.

9. Wrap prepared sandwiches in cling film or in a moist duster in separate batches for easy identification.

Unit-5: Sausages, Cold cuts and Cured Foods – Components, Ingredients, Types SAUSAGES, COLD CUTS AND CURED FOODS


Sausage is any meat that has been comminuted and seasoned. Comminuted means diced, ground, chopped, emulsified or otherwise reduced to minute particles by mechanical means.

A simple definition of sausage would be ‘the coarse or finely comminuted meat product prepared from one or more kind of meat or meat by-products, containing various amounts of water, usually seasoned and frequently cured.’ In simplest terms, sausage is ground meat that has been salted for preservation and seasoned to taste. Sausage is one of the oldest forms of charcuterie, and is made almost all over the world in some form or the other. Many sausage recipes and concepts have brought fame to cities and their people. Frankfurters from Frankfurt in Germany, Weiner from Vienna in Austria and Bologna from the town of Bologna in Italy are all very famous. There are over 1200 varieties world wide

Sausage consists of two parts:

  • the casing
  • the filling


Casings are of vital importance in sausage making. Their primary function is that of a holder for the meat mixture. They also have a major effect on the mouth feel (if edible) and appearance. The variety of casings available is broad. 

These include: natural, collagen, fibrous cellulose and protein lined fibrous cellulose.  Some casings are edible and are meant to be eaten with the sausage. Other casings are non edible and are peeled away before eating.


These are made from the intestines of animals such as hogs, pigs, wild boar, cattle and sheep. The intestine is a very long organ and is ideal for a casing of the sausage. The intestines are flushed clean, especially from the inside and soaked in a solution of KMNO4 for a period of 2 hours at 10°C. Sinews, blood vessels and fat clinging to the insides of the casing must be removed. Natural casings should not be over handled as they may puncture. They should be refrigerated at all times. Natural casings are available in Australia, New Zealand, and South America where cattle are reared on a very large scale. Casings are a by-product of the meat industry that is what these countries specialize in.

Use of natural casings is considered by many professional sausage makers to have many advantages:

  • They are semi porous and permit deeper smoke penetration.
  • Natural casings absorb flavors and release fats better
  • Generally, they hold their shape better and do not burst during cooking.
  • Natural casings are edible and need not be peeled before eating.
  • They have a natural color and have a better appearance.

Hogs casings are the most commonly used. Sheep casings are the highest quality available. Beef casings are also popular. Almost all casings are salted before they are packed. Natural casings need to be protected from extreme variations in temperature. The ideal storage temperature is 40-45°F


These are edible and are not synthetic casings. They are made from the hide of cattle. Collagen is obtained from the corium layer that is situated just under the skin of the animal. The fat, flesh and hair are removed from the hide and it is split into two layers by special equipment. The hair side of the hide is used in the leather industry. The flesh side (corium) is used to make collagen casings. The material is first ground, and then swelled in an acidic medium. It is then sieved, filtered and finally extruded into casings.

The advantages of collagen casings are that they can be manufactured in the sizes that you require both diameter and length. Their consistent diameter means that they are uniform and aid portion control. They are also stronger and are preferred while using machines in the commercial manufacture of sausages. They are ideal for smoking of sausages and require no special pre preparation and storage. Moreover, they are clean and sanitary.


These are by – products of the food processing industry. Cellulose and fiber is extracted from the husk, skin, peels, pips and seeds of the fruit and vegetables during the processing stage. These are processed further to make casings. These types of casings are also referred to as peel-able cellulose. The fiber adds to the strength of the casing and enables them to handle high temperatures.


A protein lining is often added to the inside of the above type of casing. These casings are ideal for the dried sausages. The protein lining causes the casing to shrink as the meat is cooked or dried so that it retains the shape of the sausage. Used mainly for dry or semi-dry sausages, they come in a red color (salami) or clear. They need to be soaked in water before stuffing, as the protein tends to stiffen during storage. Sometimes, the casing needs to be soaked in vinegar or even liquid smoke. This makes it easier to peel off the casing when the finished product is sliced.

Besides these, there some other types of casings that are also used in the sausage making industry. Plastic casings have recently become popular. They are cheaper, stronger and uniform in size. However, they need to be removed before the product is served. Caul fat, a membrane like lining of the stomach, is also used as a casing to make the flat sausages, crepinette. The membrane is networked like a spider web, with streaks of fat. Caul fat is ideal to wrap items of uneven sizes like the loukanika (patty like Greek sausage) and the crepinette.


The filling of the sausage is made up of two parts:

–   The meat component

  • the non meat component

Meat Component:

A variety of meats are used in the sausage making industry. Each type provides a particular flavor, texture and color in the product.

 Lean meats make up the largest proportion of the meat component providing the dominant character of the product. The color, flavor, texture and appearance of the product are determined by these meats. Pork is by far the most common and popular meat used in sausage making.  Beef is also becoming popular of late, because of its excellent binding properties as well as its deep red color. Veal, lamb and poultry are also being used in certain products of late.

Pork fat adds to the taste, flavor and the texture of the forcemeat.   Jowl fat is the most commonly used product in charcuterie. It is obtained from the cheek of the animal.  Normally, not more than 30% of the forcemeat is fat.

Variety meats are the offal of the carcass and can be added into the forcemeat in the production of sausage.  Variety meats used include heart, kidney, tripe, liver and tongue. These meats have a low binding power and if a lot of them are added into the forcemeat, you would require additional binders in the mixture.


Non meat ingredients are food item, which are added to the filling before stuffing. They enhance the flavor and the color, slow or prevent bacteria growth, act as a preservative and increase the volume and bulk of the mixture.  There are six types of these additives: water, curing agents, curing accelerators, sensory enhancers, stability enhancers, and extenders and binders.

WATER is usually added to the sausage mixture during the blending stage. It improved the mixing and helps to extract the proteins from the meat. It is used in all sausage mixtures.

CURING AGENTS are necessary to inhibit the growth of bacteria (especially clostridium botulinum – an anaerobic bacteria which can cause death) and improve the shelf life. They also help to improve, fix and retain the color of the forcemeat. The two common curing agents are sodium nitrate and nitrite. Nitrite is used in cured, cooked or smoked products. Nitrate is used in dried sausages.

CURING ACCELERATORS such as ascorbic acid, sodium erythorbate and citric acid are used in cured, cooked and fermented products. As their name suggests, they speed up the curing process.

SENSORY ENHANCERS are a variety of items that are used to enhance the flavor, smell, color, feel and mouthfeel.

Salt is used in all sausage products for the enhancement of flavor and as an aid in the extraction of protein from the meats.

Sweeteners (both nutritive and non-nutritive) are often added to the forcemeat. Non nutritive sweeteners such as saccharin and sorbitol add sweetness and aid in peeling. Nutritive sweeteners such as cane or beet sugar, dextrose and corn syrup are also used. 

Flavorings for sausage include spices, plant, vegetable and milk protein, yeast extract and even mustard flour. These add flavor, taste, increase the volume and act as binders. Colorings for sausage meat can be natural as well as artificial. Artificial colors are used a lot in sausage production. Chefs do not recommend these. Natural colors can be obtained from red peppers, saffron, turmeric and caramel. These will add not only color but also flavor. The use of natural colors is recommended wherever possible.

Smoke, both natural and liquid smoke contributes to the taste and flavor of the product. Use of too much liquid smoke will tend to make the product bitter. Liquid smoke also tends to fade on storage.

Flavor enhancers are products, which bring out the flavor of the other ingredients, yet have no flavor of their own. The one most commonly used in the kitchen is MSG, mono sodium glutamate. This is a natural product but must be used sparingly. MSG and nucleotides and other flavor enhancers are often used in mass production of sausage but are not widely used or common.

Other sensory enhancers include bacterial cultures, enzymes, phosphates and acidulants. They serve a variety of purposes including flavoring, softening of the tissues, juice retention and are used only in the mass commercial production of sausages and not in the hotel kitchens.

STABILITY ENHANCERS are used in sausage making to protect the flavor of the product, to slow down mold growth and to extend and bind the product.

EXTENDERS AND BINDERS are usually either animal based, fermentation based and cereal grain based. Gelatin, stock and non – fat dry milk are the animal based ones used most often in the kitchen. Fermentation based extenders and binders involve the introduction of specified types of microorganisms into the forcemeat. As these grow, they create favorable changes in the sausage. Cereal grain based ones include oats, wheat, barley, corn and rye. These products are also used to extend the volume – this is often termed as the filler. These items are far more popular in the commercial mass production of sausage rather than in specialized kitchen preparations.


There are primarily four types of fillings that are used in the production of sausages.

  1. Coarse minced forcemeat – This forcemeat contains tender and lean meat as well as fat in the mixture. The ratio is normally 3 parts of meat to one part of fat. The mixture is coarsely ground and the proportion gives optimum quality. Only good grade of meat and fat is used, as the mixture is easily identifiable. Salami is a good example of this type of a filling.
  2. Cutter pulverized forcemeat – All types of sausage containing finely ground forcemeat including frankfurters and cocktail sausages come under this group. 5 parts of meat and 3 parts of fat are the normal ratio. Second grades of meat can be utilized, as they are not identifiable, being ground into a fine mixture. Meats from older carcasses can also be used.
  3. Combination forcemeats – are a mixture of the above two types. One part of coarse forcemeat and two parts of cutter pulverized forcemeat are normally use. Pepperoni and chippolatas are examples of sausages that use this type of forcemeat. Both good and inferior quality of meat can be used. This makes it more commercially viable as well.
  4. Chunky forcemeat – In this type of a filling, the meat and fat are left in chunks. Three parts of meat to 1 part of fat are used. This type of a filling is used for the spicy South American sausages like the chorizo, which have predominant Portuguese and Spanish influence. The meat and the fat are dried before they are filled into the casing.

Once the forcemeat is prepared, it is ready for filling into the casing. It may be done manually or, sausage filler may be used. Sausage filler is a machine something like a mincing machine, which has a nozzle with changeable diameters. The rolled up casing is fitted onto the nozzle and the machine is started. The casing then un – rolls as it fills up. A stapling machine cum stapler then separates the sausages into links and seals the ends. Heat treatment is used in the sealing process.

Besides meat, which is the traditional filling, nowadays a host of other ingredients are also used. Poultry seafood, vegetables, lentils and soybean are being introduced.

There are five varieties of sausages that are available in the commercial market.

  • Fresh sausage  (e.g.: Brokwurst)
  • Cooked sausage (Mortadella)
  • Cooked-smoked sausage (Bologna, Frankfurters, Berliners)
  • Uncooked-smoked sausage (Kielbasa – the Polish sausage, Mettwurst)
  • Dry/semi dry sausage (Salami)

International Cold Cut

  • Dstreaky Bacon
  • Chicken Paprica Lyoner
  • Salami: Salami is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork.


The term Forcemeat or farce is used to describe the basic mixture that needs to be prepared in order to produce charcuterie products.

The word farce comes from the Latin farcire. A farce or forcemeat is a ground seasoned mixture of meat, game, poultry, fish or vegetables, prepared as a dish on its own or used to stuff other numerous other items such as eggs, meat, fish and poultry, pastry shells and perhaps even pasta. Such dishes are prepared in the Garde Manger.

Forcemeats are used in the preparation of a various cold dishes such as pate, terrines, galantines, ballotines, quenelle, roulade, mousse and mousseline.

  • Pate: from the old French paste, meaning paste.
  • Terrine: from the Latin Terra, meaning earth.
  • Galantine:  from the old French galant,   meaning gorgeous or showy Also from the old French term galine, meaning chicken.   
  • Ballotine: from the Italian Balla, meaning ball.
  • Quenelle: from the Alcascian French knodel, meaning dumpling
  • Roulade: from the French rouler, meaning to roll
  • Mousse/Mousseline: from the French, meaning froth.
  • Timbale: from the English Thimble


Traditional forcemeat/farce is made up of four parts:

1. The Meat   (Primary Ingredient)

2. The Binder

3. Seasoning, Flavoring and Garnish

4. The Additives

The Meat:

Consists of three elements:

–  The Dominant Meat (basic meat) which could include veal, game, poultry, rabbit, duck, or even fish. This will provide the dominant flavor and will also name the dish. E.g. chicken liver in a Chicken Liver Pate. These ingredientsshould be fresh and of prime quality. All bones, skin, sinews and gristle must be removed and the flesh cut up into ½” pieces for grinding. The dominant meat normally accounts for 40% of the meat component.

  • Lean Pork which contributes to the bulk as well as the flavor. This will be about 30% of the meat component. Nowadays, when preparing forcemeat using other varieties of meat, the lean pork can be substituted with another subsidiary meat. For example, in a Lobster Mousse, the lean pork will be substituted with shrimp or some other cheap white fish. The important thing to remember is that the  subsidiary meat should complement the dominant meat
  • Pork fat which gives richness and smoothness to the product as well as for its binding qualities. This too will be 30% of the meat component. Again, other fats such as butter and cream can be substituted in order that the meat and fat complement each other. In the Lobster mousse, cream would be better suited as a fat instead of pork fat.

The Binding Agent:

To lighten the farce and to give it a finer texture, binding agents are needed. These are typically used in the making of poultry, fish and vegetable farce. Game, veal and pork do have their own binding qualities, with the protein from the meat acting as binding agents. Binding could consist of egg yolks and/or egg whites; fresh bread soaked in milk, cream or stock; thickened béchamel sauce (panada); beurre manié (uncooked butter/flour mixture), blood or even cooked rice.

Seasoning Flavoring and Garnish:

Salt is an important part of the forcemeat. It helps to bring out the natural flavors of the other elements. 20 gm of salt / kilo of the mixture are a rough guideline to use. The salt must be evenly mixed to ensure equal distribution. Seasoning should not be extravagant to cover up for inferior quality ingredient. One mistake is to use excessive MSG for this purpose. Flavorings such as herbs and spices give character to the product. The garnish is related to the farce to which it is added. A central garnish – lamb fillet in a lamb farce, strips of ham in a pork farce, or a piece of goose liver I a game farce – provides a visual focal point when the farce is sliced. Garnishes could also be dispersed or interspersed throughout the farce and would include pistachio, crushed peppercorns, diced truffle, capers, gherkins, stuffed olives, mushrooms and similar ingredients which will provide contrast and relief in the mass of the forcemeat.

The Additives:

Many additives are included in the forcemeat. These include Nitrates and Nitrites of Sodium and Potassium, MSG, Sodium Erythorbate, BHT and BHA, Salt Petre.

These additives will enhance the color, increase shelf life, contribute to the taste and flavor and prevent/delay the fat from going rancid.


The meat being used to make the farce as well as the equipment to grind it like the buffalo chopper or the food processor must be absolutely chilled before use. Such chilling is essential as it facilitates clean grinding of the farce, as opposed to tearing which inhibits the release of the protein which in turn later binds the farce and gives it the correct texture. A sharp cutting blade is also essential.

The process of grinding involves three stages:

  • First the ingredients are coarsely ground through a medium holed plate
  • It is then passed through a small holed plate
  • If the farce is to be ground to a fine textured paste it can be emulsified in a food processor a small amount of crushed ice can be added during the emulsifying stage. This helps to maintain the temperature of the farce during the grinding.
  • Finally, the farce is passed through a sieve to remove any trace of sinew, gristle or skin that might have remained during the grinding.

Remember, that the process may not require all the stages mentioned. For a coarse farce, like that required for a salami sausage, only the first two stages are required.

There are times when the food grinder is not available. In that case, the meat can be placed in the freezer for 30 to 60 minutes, rendering it partially frozen. This is done so that when it is placed in the food processor, the interaction of the blade against the partially frozen meat poultry or fish results in it being cut up, much the way it would if put through a meat grinder.

Herb and Spice Seasoning & Flavoring Blends:

Garde Manger chefs will develop their own blend of seasoning mix for the different products they make. The degree of strength will vary from a mild, light blend for fish and seafood roulade to a medium blend for pork and veal terrine to a heavy blend for a game pate. Ideally, the herb and spice blend should be of a dry nature and finely powdered so that it blends in well with the farce. However, some chefs prefer to use the fresh variety, especially of herbs. If the herbs are fresh, they need to be chopped very finely.  Spice blends are a matter of personal choice.


There are five primary types of forcemeat:

Campagne (Country Style)

Straight Method

Gratin Style

Mousseline Style           

5/4/3 Emulsion forcemeat

Campagne is also called the country style forcemeat. It is the earliest style that was used and is the precursor of all modern versions. It is generally made out of pork. This is probably due to the historically low expense and small amount of land required to raise pigs. Pork fat is also incorporated. The farce has a dense, coarse texture, a characteristic which resulted from the lack of sophisticated equipment in the early days when it was first developed. The earliest forcemeats were chopped with two knives giving the coarse texture that is associated with country style forcemeat today. Another character resulting from the time it was developed is that of being highly seasoned. Due to the virtual non – existence of refrigeration techniques or other preservation methods, the heavy seasoning covered both the flavor of the tainted meat and acted as a preservative for the forcemeat. The seasonings commonly used include onion, garlic, black pepper, juniper berries, bay leaf and nutmeg. Country style forcemeat is usually a combination of coarsely ground farce and a smooth ground farce so that chunks of meat are visible in the mass of the mixture.

Straight Method forcemeat is more refined, having a finer, less dense texture. As culinary preparations and equipment improved, the capability of producing a more refined style of forcemeat was possible. Here, any type of dominant meat can be used. It is normally, veal, duck, rabbit plus pork. White poultry and fish are rarely used here. Ideally pork fat especially jowl fat is used.

The finer lighter texture and more delicate seasoning of this forcemeat are indicative of the refinement of many culinary preparations as technological advances were made. It was no longer necessary to mask the flavors of the meats. It was possible to simply enhance it. The common flavors used are shallots, wine, brandy and all spice. Better grinding techniques meant that the meats were binding better on their own and additional binding was not required.

In some cases a panada can be used to achieve a lighter texture and color in the farce.

Gratin Style is the name given to the forcemeat that is obtained from pre cooked meats. This style is used extensively to make pates. In some cases the cooking will entail only lightly searing and browning of the meats (hence the term gratin), at other times, the meat may be completely cooked before grinding and pureeing. The contemporary interpretation of gratin style is an expansion of the definition of farce given by Escoffier. His definition refers to any forcemeat based on liver, needed to be pre cooked before grinding. Most types of meat can be used in gratin style forcemeats. However, as in the case of the straight method, poultry and fish is normally not use. Often, the liver of veal and pork are used. Pork back fat and jowl fat are also incorporated. The texture of this type of forcemeat is very fine and should be properly ground till smooth.  The density of this type of farce is slightly lighter than a straight method due to the varying degree of binding power that is lost because of the pre cooking. Panada is avoided it will soften the already delicate texture. To compensate the loss of binding power, extra eggs are added. A different flavor is achieved here as a result of the browning and pre cooking. A nutty flavor develops. The result is very smooth, delicately flavored forcemeat.

Mousseline style is the fourth type of farce. The most distinctive characteristic of this method is the type of fat that is used in its preparation. The use of cream as the source of fat, combined with the processing of the components to an ultra fine consistency, results in an extremely light and smooth product. This product is in sharp contrast to that produced using the harder types of fat. Mousseline –style forcemeats are made using lean white or light meats and fish. Chicken, rabbit, shellfish, sole and trimmed lean pork fillet is ideal to use. Although a panada is not needed for additional binding for this type of forcemeat, one is occasionally added to achieve a lighter consistency. Due to the delicate nature of the meats and the cream, the seasoning to should be very delicate. Care must be taken not to overpower the flavors of the components of the forcemeat.  Shallots, ground white pepper and white wine can be used.

Note: The term mousseline forcemeat is often improperly abbreviated as mousse in everyday use. This is a source of much confusion. A mousse is a mixture of fully cooked and pureed basic ingredients bound with gelatin and fat and lightened with an aerator like egg white.

5/4/3 Emulsion Forcemeat is used extensively in making sausages like frankfurters, bologna and knockwurst. It I a commercial mixture and hardly ever used in a hotel kitchen. Its name is derived from the ratio of the components of the forcemeat:  5 parts of meat, 4 parts of fat and 3 parts of ice.  5/4/3 emulsion forcemeat can be made with almost any kind of meat. Fish is not considered suitable for this kind of forcemeat. Pork jowl fat is the common fat used; the term emulsion automatically indicates the texture, which should be a perfectly smooth paste. Processing of the components of the forcemeat with ice, results in a very strong emulsion of the meat and the fat when it is cooked. The resulting blend has a moderate density. A variety of binders can be used to assist in the binding and water retention. Panada is not capable of providing the type of binding required. Therefore, non-fat milk powder is preferred. Sodium caseinate and phosphates can also be used. Since this is used commercially, the seasoning and flavoring will vary from one manufacturer to the other.


Perfumed with freshly chopped herbs and aromatic spices, a melange of succulent ingredients distinguishes pates and terrines, as some of the most delectable of food preparations. They can be basic or fancy, inexpensive or costly, they can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes – small, large, oval, round, rectangular and even cylindrical. Terrines are cooked, stored and even served in the same container which may be crafted iron, enamel, porcelain and glass but which originally was pottery or earthen ware from which the terrine got its name (terre meaning earth in French).


The term pate refers to forcemeat baked in a crust, usually in a rectangular mould, something like a loaf tin. In French it is called pate en croute. Simply defined, a pate is a paste of finely chopped or pounded or pureed seasoned meat, which generally is liver. There are a few classical dishes like the pate campagne from France that is not baked and really should be referred to as terrines.

Among the wide variety of ingredients used in the making of a pate are liver, a variety of meats, truffle and of course seasoning. Goose and duck liver, bring a characteristic flavor to the pate. Chicken livers are the most common these days but sheep and calf liver are often used as well. Truffle will make the pate special. Pates can be prepared in advance, stored and then used as and when required. The meats used in a pate are first marinated and at times pre cooked. The livers must be handled carefully and the gall bladder, veins and blood clots if any must be removed. Ideally, the livers must be soaked in milk for 24 hours (refrigerated). They are then drained and seasoned. Sometimes, a small quantity of bread crumbs is added to the farce to lighten the mixture. Non fat dry milk (powder) could also be used. It adds a creamy texture to the mixture. A meat glaze or aspic could also be substituted as a binder and will contribute a rich gelatinous quality to the farce. For that extra fragrance, a small quantity of wine or brandy could be added at the last minute before combining and processing.

For the crust, dough must be prepared and the following recipe has proved to be good


Flour           1 kg

Butter          150 gm

Margarine    200 gm

Baking powder 15 gm

Water 250 ml (approx.)

Vinegar       25 ml

Eggs            3

Salt             2 tsp

Sift the flour and the baking powder.

Rub the shortening and the butter into the flour

Combine and add the remaining ingredients into the flour.

Mix until the dough is formed and knead till smooth.

Shape the dough into a flat rectangle. Refrigerate overnight.

Note: pate dough can also be made out of yeast and brioche dough

Assembling the pate:

Lightly oil the mould.

Roll the dough and line the mould leaving an overhang on the four sides.

Carefully press the dough into the corners of the mould.

Refrigerate the lined mould for at least an hour.

Fill the mould with the prepared farce ½ inch short of the top edge.

(The forcemeat should be placed in the mould in several layers. Use a palette knife to press into place. This will reduce the risk of air pockets in the finished product. There may be a central or dispersed garnish)

Fold the overhanging dough over the top of the mould and the seal.

Carefully cut two small holes from the top and provide chimneys for the excess steam to escape during the cooking.

Cooking the Pate:

The cooking takes place in two stages

Browning stage:  Cover the surface with foil and place the mould in a pre heated 475°F oven for approximately 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and allow to rest for 15 minutes. The surface should show hints of brown.

Cooking stage:  Uncover the pate and lightly egg wash the top of the pate

Place in a pre heated 375°F oven until an internal temperature of 170°F has been reached. Temperature can be taken through the chimney. Make sure the thermometer reaches the center of the pate.

Finishing the Pate:

The pate is not complete when removed from the oven. It must now be filled with aspic. First, allow the pate to cool to room temperature. This will allow for the fat and the juices to be re absorbed into the meat. Through the chimneys, carefully pour in good quality aspic. The aspic will slowly be absorbed into the meat and will fill the sides (where the meat has shrunk), and any crevice and air pockets that might have formed. Allow the pate to chill overnight before removal and slicing.


Terrines are the closet cousins of the pate. The terrine vessel is an oblong earthern ware mould. As mentioned earlier, this was the original vessel that was use and this is how terrine got its name.  However, nowadays, enamel, cast iron, clay, porcelain and china vessels are common. Since the terrine takes its name from the vessel and not the mixture used, the variety of types is limitless. The forcemeat used in a terrine is usually uncooked and is slightly coarser compared to a pate. Various force Meats can be used and layered one over the other. Care should be taken that the variety of forcemeats used complement each other. The binding used in forcemeat for a terrine is normally eggs or gelatin.

Pre preparation of a Terrine:

 The forcemeat for the terrine must first be prepared. This may be more than one type and can be layered. The garnish which can be chopped herbs is also prepared. Line the mold with strips of pork fat or bacon.

Assembling the Terrine:

Fill the terrine half full and ensure that there are no air pockets. If a central garnish is being used, place this in the middle and top with the other half of the forcemeat. If several types of forcemeat are being used, then layer them one over the other. Top with additional layers of pork fat or streaky bacon. The fat/bacon keeps the terrine moist during the ensuing cooking process. Small bunches of fresh herbs may also be placed on the top of the terrine.  Bayleaf, rosemary and thyme are ideal for this purpose.

Cooking the Terrine:

Assemble a water bath to cook the terrine. A wire rack can be placed at the bottom of the pan on which the mould can rest. Place in a preheated 325°F oven. The temperature of the water should be 190°f before placing in the oven. The water should come up to ½ inch below the level of the forcemeat in the mould.

The temperature of the water should be maintained at 170-175°F throughout the cooking process. The terrine is done when the internal temperature reaches 140°F. remove from the water bath and cool at room temperature for 30 minutes.

Pressing Terrines:

A cooked terrine is pressed or weighted after it is cooked. This involves placing a weight on the surface of the terrine. A metal plate that fits into the top of the terrine is placed on top and a medium weight is placed on the plate. This is then refrigerated overnight. It helps to compact the terrine and thereby improve the texture and facilitates easy slicing of the terrine.

Storing Pates and Terrines:

Refrigerate meat pates and terrines to ripen their flavor. Covered and refrigerated, they will keep for a week. Terrines will actually keep much longer if a layer of melted fat/butter is poured over the surface. Avoid the freezing of meat pates and terrines. It alters the texture of the meat and also the pastry. Well-chilled pates and terrines will slice the best. However, they taste best closer to room temperature. After slicing, allow to stand a while. This allows the subtleties of the flavor to emerge.

Serving Pates and Terrines:

Pate in pastry is sliced and served as a starter along with a plate salad.

Terrine can be served sliced or scooped out with a spoon. Terrines and pates can both be featured on a cold buffet presentation.

Foie Gras

Foie Gras, if literally translated, means fat liver. But the liver is no ordinary liver, nor is it just fat!!! Pate de Foie Gras is the resulting product of an extremely complicated process involving the liver of goose and its recipe dates back to the 17th Century.

The geese is placed in pens and given plenty to eat. The feed consists of beetroot, artichokes, carrots, corn, cooked potatoes, maize, oats and beans along with plenty of fresh water. This specially crafted diet contains a high quantity of vitamins and at times the bird needs to be forcefed. After 2 to 3 weeks, the goose liver swells slowly and when the farmer/breeder thinks it is sufficiently ready, the bird is killed and the liver removed.

Once the goose livers have been selected, they are sent to the manufacturers of foie gras and in some special cases, directly to chefs who make their own foie gras. Generally, foie gras can be bought either fresh or tinned/canned.

In the processing of foie gras, the bile is first removed and the livers are then carefully sorted and graded. Some livers may be ideal for steaming and others for baking. Those which are suitable for light steaming would quickly become dry if they are cooked in the oven. The color, texture and firmness are also important.

The network of nerves are removed from the livers which are then put to soak in water and are then drained and seasoned. The livers are stuffed with truffle and then steamed or baked in the oven. Livers of lesser quality or the wrong color (the right color is shell pink) are pulverised into a mousse and can be used as a meat spread for sandwiches. The livers can be packed in tins or in earthen jars.

The delicate nature of Foie Gras necessitates particular care in serving. It should be served cold and at the beginning of the meal with a crisp white wine. Reisling, Champagne, White Burgundy or even Bordeaux of good vintage is ideal. Red wine should definitely be avoided as it will detract from the taste instead of sharpening it.

Foie gras can be garnished with aspic jelly and with nothing else. Foie gras is best presented on the plate in the shape of shells, scooped out of the jar/can/terrine with a teaspoon. It can also be served in slices. Certain types of foie gras are surrounded by a layer of white fat. The connoisseur will remove this, knowing that it has been used only to ensure its perfection and to preserve it.

Foie gras has been around for ages and has been consumed for centuries. It was made traditionally in the region of Alcase in the town of Strasbourg in Eastern France. In fact, the correct name should read Pate de Foie Gras de Strasbourg.  Legally, all foie gras from the region must contain a maximum 75% goose liver and a minimum 5% truffle, to be accorded the name. Like Champagne and other wines, an appellation or controlling body governs the production, manufacture, sales, pricing and marketing of the Foie Gras.

From 1762, the Marechal de Conrades who resided in Strasbourg had a head chef Jean Pierre Clause whose ability in the culinary arts was gratefully acknowledged by the guests of the Marechal. One day, in order to please his master, he put before him Pate Marechal, a dish he had just invented. Marechal thought it so magnificent that he ordered another one to be made and sent it to Versailles to the Kings palace. The court liked it so much that the Marechal was granted an estate.

Nowadays, it is chiefly the French cities of Strasbourg and Toulouse which are renowned for their Foie gras



Truffle is known by several names such as Black Diamond and Children of the Gods. The truffle is a fungus fruit that matures underground. However, not all underground fungi are truffle. The real story of the growth of truffle is a strange one. The truffle is the fruit of a widely spreading system of colorless, microscopic branching threads that penetrate the soil for distances that are measurable in yards. These threads known as hyphae, touch the furtherest tips of the roots of trees and shrubs. The interaction of roots and hyphae forms a compound structure part plant and part fungus. However, this cannot further develop without vitamins and minerals. When the hyphae have absorbed enough material from the soil and plant, they proceed to develop fruit. The fruit which develops from a knot of hyphae is called a truffle. Nowadays, specially trained dogs and hogs are used to detect truffle. Truffles vary in color from a smooth white surface to a dark brown or black. They are usually rounded, although some may resemble ginger. The interior of the truffle has elaborate rolds or chambers. The flavor of the truffle can vary considerably. Some have a touch of garlic in its flavor.

In France, the region of Perigord less than 50 miles from the Bordeaux region is well known for its crop of truffle. In Italy, Piedmont in the Umbria region produces almost the entire crop of Italian white truffle. Geographically, truffle will occur near the wine growing regions. Surprisingly, a good year for wine means a bad year for truffle and vice verca.

The composition of truffle is 72% water, 8-10% protein, 4% fat, 13-15% carbohydrates and 2-5% mineral traces.

Contrary to popular belief, the white truffle, unlike its black cousin should never be cooked as it may loose its fragrance if subjected to heat. Fresh truffle should be firm to touch and not spongy. They impart a distinct aroma when fresh. Because of their exorbitant prices, their usage in the kitchen and the garde manger is fairly limited

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Dr Sunil Kumar Lecturer in ICI Noida 9996000499


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